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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Heilongjiang, Jilin [Japan, Korea, Russia (Far East); extremely widespread in North and South America; naturalized in Asia, Australia, Europe, and New Zealand].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs perennial, erect, with compact leafy rosettes or rarely fleshy turions that leave brown basal scales. Stems (10-)25-90(-150) cm tall, well-branched or rarely simple, strigillose and glandular pubescent, sparsely pubescent or glabrescent below, with raised strigillose lines decurrent from margins of petioles. Leaves sessile above, lower ones with petioles 1-3 mm; cauline blade lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 2.5-6(-7) × 0.6-1.5(-2) cm, subglabrous except for strigillose margin and veins, base rounded or rarely subcordate, margin serrulate with 10-30 teeth per side, apex acute to subacuminate. Inflorescence and flowers erect. Sepals 2.4-3.5 mm, keeled. Petals pink or white, rarely rose-purple, 3.5-5(-7) mm. Stigma clavate to cylindric, entire. Capsules 4.5-7 cm, sparsely strigillose and glandular; pedicels 0.5-0.8(-1.4) cm. Seeds brown, 0.8-1.2 mm, with conspicuous longitudinal ridges of flattened, fused papillae, with chalazal collar 0.08-0.1 mm; coma dull white, readily detaching. Fl. Jul-Aug(-Sep), fr. Aug-Oct. 2n = 36.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Epilobium glandulosum Lehmann var. asiaticum H. Hara; E. glandulosum var. kurilense (Nakai) H. Hara; E. kurilense Nakai; E. maximowiczii Haussknecht; E. punctatum H. Léveillé.
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Ecology

Habitat

Moist disturbed places along streams, rivers, roadside ditches, slopes, and seeps; (700-)1200-2100 m.
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Associations

Foodplant / pathogen
aecium of Puccinia pulverulenta infects and damages live Epilobium ciliatum

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Sphaerotheca epilobii parasitises live Epilobium ciliatum
Remarks: season: 8-10

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Epilobium ciliatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Epilobium glandulosum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Threats

Comments: Highly threatened by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, sedimentation, and forest management practices (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Wikipedia

Epilobium ciliatum

Epilobium ciliatum is a species of Epilobium known by the common names Fringed Willowherb, Slender Willow herb, and Northern Willow herb. This plant is native to much of North America, southern South America, and East Asia. It is an introduced species in much of Eurasia and Australia.[1]

This perennial herbaceous plant usually occurs in wetlands, but may be found in a great variety of habitats, including disturbed areas and roadsides, at elevations below 1,400 metres (4,600 ft).[1]

Description[edit]

Epilobium ciliatum is a clumping perennial often exceeding 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) in height. It has thickly veined lance-shaped leaves which may be up to 15 centimeters long toward the base of the plant. The foliage, stem, and inflorescence are covered in bristly hairs and glands.

There are four sepals. The regular, trumpet-shaped flowers have four petals which are so deeply notched they look like four pairs. They are white to light purple or pink with dark veining. There are eight stamens and a club-shaped stigma. The fruit is a narrow, hairy, four-chambered capsule up to 10 centimeters in length which may be held on a long stalk. The seeds are downy and can float for long distances with the wind.[2]

Subspecies[edit]

Three subspecies are currently recognized:

Taxonomy[edit]

Epilobium ciliatum may be a cryptic species complex. The Rocky Mountain Willowherb (Epilobium saximontanum) is sometimes included as yet another subspecies.

The three currently recognized subspecies may each consititute a distinct species. If so, E. ciliatum ssp. watsonii would perhaps use the name E. adenocaulon and include those populations, while E. ciliatum ssp. glandulosum would perhaps use the name E. bergianum and include those populations. The others named E. ciliatum ssp. ciliatum populations would remain.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Epilobium ciliatum is native to the southern part of Canada and most of the United States of America. It arrivad in northern Europe early in the 20th century and spread rapidly, reaching Finland in about 1920. It is a plant of moist places, stream-sides, ditches, ponds, gardens, roadsides, recently cleared areas and wasteland.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jepson . accessed 07.18.2013
  2. ^ a b "American Willowherb". NatureGate. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  3. ^ Jepson: Epilobium ciliatum ssp. ciliatum
  4. ^ USDA: Epilobium ciliatum ssp. ciliatum
  5. ^ Jepson: Epilobium ciliatum ssp. glandulosum
  6. ^ USDA: Epilobium ciliatum ssp. glandulosum
  7. ^ Jepson: Epilobium ciliatum ssp. watsonii
  8. ^ USDA:Epilobium ciliatum ssp. watsonii
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Notes

Comments

This variable taxon, which probably originated in North America, has become the most widespread and abundant species of Epilobium worldwide. Epilobium ciliatum subsp. glandulosum (Lehmann) Hoch & P. H. Raven occurs throughout montane and boreal North America; E. ciliatum subsp. watsonii (Barbey) Hoch & P. H. Raven occurs along the North American Pacific shoreline from C California to British Columbia.
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