Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Much-branched annual herb, covered in glandular hairs, strongly aromatic when crushed. Leaves palmate with 3-5 obovate leaflets; margins shallowly dentate. Flowers in a terminal raceme; petals white, fading pinkish; stamens purple, borne on a long stalk. Fruit a long linear capsule.
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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Dry Deciduous Forests, Aso in plains"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Degraded Forest areas and also in plains
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Miscellaneous Details

Seeds and leaves used in traditional medicine.
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Kerala: Alapuzha, Idukki, Kollam, Kottayam, Kozhikode, Malapuram, Thiruvananthapuram"
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"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Kottayam, Alappuzha, Kollam, Idukki, Thiruvananthapuram, Malappuram, Kozhikkode, Wayanad

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Mysore, N.Kanara"
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile and Mediterranean regions.

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Global Distribution

Pan-tropical weed.

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Himalaya, India, Ceylon, east to China and Malaysia.
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Distribution: Widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Field Tips

Foetid when crushed. Stems glandular, pubescent.

Flower

In corymbose racemes, pink or white. Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

A capsule, terete, striate, glandular. Seeds many, concentrically ridged and transversely crested. Fruiting throughout the year.

Leaf Apices

Acute

Leaf arrangement

Alternate

Leaf Bases

Cuneate

Leaf Margins

Entire

Leaf Shapes

Obovate

Habit

A much branched annual herb.

"
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Description

Herbs annual, erect or suberect, 10-50 (-90) cm tall, often glandular hairy. Leaves petiolate, 3-7-foliolate, very variable in size; leaflets obovate to elliptic, 1-5 (-6) cm long, 0.5-3 cm broad, usually acute or slightly acuminate, finely crenate to subentire; petiole (1-) 3-10 cm long. Inflorescence showy, up to 30 cm long, bracteate, bracts much smaller than the leaves. Flowers 1-2 cm across, mostly white or pinkish; pedicels generally 1-2 cm long. Sepals 4, ovate to lanceolate, 2-5 (-8) mm long, glandular. Petals 4, obovate and long clawed, 9-20 mm long, 4-10 mm broad. Androphore 15-25 mm long; stamens usually about 10, verti¬cellate, usually 10-15 mm long, subequal, spreading conspicuously from a long androphore (never like this in any Cleome species), filaments often pinkish or lilac. Gynophore 10-20 mm long, usually shorter in flowers but increasing in fruit. Style 1-2 mm long. Fruit capsular, (1.5-) 3-7 (-12) cm long, 0.2-0.5 (-0.8) cm broad, linear, narrowed towards both the ends, glandular-pubescent, finely and obliquely striated, many seeded. Seeds 1-1.8 mm in diam., finely longitudinally striated, with slightly cristate transverse ridges, dark-brown.
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Elevation Range

300 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Glandular erect herbs. Leaves digitately 5-7 foliate; leaflets 5 x 2.5 cm, obovate; petiole 3-15 cm. Flowers in bracteate racemes, 1.5 cm across, white; calyx lobes unequal, glandular, pubescent; petals long clawed, spreading; stamens 6, attached to the long gynandrophore; ovary glandular. Capsule 3-4 cm long terete, glandular, tip discoid."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Erect herb
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Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Deciduous forests, also in the plains"
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General Habitat

"Common in village wastelands. Coloniser on disturbed grounds as a weed of cultivation. Plains from the coast to 900m. India, south east Asia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia."
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Weed of cultivation.

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Population Biology

Frequency

Common
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: March-April
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Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cleome gynandra

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cleome gynandra

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Leaves are cooked and eaten to improve digestion.
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Wikipedia

Cleome gynandra

Cleome gynandra (Sanskrit: Ajagandha, अजगन्धा;[citation needed] Marathi:Tilavan, तिलवन; Kenyan (Kisii):Chinsaga) is a species of Cleome known by the common name Shona cabbage or African cabbage. It is an annual wildflower native to Africa but has become widespread in many tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. It is an erect, branching plant generally between 25 cm and 60 cm tall. Its sparse leaves are each made up of 3-5 oval-shaped leaflets. The flowers are white to rose pink. The seed is a brown 1.5mm diameter sphere. The leaves are edible.

Uses[edit]

The leaves form an important part of diets in Southern Africa, and nutritional analysis has found it to be high in certain nutrients including amino acids, vitamins and minerals.[2] In Telugu, C. gynandra is termed as Vaminta or Vayinta. In India, many tribes cook the leaves of this herb like any other leaf curry.

Ecology[edit]

Cleome gynandra is considered an invasive weed in many places in the U.S.[3] and elsewhere in the Pacific.[4]

Biochemistry[edit]

Cleome gynandra uses NAD-malic enzyme type C4 photosynthesis and has the characteristic traits associated with this including changes in "leaf biochemistry, cell biology and development".[5] Cleome gynandra is closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana (a C3 photosynthetic plant) and therefore offers comparison with this well studied model plant.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  2. ^ Cleome gynandra L. entry in Plantzafrica database
  3. ^ USDA-NRCS: Invasive and noxious weeds
  4. ^ Cleome gynandra: Plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER))
  5. ^ Marshall, D.M., Muhaidat, R., Brown, N.J., Liu, Z., Stanley, S., Griffiths, H.G., Sage, R.F., Hibberd, J.M. (2007) Cleome, a genus closely related to Arabidopsis, contains species spanning a developmental progression from C3 to C4 photosynthesis. Plant Journal, 51: 886-896
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Notes

Comments

In Africa a form of this species, with very large capsules (upto 15 cm long, 1.2 cm broad), is cultivated as vegetable. The other species G. speciosa DC., of Central & South America with glabrous plants and larger fls. and leaves, may be found cultivated as an ornamental in our gardens.
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