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CommentsThis spring wildflower of woodlands is not very showy and often overlooked. It has a similar appearance to other Bitter Cresses with small white flowers, including Cardamine hirsuta (Hairy Bitter Cress) and Cardamine parviflora arenicola (Small-Flowered Bitter Cress). Hairy Bitter Cress, an introduced species, is hairy toward the base and it has abundant basal leaves while the flowers are blooming. Pennsylvania Bitter Cress has very few, if any, basal leaves while the flowers are blooming, and its foliage is completely hairless (at least in Illinois). Small-Flowered Bitter Cress is usually a little smaller in size than Pennsylvania Bitter Cress and it has more narrow leaflets (up to ¼" across). The terminal leaflets of this species are about the same size as the non-terminal leaflets. Small-Flowered Bitter Cress is usually found in habitats that are drier and sunnier than Pennsylvania Bitter Cress, although it is occasionally found in moist woodlands and wetlands as well.