Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Size

20-60 cm

  • Wegweiser durch die Natur, Die Tiere und Pflanzen Mitteleuropas, Komet Verlag (Januar 2006), ISBN: 978-3898365512
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Ecology

Habitat

Wet habitats in shay forests

  • Wegweiser durch die Natur, Die Tiere und Pflanzen Mitteleuropas, Komet Verlag (Januar 2006), ISBN: 978-3898365512
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Enchanter's Nightshade in Illinois

Circaea lutetiana (Enchanter's Nightshade)
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen; wasps and most flies suck nectar; some flies feed on pollen & are non-pollinating; observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Bombini): Bombus pensylvanica sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella striata sn cp fq, Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn cp, Lasioglossum fuscipennis sn cp fq, Lasioglossum imitatus sn, Lasioglossum macoupinensis sn cp fq, Lasioglossum obscurus sn cp, Lasioglossum pectinatus sn cp, Lasioglossum pectoralis sn, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq

Wasps
Chalcididae: Conura debilis

Flies
Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua sn, Ocyptamus fuscipennis sn, Toxomerus geminatus sn, Toxomerus marginatus sn; Bombyliidae: Anthrax oedipus fp np, Hemipenthes sinuosa fp np

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
cleistothecium of Erysiphe circaeae parasitises live leaf of Circaea lutetiana
Remarks: season: 9-10

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Metatropis rufescens ssp. rufescens sucks sap of Circaea lutetiana

Foodplant / spot causer
scattered pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta lutetiana causes spots on leaf of Circaea lutetiana
Remarks: season: 8

Foodplant / parasite
telium of Puccinia circaeae parasitises live stem of Circaea lutetiana
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous telium of Pucciniastrum circaeae parasitises live leaf of Circaea lutetiana
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
hypophyllous colony of Ramularia anamorph of Ramularia caduca causes spots on live leaf of Circaea lutetiana

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Tenthredo colon grazes on live leaf of Circaea lutetiana

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Circaea lutetiana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Circaea lutetiana

Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade) is a plant in the evening primrose family, Onagraceae.

The genus name comes from the enchantress Circe of Greek mythology and the generic designation is derived from Lutetia, the Latin name for Paris. Paris at one time was known as the "Witch City". Despite its name it is not especially toxic, but contains a lot of the astringent tannin.[1]

Description[edit]

Flowering plants

Circaea lutetiana is a perennial herbaceous plant with opposite, simple leaves, on slender, green stems. The flowers are white, borne in summer. It grows 20 cm to 60 cm, rarely up to 75 centimeters high.[2]

The leaves are rounded or slightly notched at the base, they narrow gradually to the pointed tip and are not strongly toothed, but have sinuate edges. The leaf stalks are equally hairy all round.[3]

The flower has 2 notched petals, 2 stamens and a 2-lobed stigma. The open flowers are well spaced along the stalk and there are no bracts at base of individual flower stalks. The fruit consists of 2 equal cells, and usually sets seed. The flower stalks become angled downwards before fruiting.[4]

In winter the aerial parts die off leaving an underground rhizome.

Distribution[edit]

The plant is native to Europe, Middle Asia and Siberia. They grow in woods in deep shade and moist environments on nitrogen-containing clay.

Gardening[edit]

It is only rarely used as a garden plant, one variety is known as 'Caveat Emptor', has leaves that are heavily mottled pink.

Uses[edit]

Circaea lutetiana herb has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea, or externally as cold maceration in ethanol, for treatment of rheumatism, gout, infections, and fever.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alchemy Works Accessed April 2014
  2. ^ Natural England. Accessed July 2011
  3. ^ English Country Garden Accessed July 2011
  4. ^ Plant Identification UK Accessed July 2011
  5. ^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH,Wawrosch C, Reznicek G, Dirsch VM, Saukel J, Kopp B. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine - An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs. J Ethnopharmacol.2013 Jun13. doi:pii: S0378-8741(13)00410-8. 10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23770053. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770053


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