Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Widespread in boreal regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. In the United States its southern limit follows a line from Massachusetts through Illinois to Utah. Rediscovered in Colorado (1994) in a lake near Marcelina Pass in the Elk Mountains.

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Throughout China [Africa, Asia, Europe, North America].
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Distribution: Throughout Europe, Asia, N. & S. America, N. Africa.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants mostly monoecious, rarely with bisexual flowers. Perennation by clavate turions. Stem robustly branched or unbranched, 50-150 cm; internodes often shorter than leaves. Submerged leaves 4-6-whorled, pectinate, narrowly ovate in outline, 3-5 × 1.5-2.5 cm; segments in 10-20 pairs, filiform, 1-2.5 cm. Inflorescence a terminal spike of 4-whorled flowers, 7-20 cm; bracts pectinate or absent. Male flowers: bracteoles lanceolate-lobed; calyx broadly campanulate, ca. 1 mm, 4-parted nearly 1/2 of way to base; petals white or greenish, obovate, 2-2.5 mm; stamens 8. Female flowers: bracteoles pectinate, 1-5 × as long as flower; calyx tubular, shortly lobed; petals greenish or white, minute. Fruit 4-loculed, subglobose, ca. 3 mm; mericarps smooth or sparsely verrucose along margins. Fl. and fr. Apr-Sep.
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Description

Submerged perennial. Stem thick, up to 3 m long, simple, rarely branching, glabrous. Rhizome rooting. Leaves 20-35 mm long, pinnatisect, segments 20-35, linear and filiform. Spike 10-30 cm long. Bracts 10-25 mm long, pectinate, the lower most sterile. Flowers sessile, in whorls of (4-) 5, in the axils of bracts, the upper male, the lower female with a few bisexual ones in between. Male flower: calyx tube c. 1 mm long, lobes triangular; petals 4, oblong-ovate, 2.5-3 mm long, greenish-yellow. Stamens 8, filaments slender; anthers c. 2 mm long. Female flower: calyx as in the male; petals lacking. Ovary subglobose, c. 2 mm long, 4-locular; style short, stigmas plumose. Fruit a schizocarp. Seeds elongated, 1.5 mm long, smooth.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Myriophyllum limosum Hectot ex Candolle.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Shallow sluggish water of ponds and streams.

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Stagnant waters, lakes, ditches, slow streams, occasionally drying ponds; near sea level to 3500 m.
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / gall
Physoderma myriophylli causes gall of tumoured leaf of Myriophyllum verticillatum

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl.Per.: July-August.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Myriophyllum verticillatum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Myriophyllum verticillatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Cosmopolitan. It grows in lakes and ponds throughout the boreal regions of North America, Europe, and Asia.

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Wikipedia

Myriophyllum verticillatum

The whorled water milfoil, Myriophyllum verticillatum is an invasive aquatic plant.

With the increase in water sports, the spread of many water milfoils (Haloragaceae) has increased over the years. The spread of a milfoil is not only within one area but, sometimes it spread from one area to another many miles away.

To the untrained eye the species of whorled water milfoil can all look similar to other species. Whorled water milfoil (Myriophyllum verticillatum) is a native to much of the United States, Alaska, and the United Kingdom. Whorled water milfoil closely resembles another native milfoil, called northern water milfoil (M. sibiricum)[1] Whorled water milfoil is also easily confused with four types of invasive milfoils: Eurasian water milfoil (M. spicatum), Variable water-milfoil (M. heterophyllum), Parrot feather (M. aquaticum), and hybrid water milfoil (M. heterophyllum X M. laxum).

Description and identification[edit]

The best way to identify whorled water milfoil (M. verticillatum) is by looking at its two different types of leaves. The first type is the submersed leave, which looks feathery and contain about 5 to 14 leaflet pairs per leaf. (Bottom of Photo 3) The whorls along the stem contain about 4 to 5 leaves, which are spaced about 1 cm apart. The other type is known as the emergent leaves. These leaves occur on the emergent spike and are pinnately lobed. From June till September whorled water milfoil produces flowers and fruits above or at the water's surface on erect spikes along the emergent leaves. The emergent leaves are typically two or more times longer than the flowers and fruits.[2]

Another way to distinguish whorled water milfoil is to look for turions, winter buds that appear toward the end of its growing season. This milfoil is one of a few that produce turions. This characteristic can also rule out other types of water milfoil that lack turions such as Eurasian water milfoil, parrot feather, hybrid water milfoil, and low water milfoil. The turions of this milfoil look like long yellowish-green club-shaped buds with small stiff leaves attached to the submerged stem. In the spring after dormancy the small, thick, dark green turions expand and grow from the stem. As the plant develops roots and continues to grow, the larger green summer leaves are produced at the tip of the plant. Turion leaves can be seen at the base of the plant sometimes into July.[3] In fall the turions, with some other plant material, often break away from the majority of the rooted plant and float to new areas. Those fragments can be found washing up along shorelines in late fall. The stems of the whorled water milfoil form into mats from branched and unbranched stems that grow to be 20 to 100 inches long.

Habitat[edit]

Most whorled water milfoil occurs in semi-shallow ponds, lakes, marshes, ditches and slow running streams of lowland districts [4] Milfoil thrives in areas with a light sandy bottom and medium loamy soils. Overall, the plant grows best in still waters with alkaline soils.[5] Whorled water milfoil is sometimes found with or near other aquatic plants, such as some types of pondweed (Potamogeton strictifolius) and (Potamogeton ogdenii), water star-grass (Heteranthera dubia) and water-marigold (Megalodonta beckii).[6]

Distribution[edit]

Native in North America, Alaska, British Columbia, United Kingdom, Asia, N. Africa, and invasive to Ireland.

Propagation and reproduction[edit]

Whorled water-milfoil reproduces by producing turions between September and November each year. These over-wintering turions sink to the bottom of the floor where they remain dormant until February [Caffrey,2006]. These fragments will give rise to numerous small thin roots that bed into soil to start growing in spring. The plants are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by wind.

Control and uses[edit]

Whorled water milfoil is a good water oxygenator in small quantities such as fish and frog ponds. It is also ideal in providing protection and respiration for fish spawn [5] Management of whorled water milfoil is not exactly know, but natural competition with other invasive aquatic plants has been main control so far.[7] There are a few management practices that some places are using, but they have not been approved for long-term usage.

References[edit]

  • Caffrey, J.M., 2006. Control of myriophyllum verticilltum L. in Irish canals by turion removal: Hydrobiologia, 2006, 570:211-215.
  • Chadde, Steve, 2002. A Great Lakes Wetland Flora, 2nd Edition, PocketFlora Press, Laurium, Michigan, pp 229 and 231.
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Notes

Comments

In its terrestrial form this species may fully develop as small plants, with few leaf segments, and often set fruit better than the aquatic form.
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Comments

Grows in thickets in lakes and ponds. Found abundantly in the Kashmir Valley lakes. Collected here in a stream in the Salt Range, Jhelum Dist. at c. 700 m.
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