Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Annual or biennial herb, to 40 cm, with a basal rosette of oblanceolate leaves, entire or deeply pinnatifid. Cauline leaves amplexicaul. Hairs simple or stellate. Flowers 2.5 mm in diameter, white. Fruit 6-9 mm, triangular-obcordate.
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Derivation of specific name

bursa-pastoris: shepherd's purse (referring to the fruit)
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Comments

Shepherd's Purse is an easy plant to identify among members of the Mustard family because of the distinctive shape of its seedpods. This shape apparently resembles the leather purse of shepherds during the Middle Ages. The hairiness of the flowering stalks and the shape of the leaves is rather variable across different populations of plants. Sometimes the basal leaves are deeply lobed, while on other occasions they are shallowly lobed.
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Description

This plant is usually a winter annual, although sometimes it is a summer annual. It consists of a rosette of basal leaves up to 9" across, from which one or more flowering stalks develop that are little branched and up to 2½' tall (although individual plants can be much smaller than this). The basal leaves are up to 4½" long and ¾" across; they are elliptic, lanceolate, or oblanceolate, and pinnately lobed. The alternate leaves on the flowering stalks are much smaller in size and widely spaced; they are lanceolate, elliptic or linear in shape, and either smooth or slightly dentate along their margins. The bases of the alternate leaves are either sessile or they clasp their stalks with auriculate (ear-like) lobes. Both the basal and alternate leaves are medium to dark green and mostly hairless, although the lower sides of their central veins are often covered with appressed hairs. The terete stalks are light green to dark reddish purple (usually the latter), and they are usually glabrous above and appressed-hairy below.
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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Naturalized, Native of Europe"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

A cosmopolitan weed
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Range and Habitat in Illinois

Shepherd's Purse is a common plant that occurs in every county of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It was introduced into North America from Europe. Habitats include fields and pastures, areas along railroads and roadsides, gardens and lawns, construction sites, vacant lots, dirt paths, and waste ground. These habitats can be either sandy or non-sandy. Shepherd's Purse is found in highly disturbed areas, often where the soil surface has been exposed. Faunal Associations
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Satara Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Nilgiri"
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"
Global Distribution

Cosmopolitan except the tropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Idukki

"
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region.

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Global Distribution

Cosmopolitan, especially temperate and warm regions.

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Distribution: Cosmopolitan in cooler climates mostly.
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Widely distributed in temperate regions.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annual or biennial, up to 45 cm tall, erect, glabrous or hairy with simple or branched hairs. Basal leaves rosulate, very variable, usually pinnatifid (lyrate to almost entire), 5-8-jugate, shortly stalked, usually up to 8 cm long, 2 cm broad; cauline leaves smaller, sessile. ± auricled and clasping the stem. Racemes many flowered, up to 30 cm long in fruit. Flowers c. 2.5 mm across, white; pedicels up to 18 mm long in fruit, spreading. Sepals c. 1.5 mm long, l mm broad. Petals c. 2.5 mm long, 1 mm broad, obovate-oblong, cuneate. Stamens c. 1.5: 2 mm long. Siliculae obcordate- triangular, 5-9 mm long, 4-6 mm broad; valves usually with straight margins; apical notch wide, V-shaped ; style c. 0.5 mm long, hardly or not exceeding the notch; septum c. 1 mm broad, seeds 6-12 in each locule, c. 1 mm long, oblong-elliptic, pale brown.
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Elevation Range

1800-4500 m
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Description

Herbs (2-)10-50(-70) cm tall, sparsely to densely pubescent with sessile, 3-5-rayed stellate trichomes often mixed near base of plant with much longer simple trichomes. Stems erect, simple or branched. Basal leaves rosulate; petiole 0.5-4(-6) cm; leaf blade oblong or oblanceolate, (0.5-)1.5-10(-15) × 0.2-2.5(-5) cm, base cuneate or attenuate, margin pinnatisect, pinnatifid, runcinate, lyrate, dentate, repand, or entire, apex acute or acuminate. Cauline leaves sessile, sagittate, amplexicaul, or rarely auriculate, narrowly oblong, lanceolate, or linear, 1-5.5 (-8) cm × 1-15(-20) mm, margin entire or dentate. Fruiting pedicels (0.3-)0.5-1.5(-2) cm, divaricate, usually straight, slender, glabrous. Sepals green or reddish, oblong, 1.5-2 × 0.7-1 mm, margin membranous. Petals white, rarely pinkish or yellowish, obovate, (1.5-)2-4(-5) × 1-1.5 mm. Filaments white, 1-2 mm; anthers ovate, to 0.5 mm. Fruit (3-)4-9(-10) × (2-)3-7(-9) mm, flat, base cuneate, apex emarginate or truncate; valves with subparallel lateral veins, glabrous; style 0.2-0.7 mm. Seeds brown, oblong, 0.9-1.1 × 0.4-0.6 mm. Fl. and fr. Apr-Jul. 2n = 16, 32*.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Annual herbs, sparsely branched, erect, to 30 cm high, glabrous. Basal leaves 6-14 x 2-3.5 cm, short-stalked, rosulate, oblong-lanceolate or spathulate, pinnatipartite; cauline ones 1-7 x 0.2-2 cm, ovate-lanceolate, amplexicaul, serrate-dentate or entire, acute at apex. Racemes congested at anthesis, much elongate at maturity, to 25 cm long in fruit; pedicels spreading to horizontal. Sepals oblong, obtuse, ca 2 x 1 mm, usually green. Petals 4, spreading, lanceolate, 2-3 x 0.5-1 mm, white. Fruits obcordate to 3-angled, laterally compressed, scarcely attenuate at base, slightly emarginate at apex with a wide apical notch, 5-9 x 3.5-6 mm; seeds numerous, minute, ca 1 mm long, reddish brown to black."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Synonym

Thlaspi bursa-pastoris Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 647. 1753; for more than 250 synonyms, see Index Kewensis.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Shepherd's Purse is a common plant that occurs in every county of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It was introduced into North America from Europe. Habitats include fields and pastures, areas along railroads and roadsides, gardens and lawns, construction sites, vacant lots, dirt paths, and waste ground. These habitats can be either sandy or non-sandy. Shepherd's Purse is found in highly disturbed areas, often where the soil surface has been exposed. Faunal Associations
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General Habitat

Cultivated
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Weeds of cultivation.

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Habitat & Distribution

Roadsides, gardens, fields, waste areas, mountain slopes. Throughout China [native to SW Asia and Europe; naturalized elsewhere as a cosmopolitan weed].
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Shepherd's Purse in Illinois

Capsella bursa-pastoris (Shepherd's Purse) introduced
(Short-tongued bees suck nectar or collect pollen; most flies suck nectar, although some flies also feed on pollen; other insects suck nectar; Robertson's observations occurred during the spring)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn fq; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Synhalonia speciosa sn; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada parva sn; Megachilidae (Trypetini): Chelostoma philadelphi sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella aurata sn cp fq, Halictus confusus sn cp, Halictus ligatus, Halictus rubicunda sn cp, Lasioglossum anomalis sn cp, Lasioglossum coreopsis sn cp, Lasioglossum cressonii sn, Lasioglossum forbesii sn cp, Lasioglossum foxii sn cp fq, Lasioglossum imitatus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum pectoralis sn cp, Lasioglossum tegularis sn cp, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn cp; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus mesillae sn; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena arabis sn cp fq, Andrena cressonii sn cp fq, Andrena forbesii sn, Andrena imitatrix imitatrix sn cp, Andrena miserabilis bipunctata sn, Andrena nasonii sn cp, Andrena personata sn cp fq

Wasps
Vespidae: Polistes fuscata sn

Flies
Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua sn, Eristalis arbustorum sn fq, Eristalis dimidiatus sn fp, Helophilus fasciatus sn, Helophilus latifrons sn, Mallota bautias sn, Melanostoma mellinum sn, Sphaerophoria contiqua sn, Syritta pipiens sn fp, Toxmerus geminatus sn, Toxomerus marginatus sn; Bombyliidae: Aldrichia ehrmanii sn fp; Conopidae: Thecophora occidensis sn, Zodion fulvifrons sn; Tachinidae: Gonia capitata sn, Periscepsia laevigata sn, Siphona geniculata sn fq, Tachinomyia panaetius sn; Sarcophagidae: Gymnoprosopa polita sn, Helicobia rapax sn, Sarcophaga sinuata sn; Calliphoridae: Cynomya cadaverina sn fq, Lucilia illustris sn, Lucilia sericata sn; Anthomyiidae: Delia platura sn; Fanniidae: Fannia manicata sn

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Chlosyne nycteis sn, Phyciodes tharos sn; Pieridae: Pontia protodice sn

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Erynnis martialis sn, Pholisora catullus sn, Polites peckius sn

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / false gall
colony of Albugo candida causes swelling of live, discoloured, distorted leaf of young plant of Capsella bursa-pastoris
Remarks: season: esp. 10-11
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Ceutorhynchus erysimi feeds on Capsella bursa-pastoris

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Chromatomyia horticola may be found in leaf-mine (end of) of Capsella bursa-pastoris

Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe cruciferarum parasitises live Capsella bursa-pastoris

Animal / pathogen
Rhizoctonia anamorph of Helicobasidium purpureum infects root of Capsella bursa-pastoris

Foodplant / sap sucker
Macrosiphum avenae sucks sap of live Capsella bursa-pastoris

Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Pseudocercosporella anamorph of Mycosphaerella capsellae causes spots on live leaf of Capsella bursa-pastoris

Foodplant / spot causer
hypophyllous colony of sporangium of Peronospora parasitica causes spots on live leaf of Capsella bursa-pastoris
Remarks: season: 1-4
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Phaedon cochleariae grazes on live leaf of Capsella bursa-pastoris
Remarks: season: 5-9

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Population Biology

Frequency

Frequent in high rainfall areas, mainly the E Highlands
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: March-October
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: March June.
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Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Capsella bursa-pastoris

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Capsella bursa-pastoris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 16
Specimens with Barcodes: 40
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Capsella bursa-pastoris

Capsella bursa-pastoris, known by its common name shepherd's-purse because of its triangular, purse-like pods, is a small (up to 0.5 m) annual and ruderal species, and a member of the Brassicaceae or mustard family. It is native to eastern Europe and Asia minor[1] but is naturalized and considered a common weed in many parts of the world, especially in colder climates,[2] including Britain, where it is regarded as an archaeophyte,[3][4] North America[5][6] and China[7] but also in the Mediterranean and North Africa.[1] Capsella bursa-pastoris is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana and is also used as a model organism due to the variety of genes expressed throughout its life cycle that can be compared to genes that are well studied in A. thaliana. Unlike most flowering plants, it flowers almost all year round.[6][7] Like many other annual ruderals exploiting disturbed ground, C. bursa-pastoris reproduces entirely from seed, has a long soil seed bank,[3] and short generation time[1] and is capable of producing several generations each year.

Description[edit]

rosette (a), pointed leaves, flowers (c–e), pods (i, k)

C. bursa-pastoris plants grow from a rosette of lobed leaves at the base. From the base emerges a stem about 0.2 to 0.5 m tall, which bears a few pointed leaves which partly grasp the stem. The flowers are white and small, in loose racemes, and produce seed pods which are heart-shaped.[6]

Like a number of other plants in several plant families, its seeds contain a substance known as mucilage, a condition known as myxospermy.[8] The adaptive value of myxospermy is unknown,[8] although the fact that mucilage becomes sticky when wet has led some to propose that C. bursa-pastoris traps insects which then provide nutrients to the seedling, which would make it protocarnivorous.[9]

Uses[edit]

C. bursa-pastoris is gathered from the wild[10] or grown[11] for food,[11][7] to supplement animal feed,[10] for cosmetics,[10] and for medicinal purposes.[7][10] It is commonly used as food in Shanghai and the surrounding Jiangnan region, where they are stir-fried with rice cakes and other ingredients or as part of the filling in wontons.[citation needed] It is one of the ingredients of the symbolic dish consumed in the Japanese spring-time festival, Nanakusa-no-sekku. In Korea it is known as naengi and its roots are one of the ingredients of the characteristic Korean dish, namul (fresh greens and wild vegetables).[12]

Capsella bursa-pastoris herb has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea or tincture, or externally as tincture, tea or ointments, for treatment of disorders of the skin, locomotor system, cardiovascular system, hemostasis, and gynaecologic problems.[13]

Fumaric acid is one chemical substance that has been isolated from C. bursa-pastoris.[14]

Parasites[edit]

Capsella bursa-pastoris
Simplified Chinese荠菜
Traditional Chinese薺菜

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Aksoy A, Dixon JM and Hale WH (1998) Biological flora of the British Isles. Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medikus (Thlaspi bursapastoris L., Bursa bursa-pastoris (L.) Shull, Bursa pastoris (L.) Weber). Journal of Ecology 86: 171-186
  2. ^ "Capsella bursa-pastoris". Flora of Pakistan. 
  3. ^ a b Preston CD, Pearman DA & Dines TD (2002) New Atlas of the British Flora. Oxford University Press
  4. ^ Preston CD, Pearman DA & Hall AR(2004) Archaeophytes in Britain. Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society 145, 257-294
  5. ^ USDA PLANTS Profile: Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik
  6. ^ a b c Blanchan, Neltje (2005). Wild Flowers Worth Knowing. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Capsella bursa-pastoris". Flora of China. 
  8. ^ a b Tamara L. Western, Debra J. Skinner, and George W. Haughn (February 2000). "Differentiation of Mucilage Secretory Cells of the Arabidopsis Seed Coat". Plant Physiology 122 (2): 345–355. doi:10.1104/pp.122.2.345. PMC 58872. PMID 10677428. 
  9. ^ Barber, J.T. (1978). "Capsella bursa-pastoris seeds: Are they "carnivorous"?". Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 7 (2): 39–42. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Capsella bursa-pastoris (Ecocrop code 4164)". ecocrop. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 
  11. ^ a b "Capsella bursa-pastoris - (L.)Medik.". Plants For A Future database report. 
  12. ^ Pratt, Keith L.; Richard Rutt; James Hoare (1999). Korea: a historical and cultural dictionary. Richmond, Surrey.: Curzon Press. pp. pp. 310–310. ISBN 0-7007-0464-7. 
  13. ^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH,Wawrosch C, Reznicek G, Dirsch VM, Saukel J, Kopp B. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine - An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs. J Ethnopharmacol.2013 Jun13. doi:pii: S0378-8741(13)00410-8. 10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23770053. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770053
  14. ^ Kuroda, K.; Akao, M.; Kanisawa, M.; Miyaki, K. (1976). "Inhibitory effect of Capsella bursa-pastoris extract on growth of Ehrlich solid tumor in mice". Cancer Research 36 (6): 1900–1903. PMID 1268843.  edit

See also[edit]

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Notes

Comments

‘Shepherds purse’ is a very variable species, especially in size and shape of leaves, siliculae and hairiness. It has strong tendency for developing distinctive populations because of self pollination. Some of its forms superficially resemble C. rubella Reuter, from the Mediterranean region, with somewhat concave margin of the siliculae, but the sepals are not pinkish and petals not so small.

Seeds contain about 15-20% oil.

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Comments

This species is used as a vegetable and in the treatment of eye diseases and dysentery. It is the second most common weed on Earth.
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