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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This familiar vegetable is eaten primarily for its fleshy taproot, which has a peppery flavor. The foliage can be eaten as well, but it is somewhat coarse. Many different cultivars have been developed, and escaped plants may vary somewhat in the appearance of their foliage and taproots. Another species, Raphanus raphanistrum (Wild Radish), has a similar appearance to Garden Radish. However, Wild Radish has yellow flowers and its siliques have 4-10 seeds. The siliques of Wild Radish become constricted between the seeds with maturity, and they tend to be a little longer and more slender than the siliques of Garden Radish.
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Description

This introduced annual or biennial plant consists of a rosette of leaves; somewhat later, it bolts and produces flowering stems up to 2½' tall. The basal leaves are up to 7" long and 2½" across; they are oblanceolate, coarsely crenate, and pinnately lobed. These lobes may be shallow or deep; the terminal lobe is always the largest. The surface of the basal leaves is usually rough from stiff hairs. The central stem is often reddish at the base, but light green elsewhere; it is either glabrous or covered with scattered stiff hairs. The upper side stems are very similar, except that there is often a red ring where they branch from the central stem. The alternate leaves on the stems are similar in appearance to the basal leaves, except that they are smaller, less likely to be deeply lobed, and narrowly ovate in shape.  The central and upper stems terminate in racemes of flowers. Each flower is about 1/3" across, consisting of 4 pink or light purple petals, 4 light green sepals that are linear-oblong, a central pistil, and several stamens with yellow anthers. The blooming period occurs during the summer and lasts about 1–1½ months. Each flower is replaced by a silique that contains 2-3 seeds. This silique is rather short and spongy, but it has a long beak. There is very little constriction between the seeds, if any. The seeds are oval-shaped, slightly flattened, and reddish brown. The root system consists of a stout taproot that is somewhat fleshy. It is often reddish, but other color forms occur. This plant spreads by reseeding itself.
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Cultivated
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Derivation of specific name

sativus: cultivated, not wild
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Maharashtra: Kolhapur
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs annual or biennial, 10-130 cm tall, glabrous, scabrous, or hispid. Roots fleshy, white, pink, red, or black, linear, fusiform, oblong, or globose, 1-100 × 0.5-45 cm, sometimes slender and not fleshy. Stems simple or branched. Basal leaves with petioles 1-30 cm; leaf blade oblong, obovate, oblanceolate, or spatulate in outline, 2-60 × 1-20 cm, lyrate or pinnatisect, sometimes undivided, margin dentate, apex obtuse or acute; lateral lobes 1-12 on each side of midvein, sometimes absent, oblong or ovate, to 10 × 5 cm. Uppermost cauline leaves subsessile, often undivided, dentate. Fruiting pedicels divaricate or ascending, straight, 0.5-4 cm. Sepals narrowly oblong, 5.5-10 × 1-2 mm, glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Petals purple, pink, or sometimes white, often with darker veins, broadly obovate, 1.2-2.2 cm × 3-8 mm, apex obtuse or emarginate; claw to 1.4 cm. Filaments slender, 5-12 mm; anthers 1.5-2 mm, sagittate at base. Fruit fusiform or lanceolate, sometimes ovoid or cylindric; seedless valvular segment 1-3.5 mm; seed-bearing distal segment (1-)3-15(-25) × (0.5-)0.7-1.3(-1.5) cm, corky, rounded at base, conical at apex, smooth or rarely slightly constricted between seeds, not ribbed; style 1-4 cm; stigma entire. Seeds globose or ovoid, 2.5-4 mm in diam. Fl. and fr. depending on cultivation time. 2n = 18*.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Synonym

Raphanus acanthiformis J. M. Morel; R. chinensis Miller (1768), not (Linnaeus) Crantz (1769); R. macropodus H. Léveillé; R. niger Miller; R. raphanistroides (Makino) Nakai; R. raphanistrum Linnaeus var. sativus (Linnaeus) Domin; R. sativus var. macropodus (H. Léveillé) Makino; R. sativus f. raphanistroides Makino; R. sativus var. raphanistroides (Makino) Makino; R. taquetii H. Léveillé.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Fields, roadsides, waste areas. Throughout China [native to the Mediterranean region; cultivated worldwide].
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Associations

Faunal Associations

The flowers attract small bees, flower flies, and White butterflies, including Pieris rapae (Cabbage White) and Pontia protodice (Checkered White). The caterpillars of these butterflies may feed on the foliage, although other members of the Mustard family with smoother leaves appear to be preferred. Rabbits occasionally eat the basal leaves and lower leaves of the flowering stems. Photographic Location
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Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Alternaria dematiaceous anamorph of Alternaria brassicicola causes spots on live leaf of Raphanus sativus
Other: unusual host/prey

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Alternaria dematiaceous anamorph of Alternaria raphani causes spots on live leaf of Raphanus sativus

Foodplant / open feeder
gregarious larva of Athalia rosae grazes on leaf (underside) of Raphanus sativus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Delia radicum feeds within live root of Raphanus sativus

Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe cruciferarum parasitises live Raphanus sativus

Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Pseudocercosporella anamorph of Mycosphaerella capsellae causes spots on live leaf of Raphanus sativus

Foodplant / parasite
colony of sporangium of Peronospora parasitica parasitises live Raphanus sativus
Remarks: season: 1-4
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
Radish Mosaic virus causes spots on live, crinkled leaf of Raphanus sativus

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Streptomyces infects and damages live twig of Raphanus sativus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Raphanus sativus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Raphanus sativus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Raphanus sativus L.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun and moist to mesic soil that is fertile and loamy. The Garden Radish also does well in slightly sandy soil if it is sufficiently moist and fertile. It develops rapidly from seed during the spring and bolts during hot summer weather. The leaves often have holes from various insect pests. Range & Habitat
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Wikipedia

Daikon

For other uses, see Daikon (disambiguation).
long white radish
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese白蘿蔔
Simplified Chinese白萝卜
Literal meaning"white radish"
"white carrot"
Cantonese name
Traditional Chinese蘿蔔
Simplified Chinese萝卜
Postal Maplo bak
lo pak
Literal meaning"radish"
"[white] carrot"
Hokkien name
Traditional Chinese菜頭
Simplified Chinese菜头
Literal meaning"leafy-vegetable head"
Vietnamese name
Vietnamesecủ cải trắng
Literal meaning"white radish"
Korean name
Hangul
Japanese name
Kanji大根
lit. "big root"
Hiraganaだいこん
Malay name
Malaylobak
Indonesian name
Indonesianlobak
Filipino name
Tagaloglabanos
Nepali name
Nepalimula
मुला
Hindi name
Hindiमूली
mūlī
Urdu name
Urduمولی
mūlī

Daikon, also known by many other names depending on context, is a mild-flavored winter radish (Raphanus sativus) usually characterized by fast-growing leaves and a long white napiform root. Originally native to Southeast or continental East Asia,[8] daikon is harvested and consumed throughout the region (as well as in South Asia) but is primarily grown in North America as a fallow crop, with the roots left unharvested to prevent soil compaction and the leaves (if harvested) used as animal fodder.[3]

A Chinese radish.

Names[edit]

In culinary contexts, "daikon" or "daikon radish" (from its Japanese name) is the most common in all forms of English, although historical ties to South Asia permit "mooli" (from its Hindi name) as a general synonym in British English.[10] The generic terms "white radish", "winter radish", "Oriental radish",[11] "long white radish", etc. are also used. Other synonyms usually vary by region or describe regional varieties of the vegetable. When it is necessary to distinguish the usual Japanese form from others, it is sometimes known as "Japanese radish"[12] or "true daikon".[13] The vegetable's Mandarin names are still uncommon in English; in most forms of Chinese cuisine, it is usually known as "Chinese white radish"[12] although in Cantonese and Malaysian cuisine it is encountered as "lobak", "lo pak", etc. In the cuisines of Hokkien-speaking areas such as Singapore, it is also known as "chai tow" or "chai tau" and, in South Asia, as "mooli". In any of these, it may also simply be referred to as "radish", with the regional variety implied by context. In English-speaking countries, it is also sometimes marketed as "icicle radish".

In mainland China and Singapore, the calque "white carrot" or misnomer "carrot" is sometimes used, owing to the similarity of the vegetables' names in Mandarin and Hokkien. This variant gave the title to a popular guidebook on Singaporean street food, There's No Carrot in Carrot Cake, which refers to chai tow kway, a kind of cake made from daikon.[14]

The official general name used by the United States Department of Agriculture is "oilseed radish", but this is only used in non-culinary contexts. Other English terms employed when daikon is being used as animal feed or as a soil ripper are "forage radish", "fodder radish", and "tillage radish".[3][15]

Varieties[edit]

The most common variety in Japan (aokubi-daikon) produces an elongated root in the shape of a giant white carrot approximately 20 to 35 cm (8 to 14 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in) in diameter. Most Chinese and Indian forms are roughly similar.

The turnip-shaped "giant white radish" or "Sakurajima radish" is cultivated around Kagoshima in Japan and grows as large as 50 cm (20 in) in diameter and 45 kg (100 lb) in mass.[16]

There are a number of non-white varieties. The Cantonese lobak, lo pak, etc. sometimes refers to the usual Chinese form but is also applied to a form of daikon with light green coloration of the top area of the root around the leaves. The "Korean radish" is similarly colored but with a rounder, more potato-like shape.[17] Both are often spicier than the long white radishes. The heirloom "watermelon radish" is another Chinese variety of daikon with a dull green exterior but a bright rose or fuchsia-colored center. Its Chinese name (t 心里美蘿蔔, s 心里美萝卜, xīnlǐměi luóbó) is sometimes irregularly romanized as the "shinrimei radish" and sometimes translated as the "beauty heart" or "roseheart radish".

Japanese daikon being dried.

Cultivation[edit]

The Chinese and Indian varieties tolerate higher temperatures than the Japanese one. These varieties grow well at lower elevations in East Africa. It is best if there is plenty of moisture and it can grow quickly; otherwise, the flesh becomes overly tough and pungent.[18] The variety "Long White Icicle" is available as seed in Britain, and will grow very successfully in Southern England, producing roots resembling a parsnip by midsummer in good garden soil in an average year.[citation needed]

The roots can be stored for some weeks without the leaves if lifted and kept in a cool dry place. If left in the ground, the texture tends to become woody, but the storage life of untreated whole roots is not long.[clarification needed]

Culinary use[edit]

In Japanese cuisine, many types of pickles are made with daikon, including takuan and bettarazuke. Daikon is also frequently used grated and mixed into ponzu, a soy sauce and citrus juice condiment. Simmered dishes are also popular such as oden. Daikon that has been shredded and dried (a common method of preserving food in Japan) is called kiriboshi-daikon (literally, "cut-dried daikon"). Daikon radish sprouts (kaiware-daikon) are used for salad or garnishing sashimi. Daikon leaf is frequently eaten as a green vegetable. Pickling and stir frying are common. The daikon leaf is part of the Festival of Seven Herbs, called suzushiro.

Stir-fried chai tow kway

In Chinese cuisine, turnip cake and chai tow kway are made with daikon. The variety called mooli has a high water content, and some cookbooks recommend salting and draining it before it is cooked. Sometimes mooli is used to carve elaborate garnishes.[19]

Korean-style kkakdugi kimchi

In Korean cuisine, a variety is used to make kkakdugi, nabak kimchi and muguk soup. The younger version of the radish is used with the leaves in chonggak kimchi. This variety of daikon is shorter, stouter, and has a pale green color extending from the top, to approximately halfway down the tuber. The flesh is denser than the Japanese variety and the leaves are smooth in texture which makes them better for pickling. The leaves of a mature plant are often too tough to be eaten raw, and so are shade dried to be used in soups, or boiled and seasoned into potherbs.

In Vietnamese cuisine, sweet and sour pickled daikon and carrots (củ cải cà rốt chua) are a common condiment in bánh mì sandwiches.[20] In the Philippines, a soupy dish called sinigang may include daikon.

In Pakistani cuisine, the young leaves of the daikon plant are boiled and flash fried with a mixture of heated oil, garlic, ginger, red chili and a variety of spices. The radish is eaten as a fresh salad often seasoned with either salt and pepper or chaat masala.

In Bangladesh, fresh daikon is often finely grated and mixed with fresh chilli, coriander, flaked steamed fish, lime juice and salt. This light, refreshing preparation is served alongside meals and is known as mulo bhorta.

In North India, daikon is a popular ingredient used to make sabzi[disambiguation needed], stuffed paranthas, pakodas, salads, pickles and also used as garnish. The plant's leaves are used to make dal and kadhi among other dishes. In South India, daikon is the principal ingredient in a variety of sambar, in which roundels of the radish are boiled with onions, tamarind pulp, lentils and a special spice powder.[21] When cooked, it can release a very strong odor. This soup, called mullangi sambar (Tamil: முள்ளங்கி சாம்பார் Kannada: ಮೂಲಂಗಿ ಸಾಂಬಾರ್; literally, "daikon sambar") is very popular and mixed with cooked rice to make a good meal.

Radishes, Oriental, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy76 kJ (18 kcal)
4.1 g
Sugars2.5
Dietary fiber1.6 g
0.1 g
0.6 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(2%)
0.02 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(2%)
0.02 mg
Niacin (B3)
(1%)
0.2 mg
(3%)
0.138 mg
Vitamin B6
(4%)
0.046 mg
Folate (B9)
(7%)
28 μg
Vitamin C
(27%)
22 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(3%)
27 mg
Iron
(3%)
0.4 mg
Magnesium
(5%)
16 mg
Manganese
(2%)
0.038 mg
Phosphorus
(3%)
23 mg
Potassium
(5%)
227 mg
Sodium
(1%)
21 mg
Zinc
(2%)
0.15 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Nutritional information[edit]

Daikon is very low in food energy. A 100-gram serving contains only 76 kilojoules or 18 Calories (5 Cal/oz), but provides 27 percent of the RDA for vitamin C. Daikon also contains the active enzyme myrosinase.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Integrated Taxonomic Information System. "Raphanus sativus L." Accessed 22 June 2014.
  2. ^ Agricultural Research Service. GRIN Taxonomy for Plants: "Raphanus sativus L." United States Dep't of Agriculture (Beltsville), 2014. Accessed 25 Jun 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e Natural Resources Conservation Service. PLANTS Database. "Plant Fact Sheet: Oilseed Radish, Raphanus sativus L.". United States Dep't of Agriculture, 2012. Accessed 22 June 2014.
  4. ^ Backer, Cornelis A. Flora van Batavia, 51. G. Kolff & Co. (Batavia), 1907. (Dutch)
  5. ^ Bailey, Liberty Hyde. Gentes Herbarum, 1:25. New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (Ithaca), 1920.
  6. ^ Stokes, Jonathan. A Botanical Materia Medica, Vol. 3, p. 482. J. Jonson & Co. (London), 1812. (English) & (Latin)
  7. ^ Persoon, Christiaan H. Synopsis plantarum, Vol. II, p. 208. C.F. Cramer (Paris), 1806. (French) & (Latin)
  8. ^ a b Larkcom, Joy; Douglass, Elizabeth (1994). Oriental Vegetables: The Complete Guide for the Gardening Cook. Oxford University Press US. pp. 114–115. ISBN 1-56836-017-7. 
  9. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "mooli, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2002.
  10. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary, for instance, provides an entry for "mooli" and only mentions "daikon" as its synonym in Japanese contexts.[9]
  11. ^ Larkcom and Douglass divide the term "oriental radish" into two categories, which they label "white mooli types" and "coloured types".[8]
  12. ^ a b Robert Bailey Thomas. The Old Farmer's Almanac. p. 28.
  13. ^ "Raphanus sativus L. (Longipinnatus Group)". MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE. 
  14. ^ Ruth Wan; Roger Hiew (2010). There's No Carrot in Carrot Cake: 101 Hawker Dishes Singaporeans Love. Epigram Books. ISBN 978-981-08-2865-3. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  15. ^ Natural Resources Conservation Service. PLANTS Database. "Plant Guide: Oilseed Radish, Raphanus sativus L.". United States Dep't of Agriculture, 2012. Accessed 22 June 2014.
  16. ^ The New official guide: Japan. Japan National Tourist Organization. 1975. p. 837. ISSN 0077-8591. 
  17. ^ Copeland Marks. The Korean of the Morning: Classic Recipes from the Land of the Morning Calm. Chronicle Books, 1999. p. 10. ISBN 9780811822336
  18. ^ Grubben, G.J.H. (2004). Vegetables. PROTA. ISBN 978-90-5782-147-9. 
  19. ^ Doeser, Linda (2010). The Ultimate Chinese Cookbook. Hermes House. p. 9. ISBN 1843093421. 
  20. ^ Pickled Shredded Daikon and Carrots Củ cải cà rốt chua
  21. ^ Sanjeev Kapoor
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Radish

Radish may also refer to any member of the genus Raphanus (the "radishes").
For other uses, see radish (disambiguation).

The radish (Raphanus sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre-Roman times. Radishes are grown and consumed throughout the world, being mostly eaten raw as a crunchy salad vegetable. They have numerous varieties, varying in size, color and the length of time they take to mature. They are sometimes grown as companion plants and suffer from few pests and diseases. They germinate quickly and grow rapidly, smaller varieties being ready for consumption within a month while larger daikon varieties taking several months. Some radishes are grown for their seeds: oilseed radishes, for instance, may be grown for oil production. Others are used for sprouting and both roots and leaves are sometimes served cooked.

History[edit]

Varieties of radish are now broadly distributed around the world, but there are almost no archeological records available to help determine its early history and domestication.[1] However, scientists tentatively locate the origin of Raphanus sativus in southeast Asia, as this is the only region where truly wild forms have been discovered. India, central China, and central Asia appear to have been secondary centers where differing forms were developed. Radishes enter the historical record in 3rd century B.C..[2] Greek and Roman agriculturalists of the 1st century A.D. gave details of small, large, round, long, mild, and sharp varieties. The radish seems to have been one of the first European crops introduced to the Americas. A German botanist, reported radishes of 100 pounds (45 kg) in 1544, although the only variety of that size today is the Japanese Sakurajima radish.[3] The large, mild, and white East Asian form was developed in China but is mostly associated in the West with the Japanese daikon, owing to Japanese agricultural development and larger exports.

Description[edit]

Section through radishes

Radishes (Raphanus sativus) are annual or biennial brassicaceous crops grown for their swollen tap-roots which can be globular, tapering or cylindrical. The root skin colour ranges from white through pink, red, purple, yellow and green to black but the flesh is usually white. Smaller types have a few leaves about 13 cm (5 in) long with round roots up to 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter or more slender, long roots up to 7 cm (3 in) long. Both of these are normally eaten raw in salads.[4] A longer root form, including oriental radishes, daikon or mooli and winter radishes, grows up to 60 cm (24 in) long with foliage about 60 cm (24 in) high with a spread of 45 cm (18 in).[4] The flesh of radishes harvested timely is crisp and sweet, but becomes bitter and tough if the vegetable is left in the ground for too long.[5] Leaves are arranged in a rosette. They have a lyrate shape, meaning they are divided pinnately with an enlarged terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes. The white flowers are borne on a racemose inflorescence.[6] The fruits are small pods which can be eaten when young.[4]

The radish is a diploid species, and has 18 chromosomes (2n=18).[7]

Cultivation[edit]

Newly germinated radishes at 10 days old

Radishes are a fast growing, annual, cool-season crop. The seed germinates in three to four days in moist conditions with soil temperatures between 65 and 85 °F (18 and 29 °C). Best quality roots are obtained under moderate day lengths with air temperatures in the range 50 to 65 °F (10 to 18 °C). Under average conditions, the crop matures in three to four weeks, but in colder weather six to seven weeks may be required. This means that summer radishes are in season from April to June and from October to January in most parts of the northern hemisphere.[8]

Radishes grow best in full sun in light, sandy loams with a soil pH 6.5 to 7.0, but for late season crops, a clayey-loam is ideal. Soils that bake dry and form a crust in dry weather are unsuitable and can impair germination.[9][10][11] Harvesting periods can be extended by making repeat plantings, spaced a week or two apart. In warmer climates, radishes are normally planted in the autumn.[9] The depth at which seeds are planted affects the size of the root, from 1 cm (0.4 in) deep recommended for small radishes to 4 cm (1.6 in) for large radishes.[11] During the growing period, the crop needs to be thinned and weeds controlled, and irrigation may be required.[9]

Growing radish plants

Radishes are a common garden crop in the United States, and the fast harvest cycle makes them a popular choice for children's gardens.[10] After harvesting, radishes can be stored without loss of quality for two or three days at room temperature, and about two months at 0 °C (32 °F) with a relative humidity of 90–95%.[6]

Companion plant[edit]

Radishes can be useful as companion plants for many other crops. This is probably because their pungent odour deters such insect pests as aphids, cucumber beetles, tomato hornworms, squash bugs and ants.[12] They can function as a trap crop, luring insect pests away from the main crop.[13] Cucumbers and radishes seem to thrive when grown in close association with each other, and radishes also grow well with chervil, lettuce, peas and nasturtiums. However, they react adversely to growing in close association with hyssop.[12]

Pests[edit]

As a fast growing plant, diseases are not generally a problem with radishes but some insect pests can be a nuisance. The larvae of flea beetles (Delia radicum) live in the soil but it is the adult beetles that cause damage to the crop, biting small "shot holes" in the leaves, especially of seedlings. The swede midge, (Contarinia nasturii) attacks the foliage and growing tip of the plant and causes distortion, multiple (or no) growing tips and swollen or crinkled leaves and stems. The larvae of the cabbage root fly sometimes attack the roots. The foliage droops and becomes discoloured, and small white maggots tunnel through the root making it unattractive or inedible.[8]

Varieties[edit]

Broadly speaking, radishes can be categorized into four main types (summer, fall, winter, and spring) and a variety of shapes lengths, colors, and sizes, such as red, pink, white, gray-black or yellow radishes, with round or elongated roots that can grow longer than a parsnip.

Spring or summer radishes[edit]

European radishes (Raphanus sativus)
Daikon—a large East Asian white radish—for sale in India.

Sometimes referred to as European radishes or spring radishes if they are planted in cooler weather, summer radishes are generally small and have a relatively short three to four week cultivation time.[4]

  • The April Cross is a giant white radish hybrid that bolts very slowly.
  • Bunny Tail is an heirloom variety from Italy, where it is known as 'Rosso Tondo A Piccola Punta Bianca'. It is slightly oblong, mostly red, with a white tip.
  • Cherry Belle is a bright red-skinned round variety with a white interior.[10] It is familiar in North American supermarkets.
  • Champion is round and red-skinned like the Cherry Belle, but with slightly larger roots, up to about 5 cm (2 in), and a milder flavor.[10]
  • Red King has a mild flavor, with good resistance to club root, a problem that can arise from poor drainage.[10]
  • Sicily Giant is a large heirloom variety from Sicily. It can reach up to two inches in diameter.
  • Snow Belle is an all-white variety of radish, similar in shape to the Cherry Belle.[10]
  • White Icicle or just Icicle is a white carrot-shaped variety, around 10–12 cm (4–5 in) long, dating back to the 16th century. It slices easily, and has better than average resistance to pithiness.[10][11]
  • French Breakfast is an elongated red-skinned radish with a white splash at the root end. It is typically slightly milder than other summer varieties, but is among the quickest to turn pithy.[11]
  • Plum Purple a purple-fuchsia radish that tends to stay crisp longer than average.[11]
  • Gala and Roodbol are two varieties popular in the Netherlands in a breakfast dish, thinly sliced on buttered bread.[10]
  • Easter Egg is not an actual variety, but a mix of varieties with different skin colors,[11] typically including white, pink, red, and purple radishes. Sold in markets or seed packets under the name, the seed mixes can extend harvesting duration from a single planting, as different varieties may mature at different times.[11]

Winter varieties[edit]

Daikon

Black Spanish or Black Spanish Round occur in both round and elongated forms, and are sometimes simply called the black radish or known by the French name Gros Noir d'Hiver. It dates in Europe to 1548,[14] and was a common garden variety in England and France during the early 19th century.[15] It has a rough black skin with hot-flavored white flesh, is round or irregularly pear shaped,[16] and grows to around 10 cm (4 in) in diameter.

Daikon refers to a wide variety of winter oilseed radishes from Asia. While the Japanese name daikon has been adopted in English, it is also sometimes called the Japanese radish, Chinese radish, Oriental radish or mooli (in India and South Asia).[17] Daikon commonly have elongated white roots, although many varieties of daikon exist. One well known variety is April Cross, with smooth white roots.[10][11] The New York Times describes Masato Red and Masato Green varieties as extremely long, well suited for fall planting and winter storage.[10] The Sakurajima radish is a hot-flavored variety which is typically grown to around 10 kg (22 lb), but which can grow to 30 kg (66 lb) when left in the ground.[10][18]

Seed pod varieties[edit]

Radish fruits, also called pods
Radish seeds

The seeds of radishes grow in siliques (widely referred to as "pods"), following flowering that happens when left to grow past their normal harvesting period. The seeds are edible, and are sometimes used as a crunchy, spicy addition to salads.[11] Some varieties are grown specifically for their seeds or seed pods, rather than their roots. The Rat-tailed radish, an old European variety thought to have come from East Asia centuries ago, has long, thin, curly pods which can exceed 20 cm (8 in) in length. In the 17th century, the pods were often pickled and served with meat.[11] The München Bier variety supplies spicy seed pods that are sometimes served raw as an accompaniment to beer in Germany.[19]

Nutritional value[edit]

Radishes, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy66 kJ (16 kcal)
3.4 g
Sugars1.86 g
Dietary fiber1.6 g
0.1 g
0.68 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(1%)
0.012 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(3%)
0.039 mg
Niacin (B3)
(2%)
0.254 mg
(3%)
0.165 mg
Vitamin B6
(5%)
0.071 mg
Folate (B9)
(6%)
25 μg
Vitamin C
(18%)
14.8 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(3%)
25 mg
Iron
(3%)
0.34 mg
Magnesium
(3%)
10 mg
Manganese
(3%)
0.069 mg
Phosphorus
(3%)
20 mg
Potassium
(5%)
233 mg
Zinc
(3%)
0.28 mg
Other constituents
Fluoride6 µg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Radishes are rich in ascorbic acid, folic acid, and potassium. They are a good source of vitamin B6, riboflavin, magnesium, copper, and calcium. One cup of sliced red radish bulbs provides approximately 19 Calories, largely from carbohydrates.[20]

Uses[edit]

Cooking[edit]

Filipino dish, Ginisang Labanos with ground beef

The most commonly eaten portion is the napiform taproot, although the entire plant is edible and the tops can be used as a leaf vegetable. The seed can also be sprouted and eaten raw in a similar way to a mung bean.[21]

The bulb of the radish is usually eaten raw, although tougher specimens can be steamed. The raw flesh has a crisp texture and a pungent, peppery flavor, caused by glucosinolates and the enzyme myrosinase, which combine when chewed to form allyl isothiocyanates, also present in mustard, horseradish, and wasabi.[22]

Radishes are mostly used in salads but also appear in many European dishes.[23] Radish leaves are sometimes used in recipes, like potato soup or as a sauteed side dish. They are also found blended with fruit juices in some recipes.[24]

Other uses[edit]

The seeds of Raphanus sativus can be pressed to extract radish seed oil. Wild radish seeds contain up to 48% oil content, and while not suitable for human consumption, this oil is a potential source of biofuel.[25] The oilseed radish grows well in cool climates and, apart from its industrial use, can be used as a cover crop, grown to increase soil fertility and prevent winter erosion of the soil.[26]

Culture[edit]

The daikon varieties of radish are important parts of East, Southeast, and South Asian cuisine. In Japan and Korea, radish dolls are sometimes made as children's toys. Daikon is also one of the plants that make up the Japanese Festival of Seven Herbs (Nanakusa no sekku) on the seventh day after the new year.[27]

Citizens of Oaxaca, Mexico, celebrate the Night of the Radishes (Noche de los Rábanos) on December 23 as a part of Christmas celebrations. This folk art competition uses a large type of radish up to 50 centimetres (20 in) long and weighing up to 3 kilograms (6.6 lb). Great skill and ingenuity is used to carve these into religious and popular figures, buildings and other objects, and they are displayed in the town square.[28][29]

Production trends[edit]

About seven million tons of radish are produced yearly, representing roughly two percent of the global vegetable production.[30]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zohary, Daniel; Hopf, Maria (2000). Domestication of plants in the Old World (3rd ed.). Oxford: University Press. p. 139. 
  2. ^ Lewis-Jones, L.J.; Thorpe, J.P.; Wallis, G.P. (1982). "Genetic divergence in four species of the genus Raphanus: Implications for the ancestry of the domestic radish R. sativus". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 18 (1): 35–48. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1982.tb02032.x. 
  3. ^ Plant Finder. "Raphanus sativus". Missouri Botanical Garden (St. Louis), 2014. Accessed 22 June 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d Brickell, Christopher (ed) (1992). The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Gardening. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 356–357. ISBN 9780863189791. 
  5. ^ Vegetable Gardening: Growing and Harvesting Vegetables. Murdoch Books. 2004. p. 242. ISBN 978-1-74045-519-0. 
  6. ^ a b Gopalakrishnan, T.P. (2007). Vegetable Crops. New India Publishing. pp. 244–247. ISBN 978-81-89422-41-7. 
  7. ^ Dixon (2007), p. 35.
  8. ^ a b Seaman, Abby (2013-11-13). "Turnips and Radishes". Integrated crop and pest management guidelines for commercial vegetable production. Cornell Cooperative Extension. Retrieved 2014-07-29. 
  9. ^ a b c Beattie, J. H.; Beattie, W. R. (March 1938) "Production of Radishes." U.S. Department of Agriculture, leaflet no. 57, via University of North Texas Government Documents A to Z Digitization Project website. Retrieved on 2014-07-29.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Faust, Joan Lee. (1996-03-03.) "Hail the Speedy Radish, in All Its Forms." The New York Times, via nytimes.com archives. Retrieved on 2014-07-29.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Peterson, Cass. (1999-05-02.) "Radishes: Easy to Sprout, Hard to Grow Right." The New York Times, via nytimes.com archives. Retrieved on 2014-07-29.
  12. ^ a b Ready, Barbara (1982-02-01). "Garden Companions and Enemies". EarthWood. Retrieved 2014-07-30. 
  13. ^ "Trap Crop". Archived from the original on March 22, 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  14. ^ Aiton, William Townsend. (1812.) "Hortus Kewensis; Or, A Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, Second Edition, Vol. IV" Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown: London. Page 129.
  15. ^ Lindley, George. (1831.) "A Guide to the Orchard and Kitchen Garden: Or, an Account of the Most Valuable Fruit and Vegetables Cultivated in Great Britain." Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green: London.
  16. ^ McIntosh, Charles. (1828.) "The Practical Gardener, and Modern Horticulturist." Thomas Kelly: London. Page 288.
  17. ^ (2004.) "Daikon." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, via dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. **McAffee warns that this site attempted to exploit a browser vulnerability.
  18. ^ (2002-02-10.) "29 kg radish wins contest." Kyodo World News Service, via highbeam.com (fee for full access.) Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
  19. ^ Williams, Sally (2004) "With Some Radishes, It's About The Pods", Kitchen Gardners International. Retrieved on 2008-06-21.
  20. ^ "Radishes, raw". nutritiondata.self.com. Retrieved 2014-07-15. 
  21. ^ sprout "Sprouts: daikon sprouts, radish sprouts". The Cook's Thesaurus. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  22. ^ Cruciferous Vegetables, Isothiocyanates and Indoles. IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention 9. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2004. p. 13. ISBN 978-92-832-3009-0. 
  23. ^ Radish Chefs. "Radish Recipes". Radish Recipe Book. Retrieved 2011-09-03. 
  24. ^ Fearnley-Whittingstall, Hugh (2012-06-18). "Crunch time: Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall's radish recipes". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  25. ^ "Georgia looking at radish oil for biofuel market". Southeast Farm Press. 2009-06-04. Retrieved 2014-07-30. 
  26. ^ Cavigelli, Michel A.; Martin, Todd E.; Mutch, Dale R. "Oilseed radish". 
  27. ^ Ginny (2009-01-07). "Japanese Culture: Jinjitsu (人日)". Retrieved 2014-07-30. 
  28. ^ "Christmas in Oaxaca". 
  29. ^ "La noche de los rábanos". StudySpanish. 
  30. ^ Dixon (2007), p. 33.

Cited literature[edit]

  • Dixon, Geoffrey R. (2007). Vegetable Brassicas and Related Crucifers. Crop Production Science in Horticulture. Volume 14. CAB International. ISBN 978-0-85199-395-9. 
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Long cultivated in E Asia primarily as a vegetable and medicinal plant. A very variable species with regard to fleshy root color, shape, and size, plant height, degree of division and size of leaves, flower color, and fruit shape and size. Numerous infraspecific taxa have been recognized, and their taxonomy is controversial and highly confused. The interested reader should consult Pistrick (Kulturpflanze 35: 225-321. 1987). Perhaps the most interesting cultivar, which is grown primarily in China and Japan, is var. longipinnatus L. H. Bailey, with roots to 50 kg in weight and to 1 m in length and enormous rosettes to 2 m in diam.
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