Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Japan, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Sikkim, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan; SW Asia, Europe; naturalized in S Africa and North America].
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Distribution: Europe and Asia.
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Temperate Eurasia, Himalaya east to Japan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annual or biennial herb, 10-60 cm tall, erect or suberect, glabrous or sparsely hairy with simple hairs. Leaves very variable in size, pinnate, usually with 5-8 pairs of lateral leaflets and a terminal one, stalked with bases of petiole auricled; leaflets usually subrounded in lower leaves and ovate-oblong in upper leaves, lobulate, serrate to almost entire, 5-25 mm long, 3-10 mm broad. Racemes 20-30-flowered, up to 15 cm long in fruit. Flowers 3-4 mm across, white; pedicels up to 10 mm long in fruit, ascending. Sepals c. 2.5 mm long. Petals c. 4 (-5) mm long. Stamens c. 2:3 mm long. Siliquae linear, compressed, (15-) 20-30 mm long, 1 mm broad, straight, glabrous; valves faintly veined; style usually very short, c. 1 mm long with minute stigma; septum not veined; seeds many, c. 1 mm long, oblong.
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Elevation Range

1500-4000 m
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Description

Herbs biennial or rarely annual, (12-)20-65(-90) cm tall, glabrous or rarely sparsely pubescent near base. Stems erect, simple at base, usually branched above, angled, sometimes flexuous. Basal leaves rosulate, often withered by flowering; petiole 1-4 cm, not auriculate; leaf blade pinnatisect and appearing compound. Cauline leaves to 15 per stem; petiole auriculate, 2-6 cm; auricles lanceolate or linear, 1-8(-10) × (0.1-)0.3-1.8(-2.2) mm, often ciliate; leaf blade (1-)3-18(-22) × (0.6-)1-5.5(-7) cm, pinnatisect; terminal lobe orbicular, obovate, ovate, or lanceolate, 1-4(-5) × 0.5-1.7 cm, with a petiolule to 5 mm, entire or obscurely to strongly 3-5(-9)-toothed or -lobed; lateral lobes (4-)6-11 on each side of midvein, oblong, lanceolate, or ovate, sessile or long petiolulate, smaller than terminal lobe, margin dentate, sublaciniate, or rarely entire; uppermost leaves with narrower segments. Fruiting pedicels divaricate or ascending, 3.5-12(-15) mm, slender. Sepals oblong, 1.2-2(-2.5) × 0.7-1(-1.2) mm. Petals white, oblanceolate, 1.5-4(-5) × 0.6-1.2 mm, rarely absent. Stamens 6; filaments 2-3(-4) mm; anthers ovate, 0.3-0.5 mm. Ovules 10-30 per ovary. Fruit linear, (1-)1.6-3(-3.5) cm × 0.9-1.5 mm; valves glabrous or rarely pilose, torulose; style 0.6-1.6(-2) mm. Seeds brown, oblong, 1.1-1.5 × 0.8-1 mm, compressed, sometimes apically narrowly winged. Fl. and fr. Feb-Jul. 2n = 16, 32.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Cardamine basisagittata W. T. Wang; C. dasycarpa Marschall von Bieberstein; C. glaphyropoda O. E. Schulz; C. glaphyropoda var. crenata T. Y. Cheo & R. C. Fang; C. impatiens var. angustifolia O. E. Schulz; C. impatiens var. dasycarpa (Marschall von Bieberstein) T. Y. Cheo & R. C. Fang; C. impatiens subsp. elongata O. E. Schulz; C. impatiens var. eriocarpa de Candolle; C. impatiens var. fumaria H. Léveillé; C. impatiens var. microphylla O. E. Schulz; C. impatiens var. obtusifolia Knaf; C. impatiens var. pilosa O. E. Schulz; C. nakaiana H. Léveillé; C. senanensis Franchet & Savatier.
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Ecology

Habitat

Shady or moist slopes, streamsides, fields, roadsides; near sea level to 4000 m.
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Associations

Foodplant / parasite
amphigenous colony of Ramularia hyphomycetous anamorph of Ramularia cardamines parasitises live leaf of Cardamine impatiens

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: May -July.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cardamine impatiens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cardamine impatiens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Cardamine impatiens

Cardamine impatiens L. or narrow-leaved bittercress is a plant species of the genus Cardamine belonging to the family Brassicaceae. It is a slender, biennial herb, that produces sterile leaves in the first year, one to several flowering stems during the next. Its leaves are pinnate with several pairs of lanceolate, dentate leaflets and a terminal, slightly longer leaflet. The short petals surpass the calyx by half of its length. The seeds are arranged in one row on each side of the central membrane of the narrow pod and are ejected out in a shower due to the tension formed as the seed pod (silique) dries. It grows on walls, open ground in shady places in forests usually disturbed by man.

References [edit]

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Notes

Comments

The division of Cardamine impatiens into infraspecific taxa based on the size, shape, margin, and indumentum of leaf lobes is definitely artificial. Leaf characters do not correlate in any pattern with geographical distribution. In fact, some of the morphological extremes described as taxa native to Asia appear sporadically in the native European or naturalized American populations. The so-called var. dasycarpa, which was described from the Caucasus, represents a form that can be found within populations of typical C. impatiens. Furthermore, a critical evaluation of the type collections of C. basisagittata and C. glaphyropoda shows beyond doubt that they are merely minor variants of C. impatiens. Wang (Acta. Bot. Yunnan. 9: 16. 1987) designated Smith 2969 (UPS) as the lectotype of C. glaphyropoda, but the specimen at B would have been a more appropriate choice because it was annotated in Schulz's handwriting.

This species is used medicinally and as a source of seed oil.

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Comments

A very variable species but auricled leaf bases are distinctive. States of infraspecific taxa based on leaflet shape, branching etc. are doubtful.
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