Overview

Brief Summary

Cardamine californica has a bioregional distribution that includes Oregon, the California Floristic Province and Baja California. Elevations of occurrence are less than 1200 meters. Common habitats are shaded locations, particularly in canyons and woodlands.

With a common name Milkmaids, this perennial has rhizomes less than two centimeters long and is tuber-like. The stem rises to a mature height of 20 to 70 centimeters. Leaves exhibit leaflets or lobes of cauline leaves that are entire, wavy or dentate. The cauline leaves are alternate, with lower leaves long-petioled, and upper ones short-petioled to sessile. The inflorescence has flowers whose petals are nine to 14 millimeters long, and white to pale rose in color. This species is one of the earliest to bloom within its range.
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Endemic to northwestern California; New Mexico reports considered false by Kartesz (1999).

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Type Information

Isotype for Cardamine sinuata Greene
Catalog Number: US 213647
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. J. Howell
Year Collected: 1892
Locality: Near Crescent City., California, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Greene, E. L. 1893. Erythea. 1: 148.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Shady banks (Abrams 1944). Moist places (Munz 1959). Forest floor, streambanks, moist slopes, canyons (Hickman 1993; Rollins 1993). In Sonoma County: cliffs, bluff sides (Best et al. 1996).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T3 - Vulnerable

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Cardamine californica var. sinuata is in northwestern California (below 300 meters) and western Oregon, occurring more or less near the coast on the often shady, moist forest floor, hillsides, clay banks, and in stream valleys.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Cardamine californica var. integrifolia ranges through California (below 500 meters) to southwestern Oregon. It can be common in suitable habitat, which includes open meadows and fields, hill slopes, and canyons.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T2 - Imperiled

Reasons: Cardamine californica var. cuneata is in California (below 900 meters) in the northern South Coast Ranges, occurring in open woods, on moist hillsides. This taxon is a serpentine indicator.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Endemic in northwestern California (below 600 meters), occurring on hills and mountains, in canyons, moist places (including cliffs and slopes), along streambanks, and on the forest floor. New Mexico reports considered false by Kartesz (1999).

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Cardamine californica var. californica ranges through California (below 1200 meters) to Baja California in Mexico. It can be common in appropriate habitat, such as shady slopes and wooded ravines (e.g., Hickman 1993).

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Cardamine californica

Cardamine californica (Milkmaids) (also Dentaria californica) is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae, native to western North America from Washington to California and Baja California. It is common in a variety of habitats including shady slopes, open woodlands, chaparral and grasslands in the winter and early spring. In the San Francisco Bay Area, it is one of the first wildflowers to bloom, with blossoms from January to May.[1]

Description[edit]

Cardamine californica is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to about 1 foot tall. The flowers are produced on a spike, each flower about 1/2 inch in diameter with four white petals. The flower closes its petals in late afternoon as the sun goes down and nods its pedicel before a rain, protecting the pollen.[1]

Hand pollination of two milkmaids populations in the San Francisco Presidio improved seed set from 8% to 85%, with seeds ripening in about 53 days.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kazuki Ariyoshi, Emily Magnaghi, Mark Frey (Fall 2006). "Hand-Pollination of Cardamine californica Improves Seed Set". Native Plants Journal 7 (3): 248–252. Retrieved 2013-02-19. 

Sources[edit]

  • "Wildflowers of Henry W. Coe State Park" brochure, Larry Ulrich, 2002
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: The 2nd edition of the Jepson Manual (Baldwin et al. 2012) includes C. pachystigma var. dissectifolia in C. californica, however, experts in California recognize evidence that it is distinct and are tracking it pending further research.

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Comments: Recognized as Cardamine cuneata in Kartesz (1994), but Kartesz (1999) agrees with Rollins (1993) to treat the taxon as this variety.

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Comments: Recognized as Cardamine cardiophylla in Kartesz (1994), but Kartesz (1999) agrees with Rollins (1993) to treat the taxon as this variety. Kartesz (1999) treats as a California endemic, with New Mexico reports considered false.

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Comments: Comprised of five varieties (Rollins 1993; Kartesz 1999).

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