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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution in Egypt

Nile and Mediterranean region.

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Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Global Distribution

North Africa, Europe, Southwest and Central Asia.

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Distribution: Europe, N. Africa, S.W. Asia. Introduced elsewhere.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annual, with a slender (not tuberous) tap root, erect, simple or branched, 20-60 cm tall, roughly hispid below and somewhat glaucous above. Lower leaves lyrate-pinnatifid, 1-4 jugate, with a large rounded terminal lobe; upper leaves smaller, oblong, pinnately lobed or toothed. Racemes and flowers ± similar to the following species. Siliquae (15-) 20-60 mm long, 3-5(-7) mm broad, ± constricted between 3-8 seeds and ending into a slender beak; valves firm and readily breaking into 1-seeded parts; seeds ovoid or spherical, 1.5-2.5 mm in diam.
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Description

Herbs annual, (20-)25-60(-75) cm tall, often hispid. Roots not fleshy. Stems erect or prostrate, usually retrorsely hispid. Basal leaves with petioles 1-6 cm; leaf blade oblong, obovate, or oblanceolate in outline, 3-15(-22) × 1-5 cm, lyrate or pinnatifid, sometimes undivided, margin dentate, apex obtuse or acute; lateral lobes 1-4 on each side of midvein, oblong or ovate, to 4 × 2 cm, smaller than terminal lobe. Uppermost cauline leaves subsessile, often undivided, dentate. Fruiting pedicels divaricate or ascending, straight, 0.7-2.5 cm. Sepals narrowly oblong, 7-11 × 1-2 mm, sparsely pubescent. Petals yellow or creamy white, with dark brown or purple veins, broadly obovate, 1.5-2.5 cm × 4-7 mm, apex obtuse or emarginate; claw to 1.5 cm. Filaments slender, 7-12 mm; anthers 2-2.5 mm, sagittate at base. Fruit cylindric or narrowly lanceolate; valvular segment seedless, 1-1.5 mm; seed-bearing distal segment (1.5-)2-11(-14) cm × (2.5-)3-8(-11) mm, woody or corky, rounded at base, conical at apex, strongly constricted between seeds, strongly ribbed; style 1-5 cm; stigma entire. Seeds oblong or ovoid, 2.5-3.5 × 1.8-2.5 mm. Fl. May-Sep, fr. Jun-Oct. 2n = 18.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Roadsides, fields, waste areas. Qinghai, Sichuan, Taiwan [native to SW Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean region; naturalized elsewhere].
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Associations

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Elinora dominiquei grazes on leaf of Raphanus raphanistrum

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Elinora flaveola grazes on leaf of Raphanus raphanistrum

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Eurydema oleracea sucks sap of Raphanus raphanistrum

Foodplant / pathogen
Leptosphaeria maculans infects and damages live Raphanus raphanistrum

Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Pseudocercosporella anamorph of Mycosphaerella capsellae causes spots on live leaf of Raphanus raphanistrum

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
colony of sporangium of Peronospora parasitica parasitises live Raphanus raphanistrum
Remarks: season: 1-4

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Ramularia hyphomycetous anamorph of Ramularia armoraciae causes spots on live leaf of Raphanus raphanistrum

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: Jan.-April.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Raphanus raphanistrum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Raphanus raphanistrum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 13
Specimens with Barcodes: 26
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Raphanus raphanistrum L.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Raphanus raphanistrum

Raphanus raphanistrum, wild radish or jointed charlock, is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae. It is sometimes claimed to be the ancestor of the edible radish, Raphanus sativus. Native to Asia (or, according to some authorities, the Mediterranean), it has been introduced into most parts of the world, and is regarded as a damagingly invasive species in many, for example Australia. It spreads rapidly, and is often found growing on roadsides or in other places where the ground has been disturbed.

In southeastern USA, the pale yellow form is common, sometimes entirely taking over fields in wintertime. It is often erroneously identified as mustard. It is a significant source of pollen and nectar for a variety of pollinators, especially honey bees during the very early spring starting buildup.

Wild radish grows as an annual or biennial plant, with attractive four-petalled flowers 15-20 mm across and varying in colour, usually from white to purple but sometimes light orange to yellow, often with colour shading within a single petal. It is frost hardy, and even hard freezes only temporarily interrupt bloom. It blooms in early spring to late summer with flowers very similar to those of the searocket, which is found in some of the same regions and is easily distinguished from it by having thinner, non-succulent stems and leaves. It has a single taproot which is similar to that of the cultivated radish but less enlarged.

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Notes

Comments

The ‘wild radish’ is perhaps, not wild anywhere within our area, but found as weed or sometimes cultivated for green fodder or ornamental purposes. Its subsp. rostratus (DC) Thell. (R. rostratus DC., Syst. Nat. 2:666.1821) with long beaked fruits, may also be found cultivated, but should not be confused with the var. caudatus of the following species.
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