Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Gansu, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Taiwan, Xinjiang [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia; North America].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs biennial or perennial, (10-)20-60(-100) cm tall. Stems erect, angled, glabrous throughout. Basal and lowermost cauline leaves petiolate; petiole (0.5-)1-5(-7) cm, glabrous or rarely ciliate basally; leaf blade (1-)1.5-4(-6) cm, lyrate-pinnatifid, with (1 or)2-4(-6) lobes on each side of rachis, rarely unlobed, not fleshy; lateral lobes oblong or ovate, 2-10 × 1-5 mm, entire; terminal lobe considerably larger than lateral ones, 1.5-5 × 1-2.5 cm. Cauline leaves usually lyrate-pinnatifid, with 1-4 lateral lobes, rarely coarsely toothed, sessile, conspicuously auriculate; auricles ovate or narrowly oblong, to 8 × 5 mm, ciliate, entire; lateral lobes oblong or ovate, rarely lanceolate, to 2 × 1 cm, glabrous, entire; terminal lobe much larger than lateral ones, to 5 × 3 cm, entire, repand, or rarely dentate. Racemes ebracteate, elongated considerably in fruit. Sepals yellow, oblong, 2.5-3.5 × 1-1.5 mm, erect, margin scarious, lateral pair slightly saccate. Petals yellow or pale yellow, oblanceolate, rounded, (3-)4-5(-6) × 1.5-2 mm, attenuate to base. Filaments yellow, 3-4.5 mm; anthers oblong, ca. 1 mm. Fruiting pedicels erect or ascending, (2-)3-6(-7) mm, terete or subquadrangular, glabrous, stout, slightly narrower than fruit. Fruit linear, (1.5-) 2-4(-5) cm × 1.2-1.5 mm, terete-subquadrangular, torulose, erect to erect-ascending; gynophore to 0.3 mm; valves apex obtuse to subacute; style stout, 0.5-1(-1.2) mm. Seeds brown, ovate or oblong, 1.2-1.5 × 0.9-1 mm, uniseriate, somewhat plump, wingless. Fl. Jun-Jul, fr. Aug-Sep. 2n = 16.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Barbarea americana Rydberg; B. cochlearifolia H. Boissieu; B. hondoensis Nakai; B. orthoceras var. formosana Kitamura; B. patens H. Boissieu; B. vulgaris R. Brown var. orthoceras (Ledebour) Regel.
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Type Information

Isotype for Barbarea orthoceras var. dolichocarpa Fernald
Catalog Number: US 3848
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): W. N. Suksdorf
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Banks of Columbia River., Klickitat, Washington, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Fernald, M. L. 1909. Rhodora. 11: 140.
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Ecology

Habitat

Open grasslands, scree, temperate mixed forests, river and streamsides, moist grassy slopes; 400-2100 m.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Barbarea orthoceras

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Barbarea orthoceras

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Barbarea orthoceras

Barbarea orthoceras is a species of flowering plant in the mustard family known by the common name American yellowrocket. It is native to North America, including much of Canada and the western United States, as well as parts of Asia. It grows in moist areas such as meadows and riverbanks. This is a perennial herb producing a stiff, branching stem to heights between 10 and 60 centimeters. The leaves are a few centimeters long and generally oval in shape with several rounded lobes toward the end. The inflorescence is a spike or cluster of bright yellow flowers at the tip of each stem branch. The fruit is a straight, narrow silique up to 5 centimeters long.

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