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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 20 m tall; trunk to 1 m d.b.h.; bark dark, furrowed; crown globose or oblong. Branchlets brownish green, stout, glabrous, shiny, at first pubescent, glabrescent, brittle. Buds oblong, apex acute. Stipules present or absent; petiole 2-7 mm, pubescent or glabrous, apex glandular; leaf blade lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, 8-10 × 1-1.6 cm, abaxially pale, glabrous, adaxially dull green, shiny, pubescent along midvein, base cuneate, margin glandular serrate, apex acuminate. Male catkin 3-5 cm × 4-6 mm; peduncle ca. 1 cm, with 0-3 leaflets; rachis pubescent; bracts yellow or dull yellow. Male flower: glands adaxial and abaxial; stamens 2; filaments sometimes pubescent at base; anthers yellow. Female catkin unknown. 2n = 76, rarely 38, 114.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Naturalized. Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Nei Mongol [native to Europe]
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Crack Willow in Illinois

Salix fragilis (Crack Willow) introduced
(bees suck nectar or collect pollen, the fairy moth sucks nectar, while flies and beetles suck nectar or feed on pollen; all observations are from Small)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus perplexus, Bombus sandersoni, Bombus ternarius, Bombus terricola

Bees (short-tongued)
Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes inaequalis sn fq; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena bradleyi sn, Andrena carlini, Andrena carolina sn, Andrena vicina sn fq

Flies
Muscidae: Spilogona fatima

Moths
Adelidae: Adela purpurea sn fq

Beetles
Scirtidae: Cyphon variabilis (probably) fq

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Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Amauronematus histrio grazes on leaf of Salix fragilis
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Amauronematus taeniatus grazes on leaf of Salix fragilis
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
immersed pycnidium of Camarosprium coelomycetous anamorph of Camarosporium salicinum parasitises twig of Salix fragilis
Remarks: season: 5-6

Foodplant / sap sucker
Cavariella aegopodii sucks sap of live Salix fragilis
Remarks: season: autumn-spring

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Coronicium alboglaucum is saprobic on dead wood of Salix fragilis

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Cryptocephalus sexpunctatus grazes on pollen of Salix fragilis
Remarks: season: 5-7
Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
Diplodina coelomycetous anamorph of Cryptodiaporthe salicella is saprobic on dead twig of Salix fragilis
Remarks: season: 1-2

Foodplant / false gall
stroma of Cryptomyces maximus causes swelling of live, girdled branch (thin) of Salix fragilis

Foodplant / saprobe
often astromatic, prominent, loculi in a circle pycnidium of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora fugax is saprobic on bark of Salix fragilis

Foodplant / saprobe
loosely gregarious, erumpent stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora salicis is saprobic on dead, often attached twig of Salix fragilis
Remarks: season: 1-8

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, radially plurilocular or subplurilocular stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora translucens is saprobic on twig of Salix fragilis
Remarks: season: Spring

Plant / epiphyte
Diderma chondrioderma grows on live bark of Salix fragilis

Foodplant / feeds on
Dorytomus hirtipennis feeds on Salix fragilis

Foodplant / parasite
acervulus of Monostichella coelomycetous anamorph of Drepanopeziza salicis parasitises live leaf of Salix fragilis
Remarks: season: 8-9

Plant / epiphyte
Echinostelium corynophorum grows on live bark of Salix fragilis

Plant / epiphyte
Echinostelium fragile grows on live bark of Salix fragilis

Plant / associate
Euphranta toxoneura is associated with Salix fragilis

Foodplant / gall
larva of Euura mucronata causes gall of live bud and bud-peduncle of Salix fragilis

Foodplant / gall
larva of Euura testaceipes causes gall of leaf (midrib) of Salix fragilis
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Ganoderma resinaceum parasitises live trunk of Salix fragilis
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
erumpent perithecium of Glomerella cingulata infects and damages live shoot of Salix fragilis
Remarks: season: 5+

Foodplant / saprobe
numerous, clustered, stromatic apothecium of Godronia fuliginosa is saprobic on dead branch of Salix fragilis
Remarks: season: 7-8

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hypochnicium polonense is saprobic on often sodden, dead, fallen, decayed wood of Salix fragilis

Foodplant / saprobe
stroma of Hypoxylon subticinense is saprobic on dead bark of Salix fragilis
Remarks: season: 2-3

Foodplant / saprobe
clustered fruitbody of Lentinus tigrinus is saprobic on dead, partly submerged wood of Salix fragilis
Other: major host/prey

Plant / epiphyte
Licea belmontiana grows on live bark of Salix fragilis

Plant / epiphyte
Licea denudescens grows on live bark of Salix fragilis

Plant / epiphyte
Licea inconspicua grows on live bark of Salix fragilis

Plant / epiphyte
Licea marginata grows on live bark of Salix fragilis

Plant / epiphyte
Licea parasitica grows on live bark of Salix fragilis

Foodplant / parasite
mostly epiphyllous telium of Melampsora allii-fragilis parasitises live leaf of Salix fragilis

Foodplant / parasite
mostly hypophyllous, subepidermal telium of Melampsora epitea parasitises live leaf of Salix fragilis

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Nematus salicis grazes on leaf of Salix fragilis
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Oxyporus latemarginatus is saprobic on dead, fallen usually decayed, white rotten trunk (large) of Salix fragilis

Plant / epiphyte
Paradiacheopsis fimbriata grows on live bark of Salix fragilis

Foodplant / roller
larva of Phyllocolpa puella rolls leaf edge of Salix fragilis

Foodplant / saprobe
becoming superficial, scattered pycnidium of Pleurophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Pleurophoma pleurospora is saprobic on dead twig of Salix fragilis
Remarks: season: 3,11

Foodplant / gall
larva of Pontania proxima causes gall of live leaf of Salix fragilis

Foodplant / gall
larva of Pontania viminalis causes gall of leaf (midrib underside) of Salix fragilis
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pristiphora confusa grazes on leaf of Salix fragilis
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Schizophyllum amplum is saprobic on dying branch of Salix fragilis
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Spongipellis spumeus is saprobic on wood of Salix fragilis
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Terana caerulea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Salix fragilis
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
Uncinula adunca var. adunca parasitises Salix fragilis

Foodplant / pathogen
Fusicladium coelomycetous anamorph of Venturia chlorospora infects and damages live, lesioned shoot (young) of Salix fragilis
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / hemiparasite
haustorium of Viscum album is hemiparasitic on branch of Salix fragilis

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Foodplant / parasite
uredium of Melampsora allii-fragilis parasitises live leaf of Salix fragilis x pentandra (S. x meyeriana)

Foodplant / parasite
uredium of Melampsora laricis-pentandrae parasitises live leaf of Salix fragilis x pentandra (S. x meyeriana)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Salix x fragilis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Salix x fragilis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Salix fragilis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Salix fragilis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 19
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNA - Not Applicable

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Wikipedia

Salix fragilis

Salix fragilis, with the common names crack willow or brittle willow, is a species of willow native to Europe and Western Asia. It is native to riparian habitats, usually found growing beside rivers and streams, and in marshes and water meadow channels.[1][2][3]

Description[edit]

Salix fragilis is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree, which grows rapidly to 10–20 m (33–66 ft) (rarely to 29 m (95 ft)) tall, with a trunk up to 1 m (3.3 ft) diameter, often multi-trunked, and an irregular, often leaning crown. The bark is dark grey-brown, coarsely fissured in older trees. The lanceolate leaves are bright green, 9–15 cm long and 1.5–3 cm wide, with a finely serrated margin; they are very finely hairy at first in spring, but soon become hairless.[3]

The flowers are produced in catkins in early spring, and pollinated by insects. They are dioecious, with male and female catkins on separate trees; the male catkins are 4–6 cm long, the female catkins are also 4–6 cm long, with the individual flowers having either one or two nectaries.[1][2][4] In late spring fruit capsules release numerous small cotton-tufted seeds. They are easily distributed by wind and moving water, and germinate immediately after soil contact.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

The variety Salix fragilis var. decipiens (Hoffm.) K. Koch occurs frequently with the type. It is a smaller shrubby tree, rarely exceeding 5–7 m (16–23 ft) tall, with completely hairless leaves up to 9 cm long and 2–3 cm broad. According to some botanists, it is a distinct species (treated as Salix decipiens Hoffm.), with, in this view, S. fragilis then being a hybrid between S. decipiens and S. alba. Some other botanists regard S. decipiens as itself being a hybrid between S. fragilis and S. triandra. Llittle evidence supports either of these suggestions.[1]

It readily forms natural hybrids with white willow S. alba in Europe and Asia, the hybrid being named Salix × rubens Schrank.[1] It can also hybridize with the native Salix nigra (black willow) in eastern North America.[3]

Ecology[edit]

The plant is commonly called crack willow or brittle willow because it is highly susceptible to wind, ice and snow damage.[3] The name also derives from the twigs which break off very easily and cleanly at the base with an audible crack. Broken twigs and branches can take root readily, enabling the species to colonise new areas as broken twigs fall into waterways and can be carried some distance downstream. It is particularly adept at colonising new riverside sandbanks formed after floods. It also spreads by root suckers, expanding into pure 'groves'.[3]

Cultivation[edit]

Salix fragilis is cultivated as a fast-growing ornamental tree. The cultivar Salix fragilis 'Russelliana' (syn. S. fragilis var. russelliana (Sm.) Koch) is by far the commonest clone of crack willow in Great Britain and Ireland, very easily propagated by cuttings. It is a vigorous tree commonly reaching 20–25 m (66–82 ft) tall, with leaves up to 15 cm long. It is a female clone.[1]

Invasive species[edit]

S. fragilis has escaped cultivation to become an invasive species in various parts of the world,[5] including: New Zealand; the upper half of the United States;[3][6] and South Africa.[7] In New Zealand it is listed on the National Pest Plant Accord, which means it cannot be sold or distributed. It can replace a habitat's native plant species diversity, by forming 'monoculture groves'. As only the male plant is present in New Zealand no fruit are formed unless hybridised.[8] Species spread is facilitated by stem Fragmentation (reproduction) which are carried via waterways. Control and management for habitat restoration projects often uses herbicides.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Meikle, R. D. (1984). Willows and Poplars of Great Britain and Ireland. BSBI Handbook No. 4. ISBN 0-901158-07-0.
  2. ^ a b Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h USFS—United States Forest Service: Salix fragilis — "Weed of the Week" . accessed 1.13.2013
  4. ^ Bean, W. J. (1980). Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles 8th ed., vol. 4. John Murray ISBN 0-7195-2428-8.
  5. ^ Invasive.org Salix fragilis (crack willow) . accessed 1.13.2013
  6. ^ U.S. states with invasive S. fragilis sites include: CN, CO, ID, IL, IN, IO, MA, MI, MN, MO, NB, ND, NJ, OH, OR, NH, NM, NV, NY, PA, RI, SD, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, and WY. (USFS & invasive.org)
  7. ^ http://www.capetowngreenmap.co.za/go-green/plant-indigenous-garden
  8. ^ http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests/crack-willow
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Notes

Comments

Salix fragilis in China because specimens he saw under this name from NE China belong to S. pierotii

 Planted for reforestation

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: According to FNA (Argus 2010, FNA vol. 7), all specimens under the names S. "fragilis" and "x rubens" need to be revised because before the lectotypification of Salix fragilis Linnaeus and the description of S. euxina, the name S. "fragilis" was often inadvertently used for both the pure species and for its hybrids with S. alba.

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Comments: The Flora of North America (volume 7) reports Salix ×fragilis L. - the hybrid white willow, S. alba Linnaeus × S. euxina I. Belyaeva, a European introduction, is the most commonly cultivated and naturalized tree-willow occurring widely in the flora area. FNA also notes that prior to the lectotypification of Salix fragilis L. and the description of S. euxina (I. V. Belyaeva 2009), the name S. "fragilis" was often inadvertently used for both the pure species and for its hybrids with S. alba. Thus all herbarium specimens under the names "fragilis" and "×rubens" need to be revised.

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