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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This plant is quite showy while it is in full bloom. The basal leaves are reportedly edible during the early spring, but they later become bitter. The Yellow Rocket that commonly occurs in Illinois is Barbarea vulgaris arcuata. The typical variety of Yellow Rocket is rarely seen in Illinois; it differs from var. arcuata by having erect seedpods (siliques). A species with a similar appearance, Barbarea verna (Early Winter Cress), occurs further to the east and is rarely observed in Illinois. It differs from Yellow Rocket in having basal leaves with 4-7 pairs of lateral lobes, while its alternate leaves are more often pinnatifid. The seedpods of Early Winter Cress are longer than those of Yellow Rocket (at least 1¼" in length) and the pedicels of its flowers are more stout.
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Description

This adventive biennial plant is 1–2½' tall. During the first year it forms a rosette of basal leaves up to 1' across, while during the second year it bolts upward with one or more flowering stalks. These stalks are hairless, stout, light green to reddish purple, and somewhat angular. Secondary stalks are produced in the upper half of the plant. The basal leaves are up to 6" long and 2½" across. They are odd-pinnate with 1-4 pairs of lateral lobes and a terminal lobe that is larger than the others. These lobes are oval, obovate, or nearly orbicular, and they have margins that are slightly undulate or bluntly dentate. The alternate leaves are sessile or clasp the stems. The lower to middle alternate leaves resemble the basal leaves, except that they are smaller and have fewer lateral lobes. The upper alternate leaves are up to 2" long and 1" across; their margins are shallowly lobed, undulate, or bluntly dentate. Both the basal and alternate leaves are dark green, hairless, and shiny on the upper surface.  The upper stems terminate in racemes of yellow flowers. The flowers bloom toward the apex of each raceme, while the seedpods (siliques) develop below. Each flower is up to 1/3" (8 mm.) across, consisting of 4 yellow petals, 4 yellowish green sepals that are linear-lanceolate, 6 stamens with pale yellow to light brown anthers, and a single pistil with a thick style. A robust plant will produce these flowers in great abundance and they are mildly fragrant. The blooming period occurs from mid-spring to early summer and lasts about 1 month (peaking during late spring). Each flower is replaced by an angular-cylindrical seedpod about ¾-1" long. The base of each seedpod is connected to a short slender pedicel, while at the other end it terminates in a short slender beak. These seedpods are ascending, rather than strictly erect, along the racemes. The seeds are ovoid, slightly flattened, and more or less brown. The root system consists of a stout taproot. This plant spreads by reseeding itself, and it occasionally forms colonies. Cultivation
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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Native of North America"
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Yellow Rocket is a common plant that occurs in most counties of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It is native to Eurasia. Habitats include cropland, fallow fields, vacant lots, construction sites, gardens, moist meadows, areas along roadsides and railroads, and waste areas. Highly disturbed areas are preferred; sometimes this species occurs in natural areas that are slightly degraded (including prairie restorations), but it is not particularly invasive. Faunal Associations
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Range Description

B. macrophylla is endemic to Greece (Euro+Med PlantBase 2006). As the validity of this taxon is uncertain, the exact distribution is unknown.
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Range Description

B. lepuznica is endemic to Romania and Serbia. In Romania, it occurs on Retezat, Borascu and Piule mountains in Hunedoara province, where the area of occupancy (AOO) is no more than 250 km2, while in Serbia there is a single disjunct population close to the Romanian border on Mt. Vršačke above the city of Vršac (Banat region, Vojvodina province), c. 120 km west of the main area of the species' range in Romania.

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is no more than 7,500 km2.
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Tamil Nadu: Nilgiri
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Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Jilin, Xinjiang [India, Japan, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Korea, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan; SW Asia, Europe; naturalized elsewhere].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs biennial or rarely perennial, glabrous throughout or sparsely hairy. Stems (20-)30-80(-100) cm tall, erect, angled, branched above. Basal and lowermost cauline leaves petiolate; petiole (0.5-)2-8(-12) cm, glabrous or ciliate; leaf blade (1-)2-8(-10) cm, lyrate-pinnatifid, with 1-3(-5) lobes on each side of midvein, rarely early ones undivided, sometimes slightly fleshy; lateral lobes oblong or ovate, 0.3-2(-4) cm × 1-8(-15) mm, entire, repand, crenate, or dentate; terminal lobe ovate or suborbicular, considerably larger than lateral ones, (0.7-)1.5-4.5(-7) × (0.4-)1-3(-5) cm. Upper cauline leaves ovate or suborbicular, undivided, coarsely dentate, sinuate, or rarely subentire, sessile, conspicuously auriculate; auricles ovate or narrowly oblong, to 10 × 5 mm, often ciliate. Racemes ebracteate, elongated considerably in fruit. Sepals yellow, oblong, 3-4 × 1-1.5 mm, erect, margin scarious, lateral pair slightly saccate. Petals yellow, spatulate, rounded, 5-6(-7) × 1.5-2 mm, attenuate to base. Filaments yellow, 3-4.5 mm; anthers oblong, 0.7-1.2 mm. Fruiting pedicels divaricate or erect-ascending, 3-7 mm, terete or subquadrangular, glabrous, narrower than fruit. Fruit linear, (0.7-)1.5-3 cm × 1-1.5 mm, terete, somewhat compressed, or 4-angled, torulose, erect to erect-ascending; gynophore to 0.5 mm; valves apex obtuse or subacute; style slender, 1.5-3 mm. Seeds dark brown, broadly ovate or subglobose, 1.2-1.5 × 1-1.2 mm, uniseriate, plump, wingless. Fl. and fr. Apr-Aug. 2n = 16.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Erect Herb
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Synonym

Barbarea arcuata (Opiz ex J. & C. Presl) Reichard; B. vulgaris var. arcuata (Opiz ex J. & C. Presl) Fries; Erysimum arcuatum Opiz ex J. & C. Presl; E. barbarea Linnaeus.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Yellow Rocket is a common plant that occurs in most counties of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It is native to Eurasia. Habitats include cropland, fallow fields, vacant lots, construction sites, gardens, moist meadows, areas along roadsides and railroads, and waste areas. Highly disturbed areas are preferred; sometimes this species occurs in natural areas that are slightly degraded (including prairie restorations), but it is not particularly invasive. Faunal Associations
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Strid (1986) includes B. macrophylla in the description of B. vulgaris and describes it as growing on montane levels and occasionally in wet habitats on the timberline in northern Greece. If a valid taxon, further research is needed to gather information about its specific habitat.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
In Romania this species is found in sub-alpine Juniperus forests (Chrysosplenio-Cardaminetum association) with high relative humidity, often beside fast flowing water. In Serbia it grows at the edge of sessile oak–silver lime forests (Quercus petraea–Tilia tomentosa) and along roadside slopes that resemble siliceous scree (Diklić and Lakušić 1999).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Along ditches, river banks, damp grasslands, waste places, roadsides, fields, disturbed sites; 700-4100 m.
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Yellow Rocket in Illinois

Barbarea vulgaris (Yellow Rocket) introduced
(information is limited primarily to Andrenid bees; some observations are from Hilty and Lewis as indicated below, otherwise observations are from Krombein et al.; bees suck nectar or collect pollen, while the butterfly sucks nectar)

Bees (short-tongued)
Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena arabis (Kr), Andrena ceanothi (Kr), Andrena erigeniae sn (Kr), Andrena forbesii (Kr), Andrena hippotes (Kr), Andrena imitatrix imitatrix (Kr), Andrena integra (Kr), Andrena miranda (Kr), Andrena nigrifrons (Kr), Andrena rugosa (Kr), Andrena sigmundi (Kr), Andrena spiraeana (Kr), Andrena ziziae (Kr)

Butterflies
Pieridae: Pieris rapae sn (H, Lw)

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe cruciferarum parasitises live Barbarea vulgaris

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Phaedon cochleariae grazes on live leaf of Barbarea vulgaris
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Ramularia hyphomycetous anamorph of Ramularia armoraciae causes spots on live leaf of Barbarea vulgaris
Other: major host/prey

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Barbarea vulgaris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 27
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Kell, S.P.

Reviewer/s
Maxted, N. & Nieto, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
Barbarea macrophylla is assessed as Data Deficient as there is currently insufficient information available to evaluate this species. Further research is needed to confirm the validity of this taxon. If it is considered to be valid, information is needed on its exact distribution and habitat type, the population size and trend, potential threats, and its in situ and ex situ conservation status.
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
D

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Strajeru, S. & Stevanović, V.

Reviewer/s
Kell, S.P. & Nieto, A.

Contributor/s
Hargreaves , S. & Kell, S.P.

Justification
European regional assessment: Endangered (EN)
EU 27 regional assessment: Critically Endangered (CR) C2a(i)

Barbarea lepuznica is assessed as Endangered D as the population comprises only 150 individuals and the largest subpopulation in Serbia is under threat from nitrification, road construction and tourism. It would also qualify for Vulnerable B1ab(iii,v) as the extent of occurrence (EOO) is no more than 7,500 km², the population is severely fragmented, and there is a continuing decline in the quality of habitat in the area of the largest subpopulation and in the number of mature individuals in Romania.

It is assessed as Critically Endangered at EU level, where it is only present in Romania. Here, the population comprises around 50 mature individuals and is in decline, and there are less than 50 mature individuals in each subpopulation. It would also qualify for Endangered B2ab(v);D at EU level as its area of occupancy is no more than 250 km², the population is severely fragmented, comprises less than 250 individuals and there is a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals.



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Population

Population
If it is a valid taxon, further research is needed to gather information about its population size and trend.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Population

Population
The population in Romania is extremely small (comprising about 50 mature individuals), and decreasing. In Serbia, the population is estimated to comprise c. 100 mature individuals. The population is severely fragmented as it occurs as isolated subpopulations in different mountainous areas.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
If a valid taxon, further research is needed to gather information about the potential threats to this species.
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Major Threats

In Serbia it is under threat from nitrification, road construction and tourism (including trampling) (Diklić and Lakušić 1999). There is no information available about threats to the Romanian population; however, this species is restricted to a very narrow ecological niche.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The genus Barbarea is listed in Annex I of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture as part of the brassica complex.

No germplasm accessions of B. macrophylla are reported by EURISCO to be held in European genebanks (EURISCO Catalogue 2010).

Further research is needed to confirm the validity of this species. If it is considered a valid taxon, information is needed on its exact distribution and habitat type, the population size and trend, potential threats, and its in situ and ex situ conservation status.
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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The genus Barbarea is listed in Annex I of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture as part of the brassica complex.

No germplasm accessions of B. lepuznica are reported by EURISCO to be held in European genebanks (EURISCO Catalogue 2010). Germplasm collection and duplicated ex situ storage is a priority for this species.

In Serbia, the entire population is situated inside Vršačke Mountain Nature Park and in Romania the at least part of the population is known to occur inside protected areas (Retezat National Park); however, these populations not actively managed—a monitoring programme is needed.

It is listed as Critically Endangered (CR B2ab(iv+v); C2ai) in Romania (Dihoru and Negrean 2009) and in Serbia (CR B1+2c; C2b) (Diklić and Lakušić 1999).
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Wikipedia

Barbarea vulgaris

Barbarea vulgaris, also called as bittercress, herb barbara, rocketcress, yellow rocketcress, winter rocket, and wound rocket, is a biennial herb of the genus Barbarea, belonging to the family Brassicaceae.

Contents

Etymology

The genus name Barbarea derives from Saint Barbara, the patron saint of artillerymen and miners, as this plant in the past was used to soothe the wounds caused by explosions. The species Latin name vulgaris means “common”.

Description

Close-up on flowers of Barbarea vulgaris

This plant grows to about 30–60 centimetres (12–24 in) of height, with a maximum of 1 metre (3 ft 3 in). The stem is ribbed and hairless, branched at the base. It has a basal rosettes of shiny, dark green leaves. The basal leaves are stalked and lyre-pinnatifid, that is with a large terminal lobe and smaller lower lobes. The cauline leaves are smaller, ovate, toothed or lobed. The flowers are borne in spring in dense terminal clusters above the foliage. They are 7–9 millimetres (0.28–0.35 in) long, with four bright yellow petals.The flowering period extends from about April through July. The fruit is a pod of about 15–30 millimetres (0.59–1.2 in).

Characteristics

Chemical substances in this species include saponins, flavonoids,[1] and glucosinolates.[2][3]

Natural insect resistance and its potential use in agriculture

Most Barbarea vulgaris genotypes are naturally resistant to some insect species that are otherwise specialized on the crucifer family. In the case of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum, the resistance is caused by saponins.[4][5][6][7] Glucosinolates such as glucobarbarin and glucobrassicin are used as a cue for egg-laying by female cabbage white butterflies such as Pieris rapae. Indeed, the larvae of this butterfly thrive well on this plant. Diamond back moth females are also stimulated by these chemicals, but the larvae die due to the content of saponins which are apparently not sensed by the moths. This phenomenon has been tested for biological insect control: B. vulgaris plants are placed in a field and attract much of the diamondback moth egg load. As the larvae die shortly after hatching, this kind of insect control has been named "dead-end trap cropping".[8]

Distribution

Native to Eurasia it is naturalised in many parts of North America as a weed.

Habitat

The plant prefers fresh or moist places, on roadsides, along rivers, or on the slopes and in ditches, at an altitude of 0–1,600 metres (0–5,200 ft) above sea level.

Natural chemotypes with distinct ecology

A pubescent type (the "P-type") has been described from S. Scandinavia. This type has atypical chemistry and is devoid of resistance to the diamondback moth and the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum. The P-type belongs morphologically to the variety B. vulgaris var. arcuata, but may also be identical to the subspecies originally described as Barbaraea Beck arcuata Rchb. ssp. pubescens N. Busch. In this context, the usual type of B. vulgaris var. arcuata is called the "G-type" (for Glabrous (hairless) leaves).

A chemotype with deviating glucosinolate content has been described from W. Europe and named the "NAS-type" (because it is dominated by the glucosinolate glucoNASturtiin. This type has increased resistance to some specialized insects. In this context, the usual chemotype of B. vulgaris is called the "BAR" type (because it is dominated by glucoBARbarin).

Subspecies

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Dalby-Brown, Lea; Olsen, Carl Erik; Nielsen, Jens Kvist; Agerbirk, Niels (2011). "Polymorphism for Novel Tetraglycosylated Flavonols in an Eco-model Crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59 (13): 6947–56. doi:10.1021/jf200412c. PMID 21615154. 
  2. ^ Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl Erik (2011). "Isoferuloyl derivatives of five seed glucosinolates in the crucifer genus Barbarea". Phytochemistry 72 (7): 610–23. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.01.034. PMID 21354584. 
  3. ^ Agerbirk, Niels; Ørgaard, Marian; Nielsen, Jens Kvist (2003). "Glucosinolates, flea beetle resistance, and leaf pubescence as taxonomic characters in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae)". Phytochemistry 63 (1): 69–80. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00750-1. PMID 12657300. 
  4. ^ Kuzina, V.; Ekstrom, C. T.; Andersen, S. B.; Nielsen, J. K.; Olsen, C. E.; Bak, S. (2009). "Identification of Defense Compounds in Barbarea vulgaris against the Herbivore Phyllotreta nemorum by an Ecometabolomic Approach". Plant Physiology 151 (4): 1977–90. doi:10.1104/pp.109.136952. PMC 2785962. PMID 19819983. 
  5. ^ Kuzina, Vera; Nielsen, Jens Kvist; Augustin, Jörg Manfred; Torp, Anna Maria; Bak, Søren; Andersen, Sven Bode (2011). "Barbarea vulgaris linkage map and quantitative trait loci for saponins, glucosinolates, hairiness and resistance to the herbivore Phyllotreta nemorum". Phytochemistry 72 (2–3): 188–98. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.11.007. PMID 21130479. 
  6. ^ Nielsen, Nikoline J.; Nielsen, John; Staerk, Dan (2010). "New Resistance-Correlated Saponins from the Insect-Resistant CruciferBarbarea vulgaris". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58 (9): 5509–14. doi:10.1021/jf903988f. PMID 20387830. 
  7. ^ Shinoda, Tetsuro; Nagao, Tsuneatsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Serizawa, Hiroaki; Koshioka, Masaji; Okabe, Hikaru; Kawai, Akira (2002). "Identification of a triterpenoid saponin from a crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris, as a feeding deterrent to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella". Journal of Chemical Ecology 28 (3): 587–99. doi:10.1023/A:1014500330510. PMID 11944835. 
  8. ^ Shelton, A. M. and B. A. Nault (2004) "Dead-end trap cropping: a technique to improve management of the diamondback moth," Crop Protection 23: 497-503.
  • Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia – Edagricole – 1982, Vol. I, pag. 396
  • Tutin, T.G. et al. - Flora Europaea, second edition - 1993
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