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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Native of North America"
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Distribution

Range Description

B. vulgaris is native to much of Europe, as well as parts of temperate Asia and North Africa (Euro+Med PlantBase 2006). This species is known to be widespread throughout Slovakia, Romania, Czech Republic, Austria, Hungary, Serbia, France and the UK. According to Euro+Med PlantBase (2006), B. vulgaris ssp. arcuata is present in Norway, but its status is unknown. However, Atlas Florae Europaeae (Botanical Museum, Finnish Museum of Natural History 1999) records B. vulgaris as introduced to Norway. It is an archeophyte in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (J. Labokas pers. comm. 2010).
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Tamil Nadu: Nilgiri
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Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Jilin, Xinjiang [India, Japan, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Korea, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan; SW Asia, Europe; naturalized elsewhere].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs biennial or rarely perennial, glabrous throughout or sparsely hairy. Stems (20-)30-80(-100) cm tall, erect, angled, branched above. Basal and lowermost cauline leaves petiolate; petiole (0.5-)2-8(-12) cm, glabrous or ciliate; leaf blade (1-)2-8(-10) cm, lyrate-pinnatifid, with 1-3(-5) lobes on each side of midvein, rarely early ones undivided, sometimes slightly fleshy; lateral lobes oblong or ovate, 0.3-2(-4) cm × 1-8(-15) mm, entire, repand, crenate, or dentate; terminal lobe ovate or suborbicular, considerably larger than lateral ones, (0.7-)1.5-4.5(-7) × (0.4-)1-3(-5) cm. Upper cauline leaves ovate or suborbicular, undivided, coarsely dentate, sinuate, or rarely subentire, sessile, conspicuously auriculate; auricles ovate or narrowly oblong, to 10 × 5 mm, often ciliate. Racemes ebracteate, elongated considerably in fruit. Sepals yellow, oblong, 3-4 × 1-1.5 mm, erect, margin scarious, lateral pair slightly saccate. Petals yellow, spatulate, rounded, 5-6(-7) × 1.5-2 mm, attenuate to base. Filaments yellow, 3-4.5 mm; anthers oblong, 0.7-1.2 mm. Fruiting pedicels divaricate or erect-ascending, 3-7 mm, terete or subquadrangular, glabrous, narrower than fruit. Fruit linear, (0.7-)1.5-3 cm × 1-1.5 mm, terete, somewhat compressed, or 4-angled, torulose, erect to erect-ascending; gynophore to 0.5 mm; valves apex obtuse or subacute; style slender, 1.5-3 mm. Seeds dark brown, broadly ovate or subglobose, 1.2-1.5 × 1-1.2 mm, uniseriate, plump, wingless. Fl. and fr. Apr-Aug. 2n = 16.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Erect Herb
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Synonym

Barbarea arcuata (Opiz ex J. & C. Presl) Reichard; B. vulgaris var. arcuata (Opiz ex J. & C. Presl) Fries; Erysimum arcuatum Opiz ex J. & C. Presl; E. barbarea Linnaeus.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs in many habitats in Europe, often in damp ground and lowland areas including riverbanks, meadows, shingle and ditches, to more disturbed habitats such as roadside verges, arable land, wasteland and docklands (Polunin 1969, Rich 1991, Lafranchis and Sfikas 2009). It is found in siliceous, calcareous, sandy, alluvial and clay soils, avoiding highly acidic sites. It is known to require a degree of disturbance and therefore, is found in roadsides, hedges, ditches and waste places (Preston et al. 2002). In the Caucasus this species can be is found up to 2,500 m (Shetekauri and Jacoby 2009) and in Greece up to 2,000 m (Lafranchis and Sfikas 2009).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Along ditches, river banks, damp grasslands, waste places, roadsides, fields, disturbed sites; 700-4100 m.
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Yellow Rocket in Illinois

Barbarea vulgaris (Yellow Rocket) introduced
(information is limited primarily to Andrenid bees; some observations are from Hilty and Lewis as indicated below, otherwise observations are from Krombein et al.; bees suck nectar or collect pollen, while the butterfly sucks nectar)

Bees (short-tongued)
Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena arabis (Kr), Andrena ceanothi (Kr), Andrena erigeniae sn (Kr), Andrena forbesii (Kr), Andrena hippotes (Kr), Andrena imitatrix imitatrix (Kr), Andrena integra (Kr), Andrena miranda (Kr), Andrena nigrifrons (Kr), Andrena rugosa (Kr), Andrena sigmundi (Kr), Andrena spiraeana (Kr), Andrena ziziae (Kr)

Butterflies
Pieridae: Pieris rapae sn (H, Lw)
Insect activities:
sn = sucks nectar

Scientific observers:
(H) = John Hilty
(Lw) = Alcinda C. Lewis

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Flower-Visiting Insects of Yellow Rocket in Illinois

Barbarea vulgaris (Yellow Rocket) introduced
(information is limited primarily to Andrenid bees; some observations are from Hilty and Lewis as indicated below, otherwise observations are from Krombein et al.; bees suck nectar or collect pollen, while the butterfly sucks nectar)

Bees (short-tongued)
Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena arabis (Kr), Andrena ceanothi (Kr), Andrena erigeniae sn (Kr), Andrena forbesii (Kr), Andrena hippotes (Kr), Andrena imitatrix imitatrix (Kr), Andrena integra (Kr), Andrena miranda (Kr), Andrena nigrifrons (Kr), Andrena rugosa (Kr), Andrena sigmundi (Kr), Andrena spiraeana (Kr), Andrena ziziae (Kr)

Butterflies
Pieridae: Pieris rapae sn (H, Lw)

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe cruciferarum parasitises live Barbarea vulgaris

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Phaedon cochleariae grazes on live leaf of Barbarea vulgaris
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Ramularia hyphomycetous anamorph of Ramularia armoraciae causes spots on live leaf of Barbarea vulgaris
Other: major host/prey

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Barbarea vulgaris

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Barbarea vulgaris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 27
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Lansdown, R.V.

Reviewer/s
Smith, K.

Contributor/s
Hargreaves , S., Tavares, M., Smekalova, T., Buliska, Z., Magos Brehm, J., Korpelainen, H., Draper, D., Labokas, J., Strajeru, S. & Eli, P.

Justification

Barbarea vulgaris is native to north, central, east, southwestern and southeastern Europe, as well as parts of temperate Asia and North Africa, and is widespread throughout much of its range. As there is a lack of major threats to this species and it is able to grow in a wide variety of habitats, including disturbed anthropogenic sites, it is assessed as Least Concern.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Population

Population

This species is widespread and abundant throughout its known range. There is no detailed information available on population size.


Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats

There are no known past, ongoing, or future threats to this species

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The genus Barbarea is listed in Annex I of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture as part of the brassica complex.

B. vulgaris ssp. lepuznica is listed as Critically Endangered in the Red Data Book of the Flora of Serbia (Stevanovi 1999).

As it is a widespread species it occurs in protected areas all over Europe. It is recommended that the monitoring and management of this species is incorporated into the existing management plans of these sites.

EURISCO reports 47 germplasm accessions of B. vulgaris held in European genebanks, 32 of which are reported to be of wild or weedy origin. Of the wild accessions, 21 originate from within Europe. The majority of European accessions originate from Germany (16) and the five other wild accessions originate from Austria (one), Belgium (one), Norway (one), Spain (one) and the UK (one) (EURISCO Catalogue 2010).
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Wikipedia

Barbarea vulgaris

Barbarea vulgaris, also called as bittercress, herb barbara, rocketcress, yellow rocketcress, winter rocket, and wound rocket, is a biennial herb of the genus Barbarea, belonging to the family Brassicaceae.

Contents

Etymology

The genus name Barbarea derives from Saint Barbara, the patron saint of artillerymen and miners, as this plant in the past was used to soothe the wounds caused by explosions. The species Latin name vulgaris means “common”.

Description

Close-up on flowers of Barbarea vulgaris

This plant grows to about 30–60 centimetres (12–24 in) of height, with a maximum of 1 metre (3 ft 3 in). The stem is ribbed and hairless, branched at the base. It has a basal rosettes of shiny, dark green leaves. The basal leaves are stalked and lyre-pinnatifid, that is with a large terminal lobe and smaller lower lobes. The cauline leaves are smaller, ovate, toothed or lobed. The flowers are borne in spring in dense terminal clusters above the foliage. They are 7–9 millimetres (0.28–0.35 in) long, with four bright yellow petals.The flowering period extends from about April through July. The fruit is a pod of about 15–30 millimetres (0.59–1.2 in).

Characteristics

Chemical substances in this species include saponins, flavonoids,[1] and glucosinolates.[2][3]

Natural insect resistance and its potential use in agriculture

Most Barbarea vulgaris genotypes are naturally resistant to some insect species that are otherwise specialized on the crucifer family. In the case of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum, the resistance is caused by saponins.[4][5][6][7] Glucosinolates such as glucobarbarin and glucobrassicin are used as a cue for egg-laying by female cabbage white butterflies such as Pieris rapae. Indeed, the larvae of this butterfly thrive well on this plant. Diamond back moth females are also stimulated by these chemicals, but the larvae die due to the content of saponins which are apparently not sensed by the moths. This phenomenon has been tested for biological insect control: B. vulgaris plants are placed in a field and attract much of the diamondback moth egg load. As the larvae die shortly after hatching, this kind of insect control has been named "dead-end trap cropping".[8]

Distribution

Native to Eurasia it is naturalised in many parts of North America as a weed.

Habitat

The plant prefers fresh or moist places, on roadsides, along rivers, or on the slopes and in ditches, at an altitude of 0–1,600 metres (0–5,200 ft) above sea level.

Natural chemotypes with distinct ecology

A pubescent type (the "P-type") has been described from S. Scandinavia. This type has atypical chemistry and is devoid of resistance to the diamondback moth and the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum. The P-type belongs morphologically to the variety B. vulgaris var. arcuata, but may also be identical to the subspecies originally described as Barbaraea Beck arcuata Rchb. ssp. pubescens N. Busch. In this context, the usual type of B. vulgaris var. arcuata is called the "G-type" (for Glabrous (hairless) leaves).

A chemotype with deviating glucosinolate content has been described from W. Europe and named the "NAS-type" (because it is dominated by the glucosinolate glucoNASturtiin. This type has increased resistance to some specialized insects. In this context, the usual chemotype of B. vulgaris is called the "BAR" type (because it is dominated by glucoBARbarin).

Subspecies

  • Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata (Opiz ex J. Presl & C. Presl) Fr.
  • Barbarea vulgaris var. brachycarpa Rouy & Foucaud
  • Barbarea vulgaris var. longisiliquosa Carion
  • Barbarea vulgaris var. sylvestris Fr.

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Dalby-Brown, Lea; Olsen, Carl Erik; Nielsen, Jens Kvist; Agerbirk, Niels (2011). "Polymorphism for Novel Tetraglycosylated Flavonols in an Eco-model Crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59 (13): 6947–56. doi:10.1021/jf200412c. PMID 21615154. 
  2. ^ Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl Erik (2011). "Isoferuloyl derivatives of five seed glucosinolates in the crucifer genus Barbarea". Phytochemistry 72 (7): 610–23. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.01.034. PMID 21354584. 
  3. ^ Agerbirk, Niels; Ørgaard, Marian; Nielsen, Jens Kvist (2003). "Glucosinolates, flea beetle resistance, and leaf pubescence as taxonomic characters in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae)". Phytochemistry 63 (1): 69–80. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00750-1. PMID 12657300. 
  4. ^ Kuzina, V.; Ekstrom, C. T.; Andersen, S. B.; Nielsen, J. K.; Olsen, C. E.; Bak, S. (2009). "Identification of Defense Compounds in Barbarea vulgaris against the Herbivore Phyllotreta nemorum by an Ecometabolomic Approach". Plant Physiology 151 (4): 1977–90. doi:10.1104/pp.109.136952. PMC 2785962. PMID 19819983. 
  5. ^ Kuzina, Vera; Nielsen, Jens Kvist; Augustin, Jörg Manfred; Torp, Anna Maria; Bak, Søren; Andersen, Sven Bode (2011). "Barbarea vulgaris linkage map and quantitative trait loci for saponins, glucosinolates, hairiness and resistance to the herbivore Phyllotreta nemorum". Phytochemistry 72 (2–3): 188–98. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.11.007. PMID 21130479. 
  6. ^ Nielsen, Nikoline J.; Nielsen, John; Staerk, Dan (2010). "New Resistance-Correlated Saponins from the Insect-Resistant CruciferBarbarea vulgaris". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58 (9): 5509–14. doi:10.1021/jf903988f. PMID 20387830. 
  7. ^ Shinoda, Tetsuro; Nagao, Tsuneatsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Serizawa, Hiroaki; Koshioka, Masaji; Okabe, Hikaru; Kawai, Akira (2002). "Identification of a triterpenoid saponin from a crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris, as a feeding deterrent to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella". Journal of Chemical Ecology 28 (3): 587–99. doi:10.1023/A:1014500330510. PMID 11944835. 
  8. ^ Shelton, A. M. and B. A. Nault (2004) "Dead-end trap cropping: a technique to improve management of the diamondback moth," Crop Protection 23: 497-503.
  • Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia – Edagricole – 1982, Vol. I, pag. 396
  • Tutin, T.G. et al. - Flora Europaea, second edition - 1993
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