Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Type Information

Type collection for Streptanthus polygaloides A. Gray
Catalog Number: US 320589
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): W. H. Brewer
Year Collected: 1863
Locality: Along Tuolumne River., Tuolumne, California, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Gray, A. 1866. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 6: 519.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Streptanthus polygaloides

Streptanthus polygaloides is a species of flowering plant in the mustard family known by the common name milkwort jewelflower. It is endemic to the Sierra Nevada foothills of California, where it grows in woodlands and chaparral, generally on serpentine soils.

Description[edit]

Streptanthus polygaloides is quite variable in morphology. In general, it is an annual herb producing a hairless, sometimes waxy-textured stem under 10 centimeters to nearly one meter tall. The ephemeral basal leaves have blades divided into narrow segments and borne on petioles. Leaves higher on the stem have simple, linear blades up to 10 centimeters long which lack petioles. Flowers occur at intervals along the upper stem. Each has a folded, hooded, calyx of deeply keeled sepals in shades of greenish yellow to purple. Brown-veined white petals emerge from the tip. The fruit is a smooth, straight, flat or four-angled silique up to 5 centimeters in length.

Hyperaccumulator of nickel[edit]

The Streptanthus polygaloides plant is a hyperaccumulator of nickel, with hyperaccumulation defined as the presence of at least 1,000 µg nickel per gram of dry mass.[1] This species averages 2,430 to 18,600 µg/g.[2] This trait helps protect the plant against many types of pathogens, including the powdery mildew Erysiphe polygoni, the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, and the fungus Alternaria brassicola.[3] It also helps defend the plant from leaf-chewing insects such as the red-legged grasshopper (Melanoplus femurrubrum) and the moth Evergestis rimosalis, and root-feeding insects like the cabbage maggot (Delia radicum).[4] The high nickel levels in the plant have also been shown to protect it against the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella).[5] On the other hand, they do not affect all herbivorous insects that attack the plant, perhaps because some insects eat parts of the plant low in nickel,[4] or can tolerate high-nickel diets,[4] or include other, less toxic plant matter in their diets.[6] In fact, some insects thrive on a high-nickel diet, such as the mirid bug Melanotrichus boydi, which specializes on this plant.[1]

Phytoremediation[edit]

The plant's ability to draw relatively large amounts of nickel from the soil make it of interest as an agent of phytoremediation in soils polluted with heavy metals.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wall, M. A. and R. S. Boyd. (2006). Melanotrichus boydi (Hemiperta: Miridae) is a specialist on the nickel hyperaccumulator Streptanthus polygaloides (Brassicaceae). The Southwestern Naturalist 51:4 481-6.
  2. ^ Flora of North America
  3. ^ Boyd, R. S., et al. (1994). Nickel hyperaccumulation defends Streptanthus polygaloides (Brassicaceae) against pathogens. American Journal of Botany 81:3 294-300.
  4. ^ a b c Jhee, E. M., et al. (2005). Nickel hyperaccumulation as an elemental defense of Streptanthus polygaloides (Brassicaceae): Influence of herbivore feeding mode. New Phytologist 168 331-44.
  5. ^ Jhee, E. M., et al. (2006). Nickel hyperaccumulation by Streptanthus polygaloides protects against the folivore Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Plant Ecology 183:1 91-104.
  6. ^ Martens, S. M. and R. S. Boyd. (2002). The defensive role of Ni hyperaccumulation by plants: a field experiment. American Journal of Botany 89 998-1003.
  7. ^ Boyd, R. S. and M. A. Davis. (2001). Metal tolerance and accumulation ability of the Ni hyperaccumulator Streptanthus polygaloides Gray (Brassicaceae). International Journal of Phytoremediation 3:4 353-67.
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