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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Cultivated
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Description

This introduced annual or biennial plant consists of a rosette of leaves; somewhat later, it bolts and produces flowering stems up to 2½' tall. The basal leaves are up to 7" long and 2½" across; they are oblanceolate, coarsely crenate, and pinnately lobed. These lobes may be shallow or deep; the terminal lobe is always the largest. The surface of the basal leaves is usually rough from stiff hairs. The central stem is often reddish at the base, but light green elsewhere; it is either glabrous or covered with scattered stiff hairs. The upper side stems are very similar, except that there is often a red ring where they branch from the central stem. The alternate leaves on the stems are similar in appearance to the basal leaves, except that they are smaller, less likely to be deeply lobed, and narrowly ovate in shape.  The central and upper stems terminate in racemes of flowers. Each flower is about 1/3" across, consisting of 4 pink or light purple petals, 4 light green sepals that are linear-oblong, a central pistil, and several stamens with yellow anthers. The blooming period occurs during the summer and lasts about 1–1½ months. Each flower is replaced by a silique that contains 2-3 seeds. This silique is rather short and spongy, but it has a long beak. There is very little constriction between the seeds, if any. The seeds are oval-shaped, slightly flattened, and reddish brown. The root system consists of a stout taproot that is somewhat fleshy. It is often reddish, but other color forms occur. This plant spreads by reseeding itself.
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Comments

This familiar vegetable is eaten primarily for its fleshy taproot, which has a peppery flavor. The foliage can be eaten as well, but it is somewhat coarse. Many different cultivars have been developed, and escaped plants may vary somewhat in the appearance of their foliage and taproots. Another species, Raphanus raphanistrum (Wild Radish), has a similar appearance to Garden Radish. However, Wild Radish has yellow flowers and its siliques have 4-10 seeds. The siliques of Wild Radish become constricted between the seeds with maturity, and they tend to be a little longer and more slender than the siliques of Garden Radish.
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Derivation of specific name

sativus: cultivated, not wild
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Distribution

Maharashtra: Kolhapur
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Raphanus sativus L.:
Argentina (South America)
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Brazil (South America)
Canada (North America)
Chile (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Ecuador (South America)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)
Peru (South America)
United States (North America)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)
Greenland (North America)
Gabon (Africa & Madagascar)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
China (Asia)
Bolivia (South America)
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs annual or biennial, 10-130 cm tall, glabrous, scabrous, or hispid. Roots fleshy, white, pink, red, or black, linear, fusiform, oblong, or globose, 1-100 × 0.5-45 cm, sometimes slender and not fleshy. Stems simple or branched. Basal leaves with petioles 1-30 cm; leaf blade oblong, obovate, oblanceolate, or spatulate in outline, 2-60 × 1-20 cm, lyrate or pinnatisect, sometimes undivided, margin dentate, apex obtuse or acute; lateral lobes 1-12 on each side of midvein, sometimes absent, oblong or ovate, to 10 × 5 cm. Uppermost cauline leaves subsessile, often undivided, dentate. Fruiting pedicels divaricate or ascending, straight, 0.5-4 cm. Sepals narrowly oblong, 5.5-10 × 1-2 mm, glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Petals purple, pink, or sometimes white, often with darker veins, broadly obovate, 1.2-2.2 cm × 3-8 mm, apex obtuse or emarginate; claw to 1.4 cm. Filaments slender, 5-12 mm; anthers 1.5-2 mm, sagittate at base. Fruit fusiform or lanceolate, sometimes ovoid or cylindric; seedless valvular segment 1-3.5 mm; seed-bearing distal segment (1-)3-15(-25) × (0.5-)0.7-1.3(-1.5) cm, corky, rounded at base, conical at apex, smooth or rarely slightly constricted between seeds, not ribbed; style 1-4 cm; stigma entire. Seeds globose or ovoid, 2.5-4 mm in diam. Fl. and fr. depending on cultivation time. 2n = 18*.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Synonym

Raphanus acanthiformis J. M. Morel; R. chinensis Miller (1768), not (Linnaeus) Crantz (1769); R. macropodus H. Léveillé; R. niger Miller; R. raphanistroides (Makino) Nakai; R. raphanistrum Linnaeus var. sativus (Linnaeus) Domin; R. sativus var. macropodus (H. Léveillé) Makino; R. sativus f. raphanistroides Makino; R. sativus var. raphanistroides (Makino) Makino; R. taquetii H. Léveillé.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Fields, roadsides, waste areas. Throughout China [native to the Mediterranean region; cultivated worldwide].
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Associations

Faunal Associations

The flowers attract small bees, flower flies, and White butterflies, including Pieris rapae (Cabbage White) and Pontia protodice (Checkered White). The caterpillars of these butterflies may feed on the foliage, although other members of the Mustard family with smoother leaves appear to be preferred. Rabbits occasionally eat the basal leaves and lower leaves of the flowering stems. Photographic Location
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Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Alternaria dematiaceous anamorph of Alternaria brassicicola causes spots on live leaf of Raphanus sativus
Other: unusual host/prey

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Alternaria dematiaceous anamorph of Alternaria raphani causes spots on live leaf of Raphanus sativus

Foodplant / open feeder
gregarious larva of Athalia rosae grazes on leaf (underside) of Raphanus sativus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Delia radicum feeds within live root of Raphanus sativus

Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe cruciferarum parasitises live Raphanus sativus

Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Pseudocercosporella anamorph of Mycosphaerella capsellae causes spots on live leaf of Raphanus sativus

Foodplant / parasite
colony of sporangium of Peronospora parasitica parasitises live Raphanus sativus
Remarks: season: 1-4
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
Radish Mosaic virus causes spots on live, crinkled leaf of Raphanus sativus

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Streptomyces infects and damages live twig of Raphanus sativus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Raphanus sativus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Raphanus sativus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Raphanus sativus L.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun and moist to mesic soil that is fertile and loamy. The Garden Radish also does well in slightly sandy soil if it is sufficiently moist and fertile. It develops rapidly from seed during the spring and bolts during hot summer weather. The leaves often have holes from various insect pests. Range & Habitat
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Wikipedia

Radish

The radish (Raphanus sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre-Roman times.[1] They are grown and consumed throughout the world. Radishes have numerous varieties, varying in size, color and duration of required cultivation time. There are some radishes that are grown for their seeds; oilseed radishes are grown, as the name implies, for oil production. Radish can sprout from seed to small plant in as little as 3 days.

The descriptive Greek name of the genus Raphanus (ῥάφανος) means "quickly appearing" and refers to the rapid germination of these plants. Raphanistrum, from the same Greek root, is an old name once used for this genus. The common name "radish" is derived from Latin radix (root).

History[edit]

Although the radish was a well-established crop in Hellenistic and Roman times, which leads to the assumption that it was brought into cultivation at an earlier time, Zohary and Hopf note that "there are almost no archeological records available" to help determine its earlier history and domestication. Wild forms of the radish and its relatives, the mustards and turnip, can be found over western Asia and Europe, suggesting that their domestication took place somewhere in that area. However Zohary and Hopf conclude, "Suggestions as to the origins of these plants are necessarily based on linguistic considerations."[2]

Description of the Radish Plant[edit]

Radishes are round to cylindrical with a color ranging from white to red. A longer root form, ideal for cooking, grows up to 15 cm (6 in) long, while the smaller, rounder form is typically eaten raw in salads. The flesh initially tastes sweet, but becomes bitter if the vegetable is left in the ground for too long.[3] Leaves are arranged in a rosette, with sizes ranging from 10–15 cm (4–6 in) in small cultivars, to up to 45 cm (18 in) in large cultivars. They have a lyrate shape, meaning they are divided pinnately with an enlarged terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes. The white flowers are borne on a racemose inflorescence.[4]

The radish is a diploid species, and has 18 chromosomes (2n=18).[5]

Cultivation[edit]

Growing radish plants

Radishes grow best in full sun[6] and light, sandy loams with pH 6.5–7.0.[7] They are in season from April to June and from October to January in most parts of North America; in Europe and Japan they are available year-round due to the plurality of varieties grown.[citation needed]

Summer radishes mature rapidly, with many varieties germinating in 3–7 days, and reaching maturity in three to four weeks.[8][9] Harvesting periods can be extended through repeated plantings, spaced a week or two apart.[10]

As with other root crops, tilling the soil to loosen it up and remove rocks helps the roots grow.[10] However, radishes are used in no-till farming to help reverse compaction.

Most soil types will work, though sandy loams are particularly good for winter and spring crops, while soils that form a hard crust can impair growth.[10] The depth at which seeds are planted affects the size of the root, from 1 cm (0.4 in) deep recommended for small radishes to 4 cm (1.6 in) for large radishes.[9]

Radishes are a common garden crop in the U.S., and the fast harvest cycle makes them a popular choice for children's gardens.[8]

In temperate climates, it is customary to plant radishes every two weeks from early spring until a few weeks before the first frost, except during periods of hot weather. In warm-weather climates, they are normally planted in the fall.

After harvest, radishes can be stored without loss of quality for two or three days at room temperature, and about two months at 0 °C (32 °F) with a relative humidity of 90–95%.[4]

Companion plant[edit]

Radishes serve as companion plants for many other species, because of their ability to function as a trap crop against pests like flea beetles. These pests will attack the leaves, but the root remains healthy and can be harvested later.

Pests[edit]

Although often unintentionally introduced, the larvae of Pieris rapae, the small white butterfly is known to pest on the leaves of the radish.

Varieties[edit]

Broadly speaking, radishes can be categorized into four main types (summer, fall, winter, and spring) and a variety of shapes lengths, colors, and sizes, such as red, pink, white, gray-black or yellow radishes, with round or elongated roots that can grow longer than a parsnip.

Spring or summer radishes[edit]

European radishes (Raphanus Sativus)
Germinating radishes, 10 days old

Sometimes referred to as European radishes or spring radishes if they are planted in cooler weather, summer radishes are generally small and have a relatively short 3–4 week cultivation time.[citation needed]

  • The April Cross is a giant white radish hybrid that bolts very slowly.
  • Bunny Tail is an heirloom variety from Italy, where it is known as 'Rosso Tondo A Piccola Punta Bianca'. It is slightly oblong, mostly red, with a white tip.
  • Cherry Belle is a bright red-skinned round variety with a white interior.[8] It is familiar in North American supermarkets.
  • Champion is round and red-skinned like the Cherry Belle, but with slightly larger roots, up to about 5 cm (2 in), and a milder flavor.[8]
  • Red King has a mild flavor, with good resistance to club root, a problem that can arise from poor drainage.[8]
  • Sicily Giant is a large heirloom variety from Sicily. It can reach up to two inches in diameter.
  • Snow Belle is an all-white variety of radish, similar in shape to the Cherry Belle.[8]
  • White Icicle or just Icicle is a white carrot-shaped variety, around 10–12 cm (4–5 in) long, dating back to the 16th century. It slices easily, and has better than average resistance to pithiness.[8][9]
  • French Breakfast is an elongated red-skinned radish with a white splash at the root end. It is typically slightly milder than other summer varieties, but is among the quickest to turn pithy.[9]
  • Plum Purple a purple-fuchsia radish that tends to stay crisp longer than average.[9]
  • Gala and Roodbol are two varieties popular in the Netherlands in a breakfast dish, thinly sliced on buttered bread.[8]
  • Easter Egg is not an actual variety, but a mix of varieties with different skin colors,[9] typically including white, pink, red, and purple radishes. Sold in markets or seed packets under the name, the seed mixes can extend harvesting duration from a single planting, as different varieties may mature at different times.[9]

Winter varieties[edit]

Daikon

Black Spanish or Black Spanish Round occur in both round and elongated forms, and are sometimes simply called the black radish or known by the French name Gros Noir d'Hiver. It dates in Europe to 1548,[11] and was a common garden variety in England and France during the early 19th century.[12] It has a rough black skin with hot-flavored white flesh, is round or irregularly pear shaped,[13] and grows to around 10 cm (4 in) in diameter.

Daikon refers to a wide variety of winter radishes from Asia. While the Japanese name daikon has been adopted in English, it is also sometimes called the Japanese radish, Chinese radish, Oriental radish or mooli (in India and South Asia).[14] Daikon commonly have elongated white roots, although many varieties of daikon exist. One well known variety is April Cross, with smooth white roots.[8][9] The New York Times describes Masato Red and Masato Green varieties as extremely long, well suited for fall planting and winter storage.[8] The Sakurajima daikon is a hot-flavored variety which is typically grown to around 10 kg (22 lb), but which can grow to 30 kg (66 lb) when left in the ground.[8][15]

Seed pod varieties[edit]

Radish fruits, also called pods
Radish seeds

The seeds of radishes grow in siliques (widely referred to as "pods"), following flowering that happens when left to grow past their normal harvesting period. The seeds are edible, and are sometimes used as a crunchy, spicy addition to salads.[9] Some varieties are grown specifically for their seeds or seed pods, rather than their roots. The Rat-tailed radish, an old European variety thought to have come from East Asia centuries ago, has long, thin, curly pods which can exceed 20 cm (8 in) in length. In the 17th century, the pods were often pickled and served with meat.[9] The München Bier variety supplies spicy seed pods that are sometimes served raw as an accompaniment to beer in Germany.[16]

Nutritional value[edit]

Radishes, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy66 kJ (16 kcal)
Carbohydrates3.4 g
- Sugars1.86 g
- Dietary fiber1.6 g
Fat0.1 g
Protein0.68 g
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.012 mg (1%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.039 mg (3%)
Niacin (vit. B3)0.254 mg (2%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.165 mg (3%)
Vitamin B60.071 mg (5%)
Folate (vit. B9)25 μg (6%)
Vitamin C14.8 mg (18%)
Calcium25 mg (3%)
Iron0.34 mg (3%)
Magnesium10 mg (3%)
Manganese0.069 mg (3%)
Phosphorus20 mg (3%)
Potassium233 mg (5%)
Zinc0.28 mg (3%)
Fluoride6 µg
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Radishes are rich in ascorbic acid, folic acid, and potassium. They are a good source of vitamin B6, riboflavin, magnesium, copper, and calcium. One cup of sliced red radish bulbs provides approximately 20 cal, largely from carbohydrates.[17]

Uses[edit]

Cooking[edit]

Ginisang Radish Labanos with ground beef (La Familia, Baliuag, Bulacan).

The most commonly eaten portion is the napiform taproot, although the entire plant is edible and the tops can be used as a leaf vegetable. It can also be eaten as a sprout.[18]

The bulb of the radish is usually eaten raw, although tougher specimens can be steamed. The raw flesh has a crisp texture and a pungent, peppery flavor, caused by glucosinolates and the enzyme myrosinase which combine when chewed to form allyl isothiocyanates, also present in mustard, horseradish, and wasabi.[19]

Radish leaves are sometimes used in recipes, like potato soup or as a sauteed side dish. They are also found to benefit homemade juices; some recipes even calling for them in fruit-based mixtures.

Radishes may be used in salads,[20] as well as in many European dishes.

Industry[edit]

The seeds of the Raphanus sativus species can be pressed to extract seed oil. Wild radish seeds contain up to 48% oil content, and while not suitable for human consumption the oil is a potential source of biofuel.[21] The oilseed radish grows well in cool climates.[22]

Culture[edit]

Citizens of Oaxaca, Mexico, celebrate the radish in a festival called Noche de los Rábanos (Night of the Radishes) on December 23 as a part of Christmas celebrations. Locals carve religious and popular figures out of radishes and display them in the town square.[23]

Production trends[edit]

About seven million tons of radish are produced yearly, representing roughly two percent of the global vegetable production.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lewis-Jones, L.J.; Thorpe, J.P.; Wallis, G.P. (1982). "Genetic divergence in four species of the genus Raphanus: Implications for the ancestry of the domestic radish R. sativus". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 18 (1): 35–48. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1982.tb02032.x. 
  2. ^ Zohary, Daniel; Hopf, Maria (2000). Domestication of plants in the Old World (3rd ed.). Oxford: University Press. p. 139. 
  3. ^ Vegetable Gardening: Growing and Harvesting Vegetables. Murdoch Books. 2004. p. 242. ISBN 978-1-74045-519-0. 
  4. ^ a b Gopalakrishnan, T.P. (2007). Vegetable Crops. New India Publishing. pp. 244–247. ISBN 978-81-89422-41-7. 
  5. ^ Dixon (2007), p. 35.
  6. ^ Cornell University. Growing Guide: Radishes
  7. ^ Dainello, Frank J. (November 2003.) "Radish Crop Guide" Texas Cooperative Extension, Horticulture Crop Guides Series
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Faust, Joan Lee. (1996-03-03.) "Hail the Speedy Radish, in All Its Forms." The New York Times, via nytimes.com archives. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Peterson, Cass. (1999-05-02.) "Radishes: Easy to Sprout, Hard to Grow Right." The New York Times, via nytimes.com archives. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  10. ^ a b c Beattie, J. H. and W. R. Beattie. (March 1938.) "Production of Radishes." U.S. Department of Agriculture, leaflet no. 57, via University of North Texas Government Documents A to Z Digitization Project website. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  11. ^ Aiton, William Townsend. (1812.) "Hortus Kewensis; Or, A Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, Second Edition, Vol. IV" Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown: London. Page 129.
  12. ^ Lindley, George. (1831.) "A Guide to the Orchard and Kitchen Garden: Or, an Account of the Most Valuable Fruit and Vegetables Cultivated in Great Britain." Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green: London.
  13. ^ McIntosh, Charles. (1828.) "The Practical Gardener, and Modern Horticulturist." Thomas Kelly: London. Page 288.
  14. ^ (2004.) "Daikon." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, via dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. **McAffee warns that this site attempted to exploit a browser vulnerability.
  15. ^ (2002-02-10.) "29 kg radish wins contest." Kyodo World News Service, via highbeam.com (fee for full access.) Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
  16. ^ Williams, Sally (2004) "With Some Radishes, It's About The Pods", Kitchen Gardners International. Retrieved on June 21, 2008.
  17. ^ "Radishes, raw". nutriondata.self.com. Retrieved 2013-06-24. 
  18. ^ sprout "Sprouts". 
  19. ^ Cruciferous Vegetables, Isothiocyanates and Indoles. IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention 9. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2004. p. 13. ISBN 978-92-832-3009-0. 
  20. ^ Radish Chefs. "Radish Recipes". Radish Recipe Book. Retrieved 2011-09-03. 
  21. ^ "Plant Oils as Fuel: Radish oil". 
  22. ^ "Oilseed radish". 
  23. ^ "Christmas in Oaxaca". 
  24. ^ Dixon (2007), p. 33.

Cited literature[edit]

  • Dixon, Geoffrey R. (2007). Vegetable Brassicas and Related Crucifers. Crop Production Science in Horticulture. Volume 14. CAB International. ISBN 978-0-85199-395-9. 
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Daikon

Daikon, mooli, or white radish (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus, also known by other names) is a mild-flavoured, very large, white East Asian radish with a wide variety of culinary uses. Despite often being associated with Japan, it was originally cultivated in continental Asia.[2]

Names[edit]

English[edit]

White radishes are known by several names in English,[3][4] most commonly daikon.[5] Other names include mooli, Oriental radish,[6][7] Japanese radish, Chinese radish, Korean radish, and lo bok. In many cases, several terms will coexist in the same locale, referring to different white radish varieties.

The English name "daikon" derives from the Japanese daikon (大根), literally "large root" (usually rendered in Katakana as ダイコン) and is the most common name for the vegetable in North America. However, the greener, rounder Korean varieties are rarely called daikon and are instead usually referred to as "Korean radish". Likewise, Chinese varieties are sometimes called "lo-bok" or "lo-bak" derived from the Cantonese lòhbaahk (蘿蔔).

In the United Kingdom with its stronger South Asian influence, the name "mooli",[8] from Hindi mūlī (मूली), is used in addition to daikon.[9]

The name "chai tow" or "chai tau", from Hokkien chhài-thâu (菜頭), is sometimes used in Singaporean and Malaysian English for the vegetable. Sometimes the Hokkien-derived term is back-translated as "carrot" because the word chai tow can also refer to a carrot (POJ: âng-chhài-thâu; literally "red radish"). This misnomer gave the title to a popular guidebook on Singapore's street food, There's No Carrot in Carrot Cake, which refers to chai tow kway, a savoury cake made of white radish.[10]

Other languages[edit]

A Chinese radish, looking upwards from the base of the plant

As in English, terms in other languages often refer to different white radish varieties and in many cases are simply a generic term for "radish".

White radish is called mūlī in Hindi (मूली) and Urdu (مولی), mu (무) in Korean, labanos in Tagalog, daigo in Chamorro, lobak or lobak daikon in Malay and Indonesian, retikka in Finnish, and củ cải trắng in Vietnamese.[11]

In Chinese languages, the vegetable is known as bái luóbó (白蘿蔔, lit. "white radish") in Mandarin Chinese, lòhbaahk (蘿蔔) in Cantonese, and chhài-thâu (菜頭, lit. "vegetable head") in Hokkien/Taiwanese.

Varieties[edit]

Sakurajima daikon

Although there are many varieties of daikon, the most common in Japan, the aokubi-daikon, has the shape of a giant carrot, approximately 20 to 35 cm (8 to 14 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in) in diameter. One of the most unusually shaped varieties of daikon cultivated in Kagoshima Prefecture is the turnip-shaped sakurajima daikon, which often grows as large as 50 cm (20 in) in diameter and weighs as much as 45 kg (100 lb).[12] The flavour is generally rather mild compared to smaller radishes.

Korean varieties are larger and rounder than the typical long, thin Japanese types[13] and are often spicier.

Culture[edit]

The variety "Long White Icicle" is available as seed in Britain, and will grow very successfully in Southern England, producing roots resembling a parsnip by midsummer in good garden soil in an average year.[citation needed]

The Chinese radish or mooli tolerates higher temperatures than Japanese daikon, it grows well at lower elevations in East Africa. It is best if there is plenty of moisture and it can grow fast, otherwise it tastes too strong and its flesh is tough.[14]

The roots can be stored for some weeks without the leaves if lifted and kept in a cool dry place. If left in the ground, the texture tends to become woody, but the storage life of untreated whole roots is not long.[clarification needed]

Culinary use[edit]

Korean-style kkakdugi kimchi

In Japanese cuisine, many types of pickles are made with daikon, including takuan and bettarazuke. Daikon is also frequently used grated and mixed into ponzu, a soy sauce and citrus juice condiment. Simmered dishes are also popular such as oden. Daikon that has been shredded and dried (a common method of preserving food in Japan) is called kiriboshi-daikon (literally, "cut-dried daikon"). Daikon radish sprouts (kaiware-daikon) are used for salad or garnishing sashimi. Daikon leaf is frequently eaten as a green vegetable. Pickling and stir frying are common. The daikon leaf is part of the Festival of Seven Herbs, called suzushiro.

In Chinese cuisine, turnip cake and chai tow kway are made with daikon. The variety called mooli has a high water content, and some cookbooks recommend salting and draining it before it is cooked. Sometimes mooli is used to carve elaborate garnishes.[15]

In Korean cuisine, a variety is used to make kkakdugi, nabak kimchi and muguk soup. The younger version of the radish is used with the leaves in chonggak kimchi. This variety of daikon is shorter, stouter, and has a pale green colour extending from the top, to approximately halfway down the tuber. The flesh is denser than the Japanese variety and the leaves are smooth in texture which makes them better for pickling. The leaves of a mature plant are often too tough to be eaten raw, and so are shade dried to be used in soups, or boiled and seasoned into potherbs.

Stir-fried chai tow kway

In Philippine cuisine, a soupy dish called sinigang is optionally cooked with daikon, known locally as labanos, after rábano, radish in Spanish.[citation needed]

In Pakistani cuisine, the young leaves of the daikon plant are boiled and flash fried with a mixture of heated oil, garlic, ginger, red chili and a variety of spices. The radish is eaten as a fresh salad often seasoned with either salt and pepper or chaat masala.

In Bangladesh, fresh daikon is often finely grated and mixed with fresh chilli, coriander, flaked steamed fish, lime juice and salt. This light, refreshing preparation is served alongside meals and is known as mulo bhorta.

In North India, daikon is popular to make paranthas, salad and garnish.

In South India, daikon is the principal ingredient in a variety of sambar, in which roundels of the radish are boiled with onions, tamarind pulp, lentils and a special spice powder.[16] When cooked, it can release a very strong odor. This soup, called mullangi sambar (Tamil: முள்ளங்கி சாம்பார்; literally, "daikon sambar") is very popular and mixed with cooked rice to make a good meal.

In Vietnamese cuisine, sweet and sour pickled daikon and carrots (củ cải cà rốt chua) are a common condiment in bánh mì sandwiches.[17]

Radishes, Oriental, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy76 kJ (18 kcal)
Carbohydrates4.1 g
- Sugars2.5
- Dietary fiber1.6 g
Fat0.1 g
Protein0.6 g
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.02 mg (2%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.02 mg (2%)
Niacin (vit. B3)0.2 mg (1%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.138 mg (3%)
Vitamin B60.046 mg (4%)
Folate (vit. B9)28 μg (7%)
Vitamin C22 mg (27%)
Calcium27 mg (3%)
Iron0.4 mg (3%)
Magnesium16 mg (5%)
Manganese0.038 mg (2%)
Phosphorus23 mg (3%)
Potassium227 mg (5%)
Sodium21 mg (1%)
Zinc0.15 mg (2%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Nutritional information[edit]

Daikon is very low in food energy. A 100-gram serving contains only 76 kilojoules or 18 Calories (5 Cal/oz), but provides 27 percent of the RDA for vitamin C. Daikon also contains the active enzyme myrosinase.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mish, Frederick C., Editor in Chief. “Daikon.” Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. 9th ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Inc., 1985. ISBN 0-87779-508-8, ISBN 0-87779-509-6 (indexed), and ISBN 0-87779-510-X (deluxe).
  2. ^ Larkcom, Joy; Douglass, Elizabeth (1994). Oriental Vegetables: The Complete Guide for the Gardening Cook. Oxford University Press US. p. 114. ISBN 1-56836-017-7.  Larkom and Douglass refer to "Oriental radishes" and divide them into two types: "white mooli types" and "coloured types".
  3. ^ "Raphanus sativus L. (Longipinnatus Group)". MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE. 
  4. ^ Davidson, Alan (2003). Seafood of South-East Asia: a comprehensive guide with recipes. Ten Speed Press. p. 211. ISBN 1-58008-452-4. 
  5. ^ Sarah Volpe. "Is it Daikon or Mooli?" Spicy Buddha.com. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
  6. ^ Larkcom, Joy; Douglass, Elizabeth (1994). Oriental Vegetables: The Complete Guide for the Gardening Cook. Oxford University Press US. pp. 114–115. ISBN 1-56836-017-7.  Larkom and Douglass refer to "Oriental radishes" and divide them into two types: "white mooli types" and "coloured types".
  7. ^ Robert Bailey Thomas. The Old Farmer's Almanac. p. 28.
  8. ^ Food recipes: Spitalfields revueltos with mooli salad. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
  9. ^ Food ingredients: Daikon recipes. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
  10. ^ Ruth Wan; Roger Hiew (2010). There's No Carrot in Carrot Cake: 101 Hawker Dishes Singaporeans Love. Epigram Books. ISBN 978-981-08-2865-3. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  11. ^ Charmaine Solomon, Encyclopedia of Asian Food, Periplus 1998.
  12. ^ The New official guide: Japan. Japan National Tourist Organization. 1975. p. 837. ISSN 0077-8591. 
  13. ^ Copeland Marks. The Korean of the Morning: Classic Recipes from the Land of the Morning Calm. Chronicle Books, 1999. p. 10. ISBN 9780811822336
  14. ^ Grubben, G.J.H. (2004). Vegetables. PROTA. ISBN 978-90-5782-147-9. 
  15. ^ Doeser, Linda (2010). The Ultimate Chinese Cookbook. Hermes House. p. 9. ISBN 1843093421. 
  16. ^ Sanjeev Kapoor
  17. ^ Pickled Shredded Daikon and Carrots Củ cải cà rốt chua
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Sakurajima daikon

Sakurajima daikon (桜島大根?) is one of the local products of Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. It is the biggest daikon variety in the world, as confirmed by the Guinness Book of Records. Its regular weight is about 6 kilograms although big ones can be as much as 45 kg (99 lb). It grows as large as 50 cm (20 in) in diameter.[2] It is grown on Sakurajima so it was named Sakurajima daikon. The people there also call it shimadekon (island daikon).

There are three kinds of varieties, early, middle and late, but most are the last.[3] The seeding period is from last August to first September and the harvest season is from December to February. In order to grow it big, care needs to be taken with the volcanic ash soils.

Contents

Uses

Sakurajima daikon has a fine texture and is low in fiber. It is sweeter than the other daikon varieties. The typical cooking style is simmering such as furofuki daikon.[4] Also as preserved foods, kiriboshi daikon and tsukemono are famous. The big size of tsukemono, senmaizuke is sold in souvenir shops in Kagoshima.

History

There are three theories about its development.

  1. The origin from hōryō daikon in Aichi Prefecture.
  2. The origin from original wild daikon in Sakurajima.
  3. The origin from kokubu daikon (hamanoichi daikon).

A piece of paper in 1804 about Sakurajima daikon is brought down in Kagoshima, so it is sure that has been cultured before then at least. The main production was north-west of Sakurajima but it was moved to the north later. About 1200 farm houses had about 200ha of growing area in sum total in the high season. Sakurajima daikon was one of the precious commercial crops, because Sakurajima’s fields are not good for rice cropping, so it was shipped out to Kagoshima city. Also, in every harvest season, the market called toikae (means exchange in Kagoshima dialect) was held in Kajiki (now part of Aira District) and people traded Sakurajima daikon with straw.

However, the main crop was shifted to satsuma (mikan) from Sakurajima daikon, because the area of Sakurajima suffered big damage in the 1914 eruption, and its growing area was decreased to about 30ha in 1955. Furthermore, its growing area was decreased to about 1.5ha for frequently ash falls from then to 2001.

The main growing districts of now are the suburbs of Kagoshima city and Kirishima city. Because of fewer eruptions recently, the growing area has been extended.

References

  • 今村知子 『かごしま文庫51 鹿児島の料理』 春苑堂出版、1999年、ISBN 4-915093-58-1 (Japanese)
  • 串間俊文 『かごしま文庫26 鹿児島の園芸植物』 春苑堂出版、1995年、ISBN 4-915093-33-6 (Japanese)
  • 橋村健一 『かごしま文庫13 桜島大噴火』 春苑堂出版、1994年、ISBN 4-915093-19-0 (Japanese)
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Notes

Comments

Long cultivated in E Asia primarily as a vegetable and medicinal plant. A very variable species with regard to fleshy root color, shape, and size, plant height, degree of division and size of leaves, flower color, and fruit shape and size. Numerous infraspecific taxa have been recognized, and their taxonomy is controversial and highly confused. The interested reader should consult Pistrick (Kulturpflanze 35: 225-321. 1987). Perhaps the most interesting cultivar, which is grown primarily in China and Japan, is var. longipinnatus L. H. Bailey, with roots to 50 kg in weight and to 1 m in length and enormous rosettes to 2 m in diam.
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