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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Erect or decumbent, much-branched perennial herb, often flowering in the first year. Flowers pink. Petals relatively small, 5-8 mm.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Derivation of specific name

rosea: rose, rosy
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Naturalized, Native of America"
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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America"
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Of S American origin; widespread as a weed in the warm parts of the world
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Pune, Satara"
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"Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Coorg, Mysore Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Theni"
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Guizhou, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan; native to S North America and N South America, frequently cultivated and naturalized in SW Asia, Australia, Europe, and South America].
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Distribution: Native from central and southern Texas, USA, throughout Mexico and Central America to El Salvador, and throughout South America; naturalized throughout the warmer regions of the world. Sandy to clay soils, along creeks or in low weedy places, l000-2000 m elev. According to Stewart (loc. cit. 508. 1972), O. rosea is an old introduction from Mexico, which has run wild in many areas of Pakistan. He lists the following additional localities for which I have not seen specimens: Hazara, Poonch, Kashmir, Jhelum Valley. Fl. Per.: Apr-Sep.
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Native of Peru; widely naturalised in Europe, Himalaya, India, Burma.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs ascending to decumbent, perennial, rhizomatous and sometimes suffrutescent from woody caudex, rarely with basal rosette. Stems 7-65 cm, simple or branched, strigillose, sometimes with longer spreading hairs. Leaves green, with inconspicuous veins, glabrous to sparsely strigillose; petioles 3-20 mm; basal blade 2-5 × 0.5-2 cm; cauline blade elliptic to oblanceolate or oblong-ovate, 1-6 × 0.4-2.5 cm, base attenuate, margin subentire to coarsely dentate, sometimes sinuate-pinnatifid at leaf base, apex acute to obtuse. Inflorescence a lax open simple raceme. Flowers open near sunrise; floral tube 4-10 mm. Sepals 5-10 mm, with free tips 0.4-1 mm. Petals pink to rose-purple, 5-12 mm. Anthers 2-3.5 mm; pollen ca. 50% fertile. Ovary usually densely strigillose; stigma surrounded by anthers. Capsules clavate or narrowly obovoid, 4-12 mm, valves angled or weakly winged, attenuate to slender sterile stipe (pedicel) 5-20 mm. Seeds in several indistinct rows per locule, brown with dark spot at each end, obovoid, 0.5-1.2 mm, finely papillose. Fl. May-Nov, fr. Jun-Dec. 2n = 14, permanent translocation heterozygote; self-compatible, autogamous.
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Elevation Range

1100-2500 m
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Description

Well-branched perennial herb, flowering the first year, stems ascending, 1-4 dm tall, densely strigillose, rarely mixed with sparse villous hairs. Leaves subentire or sinuate-pinnatifid, elliptic or rarely narrowly ovate, 2-5 x 1-2.5 cm, the petiole 2-25 mm long. Flowers opening near sunrise; mature buds erect. Floral tube 4-8 mm long. Sepals 7-12 mm long; sepal tips 0.1-0.5 mm long. Petals rose to rose-purple, obovate, 4-12 mm long. Style 0.8-1.4 cm long; the stigma surrounded by the anthers at anthesis. Capsule clavate, 1.3-3 cm long, tapering to a sterile stipe-like portion 0.5-2 cm long, the ridge on each valve ± prominent, the valve narrowly winged. Seeds in several indistinct rows in each locule, oblong-obovoid to obovoid, 0.7-0.9 mm long, the surface finely granular, with a dark spot at each end. Self-compatible and self-pollinating. Gametic chromosome number, n = 7 (rings of 14 in meiotic metaphase I).
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Synonym

Hartmannia rosea (L' HJr. ex Ait.) G. Don in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3. 236. 1839.
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Type Information

Type collection for Oenothera rosea var. parvifolia J.M. Coult.
Catalog Number: US 47098
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. C. Nealley
Year Collected: 1889
Locality: Limpia Canyon., Presidio, Texas, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Coulter, J. M. 1890. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 1: 38.
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Ecology

Habitat

Disturbed habitats along creeks and in low weedy places; 1000-2000 m.
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Population Biology

Frequency

Common
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Oenothera rosea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Oenothera rosea

Oenothera rosea, also known as pink evening primrose or Rose of Mexico, is a plant belonging to the genus Oenothera and native to northern Mexico and Texas.[1]

Oenothera rosea has flowers with less than 2.5 cm (1 in) diameter. The shade varies from pink to red.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Botanica. The Illustrated AZ of over 10000 garden plants and how to cultivate them", p. 612. Könemann, 2004. ISBN 3-8331-1253-0
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Notes

Comments

One collection of Oenothera rhombipetala Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray has been collected in Afghanistan, Mazar-i-Sharif, Koelz 13192 (NA), and perhaps it may also occur in Pakistan. This species is easily distinguished from the others by its dense terminal spikes 1-3 dm long of yellow flowers, the slender buds 2-4 mm in diameter, rhombic-obovate petals and arcuate-cylindric capsules 12-16 mm long and ca. 2.5 mm in diameter. Oenothera rhombipetala is native in the Great Plains of the United States.
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