The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


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  • Jørgensen, P. M. & C. Ulloa Ulloa. 1994. Seed plants of the high Andes of Ecuador–A checklist. AAU Rep. 34: 1–443.
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  • Killeen, T. J., E. García Estigarribia & S. G. Beck. (eds.) 1993. Guía Árb. Bolivia 1–958. Herbario Nacional de Bolivia & Missouri Botanical Garden, Edit. Quipus srl., La Paz.
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
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  • Welsh, S. L. 1974. Anderson's Fl. Alaska Adj. Parts Canada i–xvi, 1–724. Brigham Young University Press, Provo.
    1. Baker, W. L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. USDA Forest  Service, Miscellaneous Publication 1175. Washington, DC. 642  p.
    3. Brayshaw, T. C. 1966. The status of the black cottonwood  (Populus trichocarpa Torr. and Gray). Canadian  Field-Naturalist 79(2):91-95.
    5. Bryant, J. P., and P. J. Kuropat. 1980. Selection of winter  forage by subarctic browsing vertebrates: The role of plant  chemistry. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics  11:261-285.
    7. Buch, T. G. 1961. Comparative study of biochemical  characteristics in seeds of coltsfoot, poplar, and willow.  Bulletin Glavnago Botanicheskogo Sada 41:66-73. [In Russian;  translated by R. Ganns.]
    9. Carleton, T. J., and P. F. Maycock. 1978. Dynamics of the  boreal forest south of James Bay. Canadian Journal of Botany  56:1157-1173.
    11. Comtois, P., J. P. Simon, and S. Payette. 1986. Clonal  constitution and sex ratio in northern populations of balsam  poplar. Holarctic Ecology 9(4):251-260.
    13. Cram, W. H. 1960. Performance of seventeen poplar clones in  south-central Saskatchewan. Forestry Chronicle 36(3):  204-208,224.
    15. Cunningham, T. W., and R. E. Farmer, Jr. 1984. Seasonal  variation in propagability of dormant balsam poplar  cuttings. Plant Propagator 30(l):13-15.
    17. Davidson, A. G., and R. M. Prentice. 1968. Chapter V 11.  Insects and diseases. In Growth and utilization of poplars  in Canada. p. 116-144. J. S. Maini and J. H. Cayford, eds.  Departmental Publication 1205. Canada Department of Forestry  and Rural Development, Forestry Branch, Ottawa, ON.
    19. Dix, R. L., and H. M. A. Swan. 1971. The roles of  disturbance and succession in upland forest at Candle Lake,  Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Botany 49(5):657-676.
    21. Ek, A. R., and D. H. Dawson. 1976. Actual and projected  yields of Populus "Tristis" under intensive  culture. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 6(2):132-144.
    23. Essex, B. L., and J. T. Hahn. 1976. Empirical yield tables  for Wisconsin. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  NC-25. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul,  MN. 22 p.
    25. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    27. Farmer, R. E., Jr., and R. W. Reinholt. 1986. Genetic  variation in dormancy relations in balsam poplar along a  latitudinal transect in northwestern Ontario. Silvae  Genetica 35(l):38-42.
    29. Farmer, R. E., Jr., R. W. Reinholt, and F. Schnekenburger.  1986. Environmental preconditioning and variance in early  growth of balsam poplar. Silvae Genetica 35(4):129-131.
    31. Fox, J. F., and J. P. Bryant. 1984. Instability of the  snowshoe hare and woody plant interaction. Oecologia  63:128-135.
    33. Gertjejansen, R. 0., and D. J. Panning. 1985. Method for  waferizing balsam poplar. Forest Products Journal  35(4):53-54.
    35. Gill, D. 1971. Vegetation and environment in the Mackenzie  River Delta, Northwest Territories: A study in subarctic  ecology. Thesis (Ph.D.), University of British Columbia,  Vancouver. 696 p.
    37. Gordon, Allan G. [n.d.]. Personal communication. Ontario  Ministry of Natural Resources, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario  (Dr. Gordon provided unpublished data of the late T. Angus  Hills).
    39. Hansen, E. A., H. A. McNeel, D. A. Netzer, and others. 1979.  Short-rotation intensive culture practices for northern  Wisconsin. In Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the  North American Poplar Council, Aug. 14-17, 1979,  Thompsonville, MI. p. 47-63.
    41. Hegyi, F., J. Jelinek, and D. B. Carpenter. 1979. Site index  equations and curves for the major tree species in British  Columbia. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Forest  Inventory Report 1. Victoria. 7
    43. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    45. Hiratsuka, Y., and A. A. Loman. 1984. Decay of aspen and  balsam poplar in Alberta. Environment Canada, Northern  Forest Research Centre, Information Report NOR-X-262. 19 P.
    47. Holloway, Patricia, and John C. Zasada. 1979. Vegetative  propagation of 11 common Alaska woody plants. USDA Forest  Service, Research Note PNW-334. Pacific Northwest Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 12 p.
    49. Institute of Northern Forestry. 1983. Unpublished data. USDA  Forest Service, Fairbanks, AK.
    51. Isebrands, J. G., J. A. Sturos, and J. B. Crist. 1979.  Integrated utilization of biomass. A case study of  short-rotation intensively cultured Populus raw material.  Tappi 62(7):67-70.
    53. Jodibon, R., and J. R. Thibault. 1981. Allelopathic effects  of balsam poplar on green alder germination. Bulletin of the  Torrey Botanical Club 1 108(4):413-418.
    55. Johnson, L. 1983. Personal communication. U.S. Army Cold  Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Fairbanks, AK
    57. Johnson, P. L., and T. C. Vogel. 1966. Vegetation of the  Yukon Flats Region, Alaska. Cold Regions Research and  Engineering Laboratory Research Report 209. U.S. Army  Material Command, Hanover, NH. 53 p.
    59. Johnstone, W. D., and C. B. Peterson. 1980. Above ground  component weights in Alberta Populus stands. Environment  Canada. Northern Forest Research Centre, Information Report  NOR-X-226. Edmonton, AB. 18 p.
    61. Kabzems, A., A. L. Kosowan, and W. C. Harris. 1976.  Mixed-wood section in an ecological  perspective-Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Department of Tourism  and Renewable Resources, Forestry Branch, Technical Bulletin  8. Regina, SK. 118 p.
    63. Kellogg, R. M., and E. P. Swan. 1986. Physical properties of  black cottonwood and balsam poplar. Canadian Journal of  Forest Research 16(3):491-496.
    65. Krasny, M. E., K. A. Vogt, and J. C. Zasada. 1988.  Establishment of four Salicaceae species on river bars in  interior Alaska. Holarctic Ecology 11(3):210-219.
    67. Krasny, M. E., J. C. Zasada, and K. A. Vogt. 1988.  Adventitious rooting of four Salicaceae species along the  Tanana River, Alaska. Canadian Journal of Botany  66:2597-2598.
    69. Lev, D. J. 1987. Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera)  in Alaska: Ecology and growth response to climate.  Thesis (MS), University of Washington, Seattle. 70 p.
    71. Maini, J. S. 1966. Apical growth of Populus spp. 1.  Sequential pattern of internode, bud, and branch length of  young individuals. Canadian Journal of Botany  44(5):615-622.
    73. Maini, J. S., and J. H. Cayford, eds. 1968. Growth and  utilization of poplars in Canada. Canada Department of  Forestry and Rural Development, Forestry Branch Publication  1205. Ottawa, ON. 257 p.
    75. Mattes, B. R., T. P. Clausen, and P. B. Reichardt. 1987  Volatile constituents of balsam poplar: The phenol glycoside  connection. Phytochemistry 26(5):1361-1366.
    77. Morris, D. M., and R. E. Farmer. 1985. Species interactions  in seedling populations of Populus tremuloides and  P. balsamifera: Effects of density and species  ratios. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 14:593-595.
    79. Nanson, G. C., and H. F. Beach. 1977. Forest succession and  sedimentation on a meandering river floodplain, northeast  British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Biogeography 4:229-251.
    81. Norum, Rodney A. 1983. Personal communication. USDA Forest  Service, Institute of Northern Forestry, Fairbanks, AK.
    83. Panning, D. J., and R. 0. Gertjejansen. 1985. Balsam poplar  as a raw material in waferboard. Forest Products Journal  35(5):47-54.
    85. Risenhoover, K. L., L. A. Renecker, and L. E. Morgantini.  1985. Effects of secondary metabolites from balsam poplar  and paper birch on cellulose digestion. Journal of Range  Management 38(4):370-372.
    87. Roe, E. 1. 1958. Silvical characteristics of balsam poplar.  USDA Forest Service, Station Paper 65. Lake States  Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 17 p.
    89. Rowe, J. S. 1972. Forest regions of Canada. Canadian  Forestry Service, Publication 1300. Ottawa, ON. 172 p.
    91. Schier, G.A., and Robert B. Campbell. 1976. Differences  among Populus species in ability to form adventitious shoots  and roots. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 6(3):253-261.
    93. Schreiner, Ernest J. 1974. Populus L. Poplar. In Seeds  of woody plants in the United States. p. 645-655. C.S.  Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    95. Swan, E. P., and R. M. Kellogg. 1986. Chemical properties of  black cottonwood and balsam poplar. Canadian Journal of  Forest Research 16(3):497-501.
    97. Thibault, J. R., J. A. Fortin, and W. A. Smirnoff. 1982. In  vitro allelopathic inhibition of nitrification by balsam  poplar and balsam fir. American Journal of Botany  69(5):676-679.
    99. Van Cleve, K., and L. A. Viereck. 1981. Forest succession in  relation to nutrient cycling in the boreal forest of Alaska.  In Forest succession: Concepts and application. p. 185-210.  D.C. West, H. H. Shugart, and D. B. Botkin, eds.  Springer-Verlag.
    101. Van Cleve, Keith, C. T. Dyrness, and L. A. Viereek. 1980.  Nutrient cycling in interior Alaska flood plains and its  relationship to regeneration and subsequent forest  development. In Forest regeneration at high  latitudes. p. 11-18. Mayo Murray and Robert M.  VanVeldhuizen, eds. USDA Forest Service. General Technical  Report PNW-107. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Portland, OR.
    103. Viereck, E. G. 1987. Alaska's wilderness medicines-healthful  plants of the far north. Alaska Northwest Publishing  Company, Edmonds, WA. 107 p.
    105. Viereck, L. A. 1970. Forest succession and soil development  adjacent to the Chena River in interior Alaska. Arctic and  Alpine Research 2(l):1-26.
    107. Viereck, L. A. 1979. Characteristics of treeline plant  communities in Alaska. Holarctic Ecology 2(4):228-238.
    109. Viereck, Leslie A., and Joan M. Foote. 1970. The status of  Populus balsamifera and P. trichocarpa in  Alaska. Canadian Field-Naturalist 84(2):169-173.
    111. Viereck, Leslie A., and Elbert L. Little, Jr. 1972. Alaska  trees and shrubs. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 410. Washington, DC. 265 p.
    113. Viereck, L. A., C. T. Dyrness, K. Van Cleve, and M. J.  Foote. 1983. Vegetation, soils, and forest productivity in  selected forest types in interior Alaska. Canadian Journal  of Forest Research 13:703-720.
    115. Walker, L. R., and F. S. Chapin. 1986. Physiological  controls over seedling growth in primary succession on an  Alaskan flood plain. Ecology 67(6):1508-1523.
    117. Walker, L. R., J. C. Zasada, F. S. Chapin 111. 1986. The  role of' life history processes in primary succession on an  Alaska flood plain. Ecology 67:1243-1253.
    119. Zalasky, H. 1975. Frost damage in poplar on the prairies.  Forestry Chronicle 52(2):61-64.
    121. Zalasky, H. 1978. Stem and leaf spot infections caused by  Septoria musiva and S. populicola on poplar  seedlings. Phytoprotection 59(l):43-50.
    123. Zasada, J. C., and R. A. Densmore. 1977. Changes in seed  viability during storage for selected Alaskan Salicaceae.  Seed Science and Technology 5:509-518.
    125. Zasada, J. C., and R. Densmore. 1980. Alaska willow and  balsam poplar seed viability after 3 years. Tree Planters'  Notes 31(2):9-10.
    127. Zasada, J. C., and L. A. Viereck. 1975. Effect of  temperature and stratification on germination of Alaska  Salicaceae. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 5:333-337.
    129. Zasada, J. C., P. Holloway, and R. Densmore. 1977.  Considerations for the use of hardwood stem cuttings in  surface management programs. In Proceedings, Symposium on  Surface Protection Through Prevention of Damage: Focus on  the Arctic Slope. p. 148-157. May 17-20, 1977. U.S.  Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Alaska  State Office, Anchorage, AK.
    131. Zasada, J. C., R. A. Norum, C. E. Teutsch, and R. Densmore.  1987. Survival and growth of planted black spruce, alder,  aspen, and willow on a black spruce site in Interior Alaska.  Forestry Chronicle 63:84-88.
    133. Zasada, J. C., R. A. Norum, R. M. VanVeldhuizen, and C. E.  Teutsch. 1983. Artificial regeneration of trees and tall  shrubs in experimentally burned upland black  spruce/feathermoss stands in Alaska. Canadian Journal of  Forest Research 13:903-913.
    135. Zasada, J. C., K. Van Cleve, R. A. Werner, and others. 1977.  Forest biology and management in high latitude North  American forests. In Proceedings, Symposium on North  American Forest Lands at Latitudes North of 60 Degrees. p.  137-195. University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK.
    137. Zasada, J. C., L. A. Viereck, M. J. Foote, and others. 1981.  Natural regeneration of balsam poplar following harvesting  in the Susitna Valley, Alaska. Forestry Chronicle  57(2):57-65.
    139. Zavitkovski, J., J. G. Isebrands, and D. H. Dawson. 1976.  Productivity and utilization of short-rotation Populus in  the Lake States. In Proceedings, Symposium on Eastern  Cottonwood and Related Species. p. 392-401. B. A. Thielges,  and S. B. Land, Jr., eds. Louisiana State  University, Department of Continuing Education, Baton Rouge.


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