Overview

Brief Summary

History in the United States

Autumn olive was introduced into the United States in 1830 and widely planted as an ornamental, for wildlife habitat, as windbreaks and to restore deforested and degraded lands.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Shrubs, deciduous, erect with branchlets spreading. New branches and buds silvery scaly. Petiole 3-8 mm; leaf blade obovate, 2.2-5.5 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, papery, abaxially densely white scaly, adaxially sparsely scaly when young, lateral veins 5-8 per side of midrib, base cuneate, apex acute to obtuse. Flowers 1-5-fasciculate in axils of both long and short shoots; pedicel 3-6 mm, to 1.2 cm in fruit. Flowers silvery white. Calyx tube funnel-shaped, 5-7 mm, slender; lobes triangular-ovate, 2.8-3 mm. Filaments ca. 0.7 mm; anthers elliptic, 1.8-2 mm. Style 6-7 mm, with stellate hairs; stigma ca. 2.2 mm. Drupe red, nearly globose, 8-9 mm. Seed ca. 7 mm.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: Elaeagnus umbellata is native to China, Korea and Japan and was introduced to the United States for cultivation in 1830 (Rehder 1940). It occurs from Maine to New Jersey and Pennsylvania (Fernald 1950) and west to Wisconsin, Illinois, and Missouri (Holtz 1981).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

More info for the term: nonnative species

Autumn-olive occurs throughout the eastern United States, from Maine, west to Wisconsin, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Arkansas, and Louisiana, and south into Florida [5,9,26,27,36,38,46,51,57,63,71,75,77,78]. It also occurs in southern and eastern Ontario [4] and Hawaii [73]. Kartesz and Meacham [29] recognize E. umbellata var. parvifolia, with the same distribution as autumn-olive.

Northern distribution of invasive autumn-olive populations in North America may be limited by cold intolerance from USDA climate zone 5 north [55], although one cultivar has been described as "hardy" to zone 6 [25]. Autumn-olive is native to Asia and was introduced to North America around 1830 [5,19,51,57,65,71,77].

The following biogeographic classification systems demonstrate where autumn-olive could potentially be found based on floras and other literature, herbarium samples, and confirmed observations. Predicting distribution of nonnative species is difficult due to gaps in understanding of their biological and ecological characteristics, and because they may still be expanding their range. These lists are speculative and may not be accurately restrictive or complete.

  • 46. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 4. Catling, P. M.; Oldham, M. J.; Sutherland, D. A.; Brownell, V. R.; Larson, B. M. H. 1997. The recent spread of autumn-olive, Elaeagnus umbellata, into southern Ontario and its current status. Canadian Field Naturalist. 111(3): 376-380. [44941]
  • 5. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124]
  • 9. Ebinger, John E.; McClain, William. 1996. Recent exotic woody plant introductions into the Illinois flora. In: Warwick, Charles, ed. 15th North American prairie conference: Proceedings; 1996 October 23-26; St. Charles, IL. Bend, OR: The Natural Areas Association: 55-58. [30251]
  • 19. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 25. Higginbotham, Julie S. 1990. New plants for 1990. Part II: selections from universities, botanic gardens, arboretums and foundations for Zone 5 and warmer. American Nurseryman. 171(4): 40-49. [45107]
  • 26. Hill, Steven R. 1996. The flora of Latimer Point and vicinity, New London County, Connecticut. Rhodora. 98(894): 180-216. [44935]
  • 27. Hunter, John C.; Mattice, Jennifer A. 2002. The spread of woody exotics into the forests of a northeastern landscape, 1938-1999. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 129(3): 220-227. [42500]
  • 36. Madarish, Darlene M.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Adams, Mary Beth. 2002. Vascular flora and macroscopic fauna on the Fernow Experimental Forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-291. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 37 p. [43783]
  • 51. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 55. Sternberg, Guy. 1996. Elaeagnus umbellata--autumn olive. In: Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden: 54. [44889]
  • 57. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 65. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1987. `Redwing' autumn olive. Program Aid Number 1392. Washington, DC. 4 p. [21592]
  • 71. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 73. Wagner, Warren L.; Herbst, Derral R.; Sohmer, S. H. 1989. Contributions to the flora of Hawaii. II. Begoniaceae--Violaceae and the monocotyledons. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 29: 88-130. [41847]
  • 75. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]
  • 77. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 806 p. [28655]
  • 29. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with the Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]
  • 38. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
  • 63. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region. 2001. Regional invasive exotic plant species list. Regional forester's list and ranking structure: invasive exotic plant species of management concern, [Online]. In: Invasive plants of southern states list. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer). Available: http://www.se-eppc.org/fslist.cfm [2003, August 25]. [44944]
  • 78. Yahner, R. H.; Storm, G. L.; Melton, R. E.; [and others]. 1991. Floral inventory and vegetative cover type mapping of Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site. Tech. Rep. NPS/MAR/NRTR - 91/050. Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mid-Atlantic Region. 149 p. [17987]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

States or Provinces

(key to state/province abbreviations)
UNITED STATES
AL AR CT FL GA HI
IL IN IA KS KY LA
ME MD MA MI MS MO
NE NH NJ NY NC OH
PA RI SC TN VT VA
WV WI

CANADA
ON

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [2]:

14 Great Plains
  • 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution and Habitat in the United States

Autumn olive is found from Maine to Virginia and west to Wisconsin in grasslands, fields, open woodlands and other disturbed areas. It is drought tolerant and thrives in a variety of soil and moisture conditions. Because autumn olive is capable of fixing nitrogen in its roots, it can grow on bare mineral substrates.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Origin

East Asia

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Gansu, Hubei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Japan, Korea, Nepal; naturalized in North America].
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Elaeagnus umbellata is occurring in Gansu, Hubei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang of China, Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Japan, Korea, Nepal, naturalized in North America.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution: Japan, Assam, China, Afghanistan and the Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: shrub, tree

The following description provides characteristics of autumn-olive that may be relevant to fire ecology and is not meant to be used for identification. Keys for identifying autumn-olive are available (e.g. [5,18,38,46,51,71,77]). Photos and descriptions of autumn-olive are also available online at the Invasive.org and Invasive Plant Atlas of New England websites.

Autumn-olive is a many-branched, deciduous shrub or shrubby tree, growing 10 to16 feet (3-5 m) tall [5,14,18,19,46,77]. Leaves are alternate [5,18,19,46,51,57], simple [19,46], and variable in size [19], ranging from 0.4 to 3 inches (1-8 cm) long and 0.4 to 1.6 inches (1-4 cm) wide [5,46,51]. Thorns several inches in length are formed on spur branches [55]. Autumn-olive fruits are single-seeded drupes, 0.2 to 0.4 inches (4-10 mm) in diameter, produced on pedicels [14,18,19,38,46,51,57].

Autumn-olive forms root nodules induced by symbiosis with actinomycetes in the soil. This symbiosis permits the fixation and subsequent utilization of atmospheric nitrogen [42,61,71].

The biology and ecology of autumn-olive are not well-studied in North America. More research is needed to better understand autumn-olive's key biological traits, habitat requirements and limitations, and interactions with native North American flora and fauna.

  • 46. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 5. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124]
  • 14. Fowler, Linda J.; Fowler, Dale K. 1987. Stratification and temperature requirements for germination of autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) seed. Tree Planter's Notes. 38(1): 14-17. [21550]
  • 18. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 19. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 42. Paschke, Mark W.; Dawson, Jeffrey O.; David, Mark B. 1989. Soil nitrogen mineralization under black walnut interplanted with autumn-olive or black alder. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 120-128. [9376]
  • 51. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 55. Sternberg, Guy. 1996. Elaeagnus umbellata--autumn olive. In: Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden: 54. [44889]
  • 57. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 61. Torrey, John G. 1978. Nitrogen fixation by actinomycete-nodulated angiosperms. Bioscience. 28(9): 586-592. [8517]
  • 71. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 77. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 806 p. [28655]
  • 38. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description and Biology

  • Plant: deciduous shrub that can grow to 20 ft. in height; stems, buds and leaves have a dense covering of silvery to rusty scales.
  • Leaves: alternate; deciduous; egg or lance-shaped, smooth margined, dull green above and often with brown scales beneath.
  • Flowers, fruits and seeds: flowers occur in June and July; aromatic, pale yellow, fused at the base with 4 petals pointed at the tips; fruits are produced August through October; small, red-brown to pink and dotted with brown or silvery scales; abundant.
  • Spreads: by seed that is dispersed by birds and mammals; some vegetative propagation also occurs.
  • Look-alikes: Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) leaves are narrow-elongate with silvery scales on both sides and fruit is mealy, yellow or silvery; thorny olive (E. pungens) has leaves that are persistent, egg-shaped with wavy margins, upper surfaces shiny green, lacking scales, and lower surfaces covered with dull white scales and dotted with light brown scales.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Shrubs, deciduous, erect with branchlets spreading. New branches and buds silvery scaly. Petiole 3-5(-10) mm; leaf blade obovate, 2.2-5.5(-8) × 1-1.6(-2.5) cm, papery, abaxially densely white scaly, adaxially sparsely scaly when young, lateral veins 5-8 per side of midrib, base cuneate, apex acute to obtuse. Flowers 1-3(-7)-fasciculate in axils of both long and short shoots; pedicel 3-6(-8) mm, to 1.2 cm in fruit. Flowers silvery white. Calyx tube funnel-shaped, 5-7 mm, slender; lobes triangular-ovate, 2.8-3 mm. Filaments ca. 0.7 mm; anthers elliptic, 1.8-2 mm. Style 6-7 mm, with stellate hairs; stigma ca. 2.2 mm. Drupe red, nearly globose, (6-)8-9 mm. Seed ca. 7 mm. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Jul-Aug. 2n = 28*.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

A small tree or shrub, often spiny. Shoots covered with peltate scales. Leaves 2-9 cm long, 0.8-3 cm broad, elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or acute, dull green above, with peltate and stellate hairs, lower surface sometimes with ferruginous scales. Petiole 2-6 mm long. Flowers in axillary clusters of 2-4. Pedicel 3.5-6.5 mm long. Perianth tube 0.8-1 cm long, tubular; tepals 4, ovate, 2.5 mm long, yellow inside; anthers subsessile, c. 2 mm long; style 7-10 mm long, stellately hairy. Fruit 8-9 mm long, elliptic-ovoid, succulent, covered with scales when young; endocarp not hard, 8-ribbed, woolly within.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Elaeagnus convexolepidota Hayata; E. coreana H. Léveillé; E. crispa Thunberg; E. crocea Nakai; E. fragrans Nakai; E. higoensis Nakai; E. longipes A. Gray var. crispa (Thunberg) Maximowicz; E. obovata H. L. Li; E. parvifolia Wallich ex Royle; E. salicifolia D. Don ex Loudon; E. umbellata var. coreana (H. Léveillé) H. Léveillé; E. umbellata f. parvifolia (Wallich ex Royle) Kitamura; E. umbellata subsp. parvifolia (Wallich ex Royle) Servettaz; E. umbellata var. parvifolia (Wallich ex Royle) C. K. Schneider.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Elaeagnus umbellata is close relative of Elaeagnus magna, but differs from the latter in its 5-7 mm (vs. 8-10 mm) calyx tube.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Elaeagnus umbellata grows well on a variety of soils including sandy, loamy, and somewhat clayey textures with a pH range of 4.8-6.5 (Holtz 1981). It apparently does not grow as well on very wet or dry sites (Allan and Steiner 1965), but Sharp (1977) described it as having excellent tolerance to drought. It does very well on infertile soils because its root nodules house nitrogen-fixing actinomycetes (Sternberg 1982). Mature trees tolerate light shade, but produce more fruits in full sun, and seedlings may be shade intolerant (Holtz 1981, Nestleroad et al. 1984).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: mesic, natural

Autumn-olive has been planted throughout much of eastern North America for various purposes (Management Considerations), and has subsequently escaped into a variety of natural and seminatural habitats [4,10,40,71]. For example, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England [37] lists the following general habitats where autumn-olive may be found in New England: abandoned field, abandoned gravel pit, early-successional forest, edge, pasture, planted forest, railroad right-of-way, roadside, utility right-of-way, vacant lot, yard, or garden. It is probably most prolific on disturbed or ruderal sites [5,8,26,40,77].

Autumn-olive grows best on deep, relatively coarse-textured soils that are moderately-well to well drained [1,65]. It does less well on very dry soil and usually fails on very shallow, poorly drained, or excessively wet soil. Autumn-olive does not require highly fertile soil, and it appears to thrive equally well on soils ranging from "moderately acid to moderately alkaline" [1]. In Ontario, escaped autumn-olive is found in a variety of dry to mesic sandy, forested and open to sparsely shaded habitats, with soil pH from 5-7. It is most invasive in areas of dry sandy soils. Although it has been cultivated on fine-textured, periodically wet soils, it is generally not invasive on such sites in southern Ontario [4].

  • 4. Catling, P. M.; Oldham, M. J.; Sutherland, D. A.; Brownell, V. R.; Larson, B. M. H. 1997. The recent spread of autumn-olive, Elaeagnus umbellata, into southern Ontario and its current status. Canadian Field Naturalist. 111(3): 376-380. [44941]
  • 5. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124]
  • 8. Ebinger, John E. 1983. Exotic shrubs: A potential problem in natural area management in Illinois. Natural Areas Journal. 3(1): 3-6. [45288]
  • 10. Ebinger, John; Lehnen, Larry. 1981. Naturalized autumn olive in Illinois. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Science. 74(3&4): 83-85. [45286]
  • 26. Hill, Steven R. 1996. The flora of Latimer Point and vicinity, New London County, Connecticut. Rhodora. 98(894): 180-216. [44935]
  • 40. Nestleroad, James; Zimmerman, Douglas; Ebinger, John. 1987. Autumn olive reproduction in three Illinois state parks. Transactions, Illinois Academy of Science. 80(1&2): 33-39. [44919]
  • 65. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1987. `Redwing' autumn olive. Program Aid Number 1392. Washington, DC. 4 p. [21592]
  • 71. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 77. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 806 p. [28655]
  • 1. Allan, Philip F.; Steiner, Wilmer W. 1965. Autumn olive for wildlife and other conservation uses. Leaflet No. 458 [Revised]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 8 p. [44936]
  • 37. Mehrhoff, L. J.; Silander, J. A., Jr.; Leicht, S. A.; Mosher, E. 2003. Elaeagnus umbellata (Autumn olive), [Online]. In: IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Environmental Biology (Producer). Available: http://webapps.lib.uconn.edu/ipane/browsing.cfm?descriptionid=28 [2003, September 9]. [45108]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: climax, graminoid

Autumn-olive is found across many habitats in North America
(see Site Characteristics), and may be associated with a variety of plant taxa, functional guilds and communities.
As of this writing (2003), there is very little published information concerning
habitat types and plant communities where autumn-olive might invade.
Autumn-olive is not a climax dominant or indicator species in habitat type classifications.

Catling et al. [4] described the following habitats in southern and
eastern Ontario where escaped autumn-olive was found most frequently: deciduous
and mixed forests dominated by black oak (Quercus velutina), white oak (Q.
alba), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), and red maple (Acer rubrum);
eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) glades; prairie/savanna relicts dominated by
indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans); coniferous plantations; seasonally wet,
"open floodplain thickets;" gravelly till in northern white-cedar
(Thuja occidentalis) floodplain slope woodland; raised sandy
knolls in open to sparsely shaded graminoid fens; and low sand dunes in eastern cottonwood
(Populus deltoides) savanna.
  • 4. Catling, P. M.; Oldham, M. J.; Sutherland, D. A.; Brownell, V. R.; Larson, B. M. H. 1997. The recent spread of autumn-olive, Elaeagnus umbellata, into southern Ontario and its current status. Canadian Field Naturalist. 111(3): 376-380. [44941]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the terms: cover, hardwood

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [52]:

601 Bluestem prairie

602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed

604 Bluestem-grama prairie

605 Sandsage prairie

606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

609 Wheatgrass-grama

611 Blue grama-buffalo grass

615 Wheatgrass-saltgrass-grama

801 Savanna

802 Missouri prairie

803 Missouri glades

804 Tall fescue

805 Riparian

808 Sand pine scrub

809 Mixed hardwood and pine

810 Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills

815 Upland hardwood hammocks

817 Oak hammocks
  • 52. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the terms: cover, swamp

SAF COVER TYPES [12]:

1 Jack pine

5 Balsam fir

12 Black spruce

13 Black spruce-tamarack

14 Northern pin oak

15 Red pine

16 Aspen

17 Pin cherry

18 Paper birch

19 Gray birch-red maple

20 White pine-northern red oak-red maple

21 Eastern white pine

22 White pine-hemlock

23 Eastern hemlock

24 Hemlock-yellow birch

25 Sugar maple-beech-yellow birch

26 Sugar maple-basswood

27 Sugar maple

28 Black cherry-maple

30 Red spruce-yellow birch

31 Red spruce-sugar maple-beech

32 Red spruce

33 Red spruce-balsam fir

34 Red spruce-Fraser fir

35 Paper birch-red spruce-balsam fir

37 Northern white-cedar

38 Tamarack

39 Black ash-American elm-red maple

40 Post oak-blackjack oak

42 Bur oak

43 Bear oak

44 Chestnut oak

45 Pitch pine

46 Eastern redcedar

50 Black locust

51 White pine-chestnut oak

52 White oak-black oak-northern red oak

53 White oak

55 Northern red oak

57 Yellow-poplar

58 Yellow-poplar-eastern hemlock

59 Yellow-poplar-white oak-northern red oak

60 Beech-sugar maple

61 River birch-sycamore

62 Silver maple-American elm

63 Cottonwood

64 Sassafras-persimmon

65 Pin oak-sweetgum

69 Sand pine

70 Longleaf pine

71 Longleaf pine-scrub oak

72 Southern scrub oak

73 Southern redcedar

74 Cabbage palmetto

75 Shortleaf pine

76 Shortleaf pine-oak

78 Virginia pine-oak

79 Virginia pine

80 Loblolly pine-shortleaf pine

81 Loblolly pine

82 Loblolly pine-hardwood

83 Longleaf pine-slash pine

84 Slash pine

85 Slash pine-hardwood

87 Sweetgum-yellow-poplar

88 Willow oak-water oak-diamondleaf (laurel) oak

89 Live oak

91 Swamp chestnut oak-cherrybark oak

92 Sweetgum-willow oak

93 Sugarberry-American elm-green ash

94 Sycamore-sweetgum-American elm

95 Black willow

97 Atlantic white-cedar

107 White spruce

108 Red maple

109 Hawthorn

110 Black oak

235 Cottonwood-willow

236 Bur oak
  • 12. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the term: bog

KUCHLER [34] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:



K016 Eastern ponderosa forest

K065 Grama-buffalo grass

K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

K069 Bluestem-grama prairie

K070 Sandsage-bluestem prairie

K073 Northern cordgrass prairie

K074 Bluestem prairie

K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie

K077 Bluestem-sacahuista prairie

K081 Oak savanna

K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100

K083 Cedar glades

K084 Cross Timbers

K093 Great Lakes spruce-fir forest

K094 Conifer bog

K095 Great Lakes pine forest

K096 Northeastern spruce-fir forest

K097 Southeastern spruce-fir forest

K098 Northern floodplain forest

K099 Maple-basswood forest

K100 Oak-hickory forest

K101 Elm-ash forest

K102 Beech-maple forest

K103 Mixed mesophytic forest

K104 Appalachian oak forest

K106 Northern hardwoods

K107 Northern hardwoods-fir forest

K108 Northern hardwoods-spruce forest

K109 Transition between K104 and K106

K110 Northeastern oak-pine forest

K111 Oak-hickory-pine

K112 Southern mixed forest

K113 Southern floodplain forest

K114 Pocosin

K115 Sand pine scrub
  • 34. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. [3455]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

ECOSYSTEMS [16]:

FRES10 White-red-jack pine

FRES11 Spruce-fir

FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine

FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine

FRES14 Oak-pine

FRES15 Oak-hickory

FRES16 Oak-gum-cypress

FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood

FRES18 Maple-beech-birch

FRES19 Aspen-birch

FRES21 Ponderosa pine

FRES38 Plains grasslands

FRES39 Prairie
  • 16. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Thickets; (100-)500-3000 m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growing in thickets; 500-3000 m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Foodplant / pathogen
Tubercularia anamorph of Nectria cinnabarina infects and damages branch of Elaeagnus umbellata
Remarks: season: 1-12

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Elaeagnus umbellata is one of the earlier shrubs to break dormancy, putting out foliage in mid-March in southern Illinois and advancing north with the season about 100 miles per week (Sternberg 1982). It grows rapidly, producing fruits in 3-5 years. Anthesis occurs after first leaves are out from May to June. Flowers are fragrant and pollinated by a variety of insects (Holtz 1981). The drupes are silvery with brown scales when immature, ripening to a speckled red in September-October. Most fruits are eaten by birds or fall to the ground by early winter (Sternberg 1982). E. umbellata produces a large amount of seed, each tree producing 2-8 lbs. of seed per year and the number of seeds per lb. ranging from 20,000-54,000. The seeds are widely distributed by birds and have a high rate of germination (Holtz 1981). Cold stratification is required to break embryo dormancy (Holtz 1981). The effect of stratification by passing through a bird's digestive tract has apparently not been reported.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: prescribed fire, presence

As of this writing (2003) it is unclear what impacts fire might have on invasive populations of autumn-olive or on communities where autumn-olive is invasive. Research is needed to determine the immediate effects of fire on autumn-olive, its ability to survive 1 or more fires, and its relative competitiveness in postfire communities.

It appears that autumn-olive will sprout in response to damage from fire, indicating a single burn is probably not sufficient to eradicate it [37,53,59]. It is unclear how effective multiple prescribed burns might be for controlling invasive autumn-olive. While a single fire is unlikely to eradicate autumn-olive, periodic burning might control its spread and eventually reduce its presence. Any management activity that removes aboveground tissue, prevents seed production, and depletes energy reserves is likely to reduce autumn-olive invasiveness, especially when conducted persistently.

Postfire colonization via nearby seed sources seems likely (see Seed dispersal), provided there is enough light for seedling establishment in the postfire environment. However, more information is needed describing seedbed requirements for autumn-olive seed germination and seedling establishment.

Apart from questions about effectiveness of prescribed fire as an autumn-olive control measure, use of fire in areas where autumn-olive is present may or may not be appropriate, depending on management goals and the particular ecosystem involved. Using fire to control autumn-olive in habitats where fire is infrequent may do substantial damage to fire-intolerant native species. Conversely, fire may be appropriate where management goals include maintaining native seral species or otherwise enhancing ecosystem structure and function through use of prescribed fire. For more information regarding fire effects on native flora, see the appropriate FEIS species summaries on this website.

  • 53. Solecki, Mary Kay. 1997. Controlling invasive plants. In: Packard, Stephen; Mutel, Cornelia F., eds. The tallgrass restoration handbook: For prairies, savannas, and woodlands. Washington, DC: Island Press: 251-278. [43127]
  • 59. Szafoni, Robert E. 1991. Vegetation management guideline: autumn olive, Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 121-122. [45287]
  • 37. Mehrhoff, L. J.; Silander, J. A., Jr.; Leicht, S. A.; Mosher, E. 2003. Elaeagnus umbellata (Autumn olive), [Online]. In: IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Environmental Biology (Producer). Available: http://webapps.lib.uconn.edu/ipane/browsing.cfm?descriptionid=28 [2003, September 9]. [45108]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: adventitious, ground residual colonizer, initial off-site colonizer, secondary colonizer, shrub

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [56]:
Tall shrub, adventitious bud/root crown
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Initial off-site colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)
  • 56. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. [20090]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Ecology

More info for the term: root crown

Information about autumn-olive and fire is lacking. Research that examines the interactions of fire and autumn-olive, the effects these interactions may have on native communities and ecosystems and their respective FIRE REGIMES is needed.

Fire adaptations: As of this writing (2003) there is no published information describing adaptations of autumn-olive to fire. It is likely, though speculative, that autumn-olive generally responds to fire damage by sprouting (see Asexual regeneration). Russian-olive (E. angustifolia), another introduced and invasive Elaeagnus in North America, sprouts from the root crown following fire (see FEIS botanical and ecological summary for Russian-olive).

FIRE REGIMES: The following table lists fire return intervals for communities or ecosystems throughout North America where autumn-olive may occur. This list is presented as a guideline to illustrate historic FIRE REGIMES and is not to be interpreted as a strict description of FIRE REGIMES for autumn-olive. For further information on fire regimes in these communities or ecosystems see the corresponding FEIS summary for the dominant taxa listed below.

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
maple-beech-birch Acer-Fagus-Betula > 1,000
silver maple-American elm A. saccharinum-Ulmus americana < 35 to 200
sugar maple A. saccharum > 1,000
sugar maple-basswood A. saccharum-Tilia americana > 1,000 [72]
bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 33,43]
Nebraska sandhills prairie A. gerardii var. paucipilus-Schizachyrium scoparium < 10
bluestem-Sacahuista prairie A. littoralis-Spartina spartinae 43]
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. < 35
blue grama-buffalo grass B. gracilis-Buchloe dactyloides 43,76]
sugarberry-America elm-green ash Celtis laevigata-Ulmus americana-Fraxinus pennsylvanica < 35 to 200
Atlantic white-cedar Chamaecyparis thyoides 35 to > 200 [72]
northern cordgrass prairie Distichlis spicata-Spartina spp. 1-3 [43]
beech-sugar maple Fagus spp.-Acer saccharum > 1,000
black ash Fraxinus nigra 72]
cedar glades Juniperus virginiana 3-7 [43]
yellow-poplar Liriodendron tulipifera 72]
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii 43,45,76]
Great Lakes spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35 to > 200
northeastern spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35-200 [7]
southeastern spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35 to > 200 [72]
red spruce* P. rubens 35-200
jack pine Pinus banksiana 7]
shortleaf pine P. echinata 2-15
shortleaf pine-oak P. echinata-Quercus spp. < 10
slash pine P. elliottii 3-8
slash pine-hardwood P. elliottii-variable < 35
sand pine P. elliottii var. elliottii 25-45 [72]
longleaf-slash pine P. palustris-P. elliottii 1-4 [39,72]
longleaf pine-scrub oak P. palustris-Quercus spp. 6-10
Table Mountain pine P. pungens 72]
red pine (Great Lakes region) P. resinosa 10-200 (10**) [7,15]
red-white-jack pine* P. resinosa-P. strobus-P. banksiana 10-300 [7,21]
pitch pine P. rigida 6-25 [3,22]
pocosin P. serotina 3-8
eastern white pine P. strobus 35-200
eastern white pine-eastern hemlock P. strobus-Tsuga canadensis 35-200
eastern white pine-northern red oak-red maple P. strobus-Q. rubra-Acer rubrum 35-200
loblolly pine P. taeda 3-8
loblolly-shortleaf pine P. taeda-P. echinata 10 to < 35
Virginia pine P. virginiana 10 to < 35
Virginia pine-oak P. virginiana-Quercus spp. 10 to < 35
sycamore-sweetgum-American elm Platanus occidentalis-Liquidambar styraciflua-U. americana 72]
eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides 43]
aspen-birch P. tremuloides-Betula papyrifera 35-200 [7,72]
black cherry-sugar maple Prunus serotina-A. saccharum > 1,000
oak-hickory Quercus-Carya spp. < 35
northeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. 10 to < 35
southeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. < 10
white oak-black oak-northern red oak Q. alba-Q. velutina-Q. rubra < 35
northern pin oak Q. ellipsoidalis < 35
bear oak Q. ilicifolia < 35
bur oak Q. macrocarpa 72]
oak savanna Q. macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 2-14 [43,72]
chestnut oak Q. prinus 3-8
northern red oak Q. rubra 10 to < 35
post oak-blackjack oak Q. stellata-Q. marilandica < 10
black oak Q. velutina < 35
live oak Q. virginiana 10 to72]
cabbage palmetto-slash pine Sabal palmetto-P. elliottii 39,72]
little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. 43]
eastern hemlock-yellow birch T. canadensis-Betula alleghaniensis > 200 [72]
elm-ash-cottonwood Ulmus-Fraxinus-Populus spp. 7,72]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species summary
**mean
  • 3. Buchholz, Kenneth; Good, Ralph E. 1982. Density, age structure, biomass and net annual aboveground productivity of dwarfed Pinus rigida Moll. from the New Jersey Pine Barren Plains. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 109(1): 24-34. [8639]
  • 7. Duchesne, Luc C.; Hawkes, Brad C. 2000. Fire in northern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 35-51. [36982]
  • 15. Frissell, Sidney S., Jr. 1968. A fire chronology for Itasca State Park, Minnesota. Minnesota Forestry Research Notes No. 196. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota. 2 p. [34527]
  • 21. Heinselman, Miron L. 1970. The natural role of fire in northern conifer forest. In: The role of fire in the Intermountain West: Proceedings of a symposium; 1970 October 27-29; Missoula, MT. Missoula, MT: Intermountain Fire Research Council: 30-41. In cooperation with: University of Montana, School of Forestry. [15735]
  • 39. Myers, Ronald L. 2000. Fire in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 161-173. [36985]
  • 45. Quinnild, Clayton L.; Cosby, Hugh E. 1958. Relicts of climax vegetation on two mesas in western North Dakota. Ecology. 39(1): 29-32. [1925]
  • 76. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]
  • 43. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
  • 22. Hendrickson, William H. 1972. Perspective on fire and ecosystems in the United States. In: Fire in the environment: Symposium proceedings; 1972 May 1-5; Denver, CO. FS-276. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 29-33. In cooperation with: Fire Services of Canada, Mexico, and the United States; Members of the Fire Management Study Group; North American Forestry Commission; FAO. [17276]
  • 72. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. [36983]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: density, hardwood, succession, tree

Autumn-olive appears best adapted to early-successional habitats in North America. It has been called "moderately" shade tolerant [1], but is thought to be generally absent from areas with very low light intensity, such as under a dense forest canopy [40]. Edgin and Ebinger [11] noted autumn-olive plants were restricted to "open canopy areas" within the interior of an "old-growth" forest along the Wabash River in southwestern Indiana. Based on this observation, they suggested autumn-olive is "not well adapted to low-light conditions."

The possibility of autumn-olive invasion in forested habitats should not be precluded on the basis of successional status. Ebinger and Lehnen [10] describe the following habitats in east-central Illinois where autumn-olive has invaded from nearby plantings: 1) a small plantation of pines (Pinus spp.), 3.3 to 6.6 feet (1-2 m) tall; 2) small ravines in the "early tree stage of succession," containing "scattered individuals" of black walnut (Juglans nigra), prairie crabapple (Malus ioensis), shingle oak (Quercus imbricaria), northern red oak (Q. rubra), black cherry (Prunus serotina), and American elm (Ulmus americana), mostly less than 4 inches (10 cm) dbh; 3) a grazed upland forest dominated by white oak, mostly between 12 and 20 inches (30-50 cm) dbh. Data from sample plots (see table below) indicate autumn-olive stems were numerous within these sites, with a substantial proportion of plants greater than 20 inches (50 cm) tall. While it is difficult to draw firm conclusions from these and previous site descriptions without more detailed information, it appears autumn-olive has at least some ability to establish under a forest canopy.

Habitat autumn-olive density (stems/ha) proportion autumn-olive plants >20 inches tall
pine plantation 5,225 30%
hardwood ravine 33,975 20%
oak (Quercus spp.) forest 67,925 7%
Data adapted from Ebinger and Lehnen [10].
  • 10. Ebinger, John; Lehnen, Larry. 1981. Naturalized autumn olive in Illinois. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Science. 74(3&4): 83-85. [45286]
  • 11. Edgin, Bob; Ebinger, John E. 2001. Control of autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.) at Beall Woods Nature Preserve, Illinois, USA. Natural Areas Journal. 21(4): 386-388. [45100]
  • 40. Nestleroad, James; Zimmerman, Douglas; Ebinger, John. 1987. Autumn olive reproduction in three Illinois state parks. Transactions, Illinois Academy of Science. 80(1&2): 33-39. [44919]
  • 1. Allan, Philip F.; Steiner, Wilmer W. 1965. Autumn olive for wildlife and other conservation uses. Leaflet No. 458 [Revised]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 8 p. [44936]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: polygamodioecious, root crown

As of this writing (2003) there is very little published information describing regeneration biology in autumn-olive. Research is needed to determine the precise nature of asexual regeneration, conditions that promote or constrain seedling establishment and early growth, and the role of soil-stored seed in autumn-olive invasiveness.

Breeding system: Elaeagnus spp. are polygamodioecious [5,19,41,74].

Pollination: Autumn-olive is open-pollinated [65], often by insects [41].

Seed production: Mature plants can produce about 30 pounds (14 kg) of fruit annually. Thirty pounds of fruit is generally equivalent to about 3 pounds (1.4 kg) of seed, or about 66,000 seeds [65]. Under favorable conditions, autumn-olive can produce fruit by 3 to 5 years of age, usually at about 4 to 8 feet (1.2-2.4 m) in height. Fruit production is reduced by shading [1].

Seed dispersal: Seeds are dispersed by frugivorous birds and, to a lesser extent, small mammals [11,37,40].

Seed banking: No information

Germination: Autumn-olive seed germination is enhanced by a period of cold stratification. Fowler and Fowler [14] determined germination rates for unstratified seeds were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those receiving 8 or more weeks of cold stratification at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 ºC). Optimal conditions for autumn-olive germination were 16-20 weeks of cold stratification followed by 2 weeks of night/day temperatures of 50/62 degrees Fahrenheit (10/20. These conditions resulted in >90% germination.

However, cold stratification is not a prerequisite for germination. Fowler and Fowler [14] found 51% of unstratified seeds germinated after 10 weeks of night/day temperatures of 50/62 degrees Fahrenheit (10/20 ºC). Jinks and Ciccarese [28] found that >70% of seeds from their "control" group germinated after 8 weeks despite receiving no cold temperature treatment.

Seedling establishment/growth: No information

Asexual regeneration: Solecki [53] and Szafoni [59] indicated burned, mowed, and cut plants "resprout vigorously." The Invasive Plant Atlas of New England website [37] reports that if autumn olive is cut, "it resprouts abundantly," and burning only results in resprouting "from the stump." Russian-olive (E. angustifolia), another introduced and invasive Elaeagnus in North America, sprouts from the root crown and sends up root suckers (see FEIS botanical and ecological summary for Russian-olive).

  • 5. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124]
  • 11. Edgin, Bob; Ebinger, John E. 2001. Control of autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.) at Beall Woods Nature Preserve, Illinois, USA. Natural Areas Journal. 21(4): 386-388. [45100]
  • 14. Fowler, Linda J.; Fowler, Dale K. 1987. Stratification and temperature requirements for germination of autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) seed. Tree Planter's Notes. 38(1): 14-17. [21550]
  • 19. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 28. Jinks, Richard L.; Ciccarese, Lorenzo. 1997. Effects of soaking, washing, and warm pretreatment on the germination of Russian-olive and autumn-olive seeds. Tree Planters' Notes. 48(1/2): 18-23. [45101]
  • 40. Nestleroad, James; Zimmerman, Douglas; Ebinger, John. 1987. Autumn olive reproduction in three Illinois state parks. Transactions, Illinois Academy of Science. 80(1&2): 33-39. [44919]
  • 53. Solecki, Mary Kay. 1997. Controlling invasive plants. In: Packard, Stephen; Mutel, Cornelia F., eds. The tallgrass restoration handbook: For prairies, savannas, and woodlands. Washington, DC: Island Press: 251-278. [43127]
  • 59. Szafoni, Robert E. 1991. Vegetation management guideline: autumn olive, Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 121-122. [45287]
  • 65. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1987. `Redwing' autumn olive. Program Aid Number 1392. Washington, DC. 4 p. [21592]
  • 74. Williams, Robert D.; Hanks, Sidney H. 1976. Hardwood nurseryman's guide. Agric. Handb. 473. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 78 p. [4182]
  • 1. Allan, Philip F.; Steiner, Wilmer W. 1965. Autumn olive for wildlife and other conservation uses. Leaflet No. 458 [Revised]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 8 p. [44936]
  • 37. Mehrhoff, L. J.; Silander, J. A., Jr.; Leicht, S. A.; Mosher, E. 2003. Elaeagnus umbellata (Autumn olive), [Online]. In: IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Environmental Biology (Producer). Available: http://webapps.lib.uconn.edu/ipane/browsing.cfm?descriptionid=28 [2003, September 9]. [45108]
  • 41. Olson, David F., Jr.; Barbour, Jill R. 2002. Elaeagnus L. elaeagnus. In: Bonner, Franklin T., tech. coord. Woody plant seed manual, [Online]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (Producer). Available: http://wpsm.net/Genera.htm [2003, August 27]. [44939]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: geophyte, phanerophyte

RAUNKIAER [47] LIFE FORM:
Phanerophyte
Geophyte
  • 47. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Form

More info for the terms: shrub, tree

Tree-shrub

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

No additional information is available.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Plant Response to Fire

Specific information about postfire regeneration is lacking, but published sources indicate that, in general, autumn-olive sprouts following stem damage [37,53,59]. Solecki [53] and Szafoni [59] reported that autumn-olive "resprouts vigorously" following damage from fire.
  • 53. Solecki, Mary Kay. 1997. Controlling invasive plants. In: Packard, Stephen; Mutel, Cornelia F., eds. The tallgrass restoration handbook: For prairies, savannas, and woodlands. Washington, DC: Island Press: 251-278. [43127]
  • 59. Szafoni, Robert E. 1991. Vegetation management guideline: autumn olive, Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 121-122. [45287]
  • 37. Mehrhoff, L. J.; Silander, J. A., Jr.; Leicht, S. A.; Mosher, E. 2003. Elaeagnus umbellata (Autumn olive), [Online]. In: IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Environmental Biology (Producer). Available: http://webapps.lib.uconn.edu/ipane/browsing.cfm?descriptionid=28 [2003, September 9]. [45108]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

No additional information is available.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Immediate Effect of Fire

There is some indication that autumn-olive is damaged by fire [37,53]. However, there is no specific information available as of this writing (2003) describing the immediate effects of fire on autumn-olive.
  • 53. Solecki, Mary Kay. 1997. Controlling invasive plants. In: Packard, Stephen; Mutel, Cornelia F., eds. The tallgrass restoration handbook: For prairies, savannas, and woodlands. Washington, DC: Island Press: 251-278. [43127]
  • 37. Mehrhoff, L. J.; Silander, J. A., Jr.; Leicht, S. A.; Mosher, E. 2003. Elaeagnus umbellata (Autumn olive), [Online]. In: IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Environmental Biology (Producer). Available: http://webapps.lib.uconn.edu/ipane/browsing.cfm?descriptionid=28 [2003, September 9]. [45108]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

The following table describes approximate flowering times reported from a variety of North American locations:

  February March April May June
Northeastern U.S. [18]       X X
New England [37]     X X  
Illinois [38]     X X  
Florida [5] X X X    
Blue Ridge Mountains [75]     X X  
West Virginia [57]     X X  
North & South Carolina [46]     X X  

In the central and southern Appalachian regions, autumn-olive fruit ripens in August and September [46,57]. Fruit generally remains on the plant until late winter [14]. Autumn-olive generally produces leaves in early spring, prior to most native plants [55,59]

  • 46. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 5. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124]
  • 14. Fowler, Linda J.; Fowler, Dale K. 1987. Stratification and temperature requirements for germination of autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) seed. Tree Planter's Notes. 38(1): 14-17. [21550]
  • 18. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 55. Sternberg, Guy. 1996. Elaeagnus umbellata--autumn olive. In: Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden: 54. [44889]
  • 57. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 59. Szafoni, Robert E. 1991. Vegetation management guideline: autumn olive, Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 121-122. [45287]
  • 75. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]
  • 37. Mehrhoff, L. J.; Silander, J. A., Jr.; Leicht, S. A.; Mosher, E. 2003. Elaeagnus umbellata (Autumn olive), [Online]. In: IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Environmental Biology (Producer). Available: http://webapps.lib.uconn.edu/ipane/browsing.cfm?descriptionid=28 [2003, September 9]. [45108]
  • 38. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Flowering from April to May; fruiting from July to August.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

The chromosomal number of Elaeagnus umbellata is 2n = 28 (Zhang et al., 1991).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Elaeagnus umbellata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Elaeagnus umbellata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 28
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

More info for the terms: invasive species, natural

Autumn-olive is ranked as a "severe threat" (exotic plant species that possess characteristics of invasive species and spread easily into native plant communities and displace native vegetation) by the Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council [54]. It is also ranked as a "severe threat" (exotic plant species which possess characteristics of invasive species and spread easily into native plant communities and displace native vegetation; includes species which are or could become widespread in Kentucky) by the Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council [30].

Autumn-olive is listed among the top 10 exotic pest plants in Georgia [17], and among "highly invasive species" (species that may disrupt ecosystem processes and cause major alterations in plant community composition and structure and that establish readily in natural systems and spread rapidly) by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation [69].  It is listed as a Category II exotic plant species (considered to have the potential to displace native plants either on a localized or widespread scale) by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources and The Nature Conservancy of Vermont [68], and as a noxious weed in several West Virginia counties [64].

U.S. Forest Service Region 8 (Southern Region) lists autumn-olive as a category 1 weed (exotic plant species that are known to be invasive and persistent throughout all or most of their range within the Southern Region and that can spread into and persist in native plant communities and displace native plant species and therefore pose a demonstrable threat to the integrity of the natural plant communities in the Region). The introduction of Category 1 Species is prohibited on National Forest System Lands [65].

  • 65. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1987. `Redwing' autumn olive. Program Aid Number 1392. Washington, DC. 4 p. [21592]
  • 68. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal mine soils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15576]
  • 69. von Althen, F. W. 1989. Early height growth increased in black walnut-silver maple intermixtures. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 170-174. [9382]
  • 17. Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council. 2002. Proposed exotic pest plant species for Georgia, [Online]. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer). Available: http://www.gaeppc.org/exotalk1.html [2003, August 25]. [44947]
  • 30. Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council. 2001. Invasive exotic plant list, [Online]. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer). Available: http://www.se-eppc.org/states/KY/KYlists.html [2003, August 25]. [44948]
  • 54. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, Tennessee Chapter. 2001. Invasive exotic pest plants in Tennessee, [Online]. Available: http://www.exoticpestplantcouncil.org/states/TN/TNIList.html [2001, October 19]. [38459]
  • 64. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resource Conservation Service. 2003. PLANTS database (2003), [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. [34262]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Management Requirements: Elaeagnus umbellata seems to be a problem only in locations where small stands or rows were planted, usually within the last 10-20 years, and have begun to spread into adjacent fields or natural areas. It apparently can become troublesome where it occurs on or next to prairies with infrequent prescribed burns because it resprouts quickly after fire damage or cutting.

Since burning and cutting stimulate resprouting, herbicide treatment may be necessary to eradicate large patches. One method of application is to cut the plant off at the main stem and paint the herbicide on the stump. Glyphosate is effective and commonly used. Kurz (pers. comm.) and Nyboer (pers. comm.) recommended a 10-20% dilution for painting on stumps. Foliar applications may be adequate for small patches; the recommended dilution of glyphosate in this case is a 1-2% solution. Kurz (pers. comm.) stated that the best time for herbicide application is in late August or September when the plant is actively translocating materials to the roots.

Kuhns (1986) reported that March dormant season basal applications (stem injections) of triclopyr alone or in combination with 2,4-D provided excellent control of autumn olive at very low concentrations (down to 1% triclopyr in diesel oil). The lowest concentrations of triclopyr and all treatments with the 2,4- D/triclopyr combinations provided slower kills than higher concentrations of triclopyr alone, but only one of the treatment plants were expected to survive (Kuhns 1986). Foliar applications of 2,4-D, triclopyr or metsulfuron methyl in late May or June at recommended rates did not provide adequate control, and even plants that were severely injured recovered the following year. Dicamba applied in late June at 4 lbs/gal (2 qts/100 gal/acre) with a surfactant provided 90% total kill and severely retarded the growth of surviving stems the following year (Kuhns 1986). Glyphosate was not included in this study.

Ohlenbusch and Ritty (1979) reported excellent results for the control of russian olive (E. angustifolia) in Kansas using a variety of herbicides and treatments. Applications were made on June 14 and results evaluated in late August. Foliar applications of 2,4,5-T, silvex, dicamba, picloram, and glyphosate, all in a 90% water/10% diesel oil carrier, resulted in total root kill. However, glyphosate in both 1% and 2% solutions damaged herbaceous plants under the trees so extensively that foliar application of this chemical is not recommended.

Basal application of 2,4,5-T, silvex, and triclopyr, all mixed in diesel oil and applied June 14, also resulted in 100% control. A second study by the same authors indicated that diesel oil alone also provides highly effective basal control of E. angustifolia (Ohlenbusch and Ritty 1979).

Management Programs: Elaeagnus umbellata is not a problem on many preserve lands. It occurs on some state managed natural ares in Illinois and Missouri where management has implemented control programs consisting of herbicide application. Contact: Don Kurz, Natural History Section, Missouri Conservation Dept., P.O. 180, Jefferson City, MO 65102 and Randy Nyboer, Illinois Dept. of Conservation, 2612 Locust St., Sterling, IL 61081.

Management Research Needs: Elaeagnus umbellata is not a priority species for research. There are some indications that its abundance may be increasing, both by continued planting and by seed dispersal from naturalized populations (see Nestleroad et al. 1984 and Sternberg 1982) but little data is available on population dynamics within its range. Questions for consideration include: how well does E. umbellata compete with and displace native vegetation? What is the affect on growth and reproduction of repeated burning over several years?

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Impacts and Control

More info for the terms: fire management, natural, shrubs

Impacts: In general, invasive autumn-olive impacts native biotic communities in eastern North America by displacing native plants. Invasive populations can supplant native habitat, sometimes forming dense thickets. Prodigious seed production and widespread seed dispersal by frugivorous birds probably contribute to its invasiveness [55]. An Illinois study reported autumn-olive concentrations of 5,225 stems per hectare in a pine plantation, 27,500 stems per hectare in a grazed upland woods, and 33,975 stems per hectare in hardwood-dominated ravines [10]. Autumn-olive densities of 125,000 plants hectare were recorded in the understory of a yellow-poplar-sweetgum plantation in southwestern Indiana in 2000. This population was established from nearby plantings in the early 1970's. Although 90% of these individuals were 2 feet (0.6 m) or less in height, they formed "a nearly impenetrable thicket" and were "commonly the only understory species present" [11].

Nestleroad and others [40] have suggested that impacts of invasive autumn-olive may be greatest in communities adapted to infertile soils, where its nitrogen-fixing capabilities might confer substantial competitive advantage against native species. It is conceivable that autumn-olive could alter the nitrogen cycle in "infertility-dependent" natural communities, shifting the potential native community on these sites. Nestleroad and others [40] expressed concern that natural communities of sandy, infertile habitats in southern and eastern Ontario, and throughout the Great Lakes region, are already seriously impacted by other pressures.

Control: Controlling invasive autumn-olive may require frequent monitoring and repeated treatments to achieve success. Because seeds can be dispersed long distances by birds, it is helpful to eradicate autumn-olive populations in areas surrounding the threatened area, when possible. If the infested area is large, or if eradication of surrounding populations is not feasible, land managers may wish to focus control efforts in the most ecologically significant and/or least invaded areas first. In closed-canopy forests, control can likely be achieved through routine monitoring and eradication of new individuals by hand pulling or spot-spraying with herbicide [11].

Prevention: Where appropriate, maintaining dense, frequently mowed grass or other dense native vegetation can help prevent establishment of autumn-olive seedlings [40].

Integrated management: No information

Physical/mechanical: Hand pulling young seedlings and sprouts can be effective, particularly from moist soil [53,59]. Seedlings are easiest to identify in early spring because autumn-olive produces leaves earlier than most native shrubs [55,59]. Mowed or cut plants reportedly "resprout vigorously" [53,59], so these methods alone will probably not effectively control mature plants. Even repeated cutting is apparently ineffective without treating stumps and/or resprouts with herbicide [53]. Treating cut surfaces with glyphosate is an effective control measure and can minimize negative impacts on native vegetation when carefully applied (see Chemical control) [53,59].

Fire: See Fire Management Considerations.

Biological: No information

Chemical: Several herbicides have been used alone or in combination to provide effective control of autumn-olive, including glyphosate, triclopyr, 2,4-D, and dicamba. This is not intended as an exhaustive review of chemical control methods. For more information regarding appropriate use of herbicides against invasive plant species in natural areas, see The Nature Conservancy's Weed control methods handbook. For more information specific to herbicide use against autumn-olive, see The Nature Conservancy's Element Stewardship abstract of autumn-olive and the Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group (CIPWG) and Illinois Nature Preserves Commission websites.

Dicamba and 2,4-D have been used as a foliar application to effectively control autumn-olive [35,53,59]. Triclopyr has also been used effectively on resprouts following cutting [53]. Because this method is conducted during the growing season, and because 100% coverage of foliage is recommended for most effective control, Szafoni [59] suggests that foliar application is best suited to shorter plants.

For larger plants, basal-bark application of triclopyr or 2,4-D can control invasive autumn-olive [11,35,53]. Basal-bark treatment is the application of herbicide solution directly to the bark the lower portion of woody plants. Herbicide then penetrates the bark and is absorbed by the plant [53]. Rather than a broad band application, a thin line of herbicide applied around the entire circumference of the stem 6-12 inches (15-30 cm) above the ground is sufficient, and less likely to harm nearby, desirable plants [53,59].

Direct application of glyphosate to cut stumps can also be effective, particularly late in the growing season (July-September) [53,59]. According to Szafoni [59], reduced application rates of 10-20% solution (compared with 50-100% recommended on some glyphosate product labels) are sufficient for effective treatment of cut stems. Careful application of herbicide directly to target plants can reduce damage to nearby, desirable vegetation [59].

Multiple herbicide treatments may be required to completely kill all plants. Edgin and Ebinger [11] describe treating an invasive population of autumn-olive in Illinois with basal-bark applications of triclopyr during springs of 1996 and 1997. A subsequent search in early summer 1997 yielded no evidence of live autumn-olive in treated areas. But by 2000, autumn-olive had re-established within these same treated areas. Because a dense population of well-established autumn-olive remained in an area adjacent to treatment plots, many of the newly established plants were assumed to have originated from the seed bank or from seeds transported into the plots by birds after herbicide treatments. But nearly 11% of the larger stems (2.6 to 4.9 feet (80-150 cm) tall) had an "enlarged basal caudex" and were considered to be resprouts that were only top-killed by the herbicide treatment.

Cultural: No information

  • 10. Ebinger, John; Lehnen, Larry. 1981. Naturalized autumn olive in Illinois. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Science. 74(3&4): 83-85. [45286]
  • 11. Edgin, Bob; Ebinger, John E. 2001. Control of autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.) at Beall Woods Nature Preserve, Illinois, USA. Natural Areas Journal. 21(4): 386-388. [45100]
  • 40. Nestleroad, James; Zimmerman, Douglas; Ebinger, John. 1987. Autumn olive reproduction in three Illinois state parks. Transactions, Illinois Academy of Science. 80(1&2): 33-39. [44919]
  • 53. Solecki, Mary Kay. 1997. Controlling invasive plants. In: Packard, Stephen; Mutel, Cornelia F., eds. The tallgrass restoration handbook: For prairies, savannas, and woodlands. Washington, DC: Island Press: 251-278. [43127]
  • 55. Sternberg, Guy. 1996. Elaeagnus umbellata--autumn olive. In: Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden: 54. [44889]
  • 59. Szafoni, Robert E. 1991. Vegetation management guideline: autumn olive, Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 121-122. [45287]
  • 35. Kuhns, Larry J. 1986. Controlling autumn olive with herbicides. Proceedings, Northeastern Weed Science Society. 40: 289-294. [44918]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Prevention and Control

Do not plant autumn olive. Individual young plants can be hand-pulled, ensuring that roots are removed. Cutting, in combination with herbicide application, is effective. Hedges can be cut down using a brush type mower, chain saw, or similar tool, and stumps treated with a systemic herbicide like glyphosate or triclopyr. Herbivorous animals are not known to feed on it and few insects seem to utilize or bother it. Canker disease is occasionally a problem.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Comments: Elaeagnus umbellata has been planted in the eastern and central United States for revegetation of strip mines and other disturbed areas, as an ornamental shrub, as wildlife cover, and less so as a nectar source for honeybees, a potential biomass energy crop, and food for human consumption.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Other uses and values

More info for the terms: competition, cover, litter, reclamation, shrub

Autumn-olive has been promoted for reclamation of mine spoils and other disturbed soils [1,13]. It has been planted for reclamation of surface coal mine sites because it is tolerant of low pH soil conditions often found on these sites [14,23,68]. It has also been suggested for use in stabilizing eroded soils in exposed coastal areas due to its salt spray tolerance [60]. An additional benefit to planting autumn-olive in these and other situations, where reclamation of disturbed and frequently nutrient-poor soils is an important objective, is its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen [13,60].

Autumn-olive has been a recommended species for planting as a tall shrub component in windbreaks in the Great Plains, in part due to its wildlife food and cover value [20,65].

Autumn-olive is used in plantations for companion planting with black walnut to enhance black walnut productivity. It is thought autumn-olive enhances black walnut growth by increasing ecosystem nitrogen pools through nitrogen fixation and by decreasing herbaceous competition [44,49,50,61,69]. Field experiments have demonstrated that interplanting autumn-olive with black walnut can increase seasonal soil nitrogen mineralization rates [42], significantly (p < 0.01) increase black walnut leaf nitrogen concentration [70], and substantially improve black walnut growth and yield [6,42,44,44,70], compared with growing black walnut alone. Interplanting autumn-olive may also indirectly enhance black walnut growth and yield by reducing incidence of leaf fungal diseases through interactions with fungivorous microarthropods in the litter layer [31,32]. White ash (Fraxinus americana) growth and yield also increases when interplanted with autumn olive [44].

  • 14. Fowler, Linda J.; Fowler, Dale K. 1987. Stratification and temperature requirements for germination of autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) seed. Tree Planter's Notes. 38(1): 14-17. [21550]
  • 42. Paschke, Mark W.; Dawson, Jeffrey O.; David, Mark B. 1989. Soil nitrogen mineralization under black walnut interplanted with autumn-olive or black alder. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 120-128. [9376]
  • 61. Torrey, John G. 1978. Nitrogen fixation by actinomycete-nodulated angiosperms. Bioscience. 28(9): 586-592. [8517]
  • 65. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1987. `Redwing' autumn olive. Program Aid Number 1392. Washington, DC. 4 p. [21592]
  • 68. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal mine soils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15576]
  • 69. von Althen, F. W. 1989. Early height growth increased in black walnut-silver maple intermixtures. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 170-174. [9382]
  • 6. Dawson, J. O.; Van Sambeck, J. W. 1993. Interplanting woody nurse crops promotes differential growth of black walnut saplings. In: Gillespie, Andrew R.; Parker, George R.; Pope, Phillip E., eds. Proceedings, 9th central hardwood forest conference; 1993 March 8-10; West Lafayette, IN. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-161. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 455-464. [27022]
  • 13. Fessenden, R. J. 1979. Use of actinorhizal plants for land reclamation and amenity planting in the U.S.A. and Canada. In: Gordon, J. C.; Wheeler, C. T.; Perry, D. A., eds. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the management of temperate forests: Proceedings of a workshop; 1979 April 2-5; Corvallis, OR. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Forest Research Laboratory: 403-419. [4308]
  • 20. Hays, James F., Jr. 1990. Wildlife considerations in windbreak renovation. In: Great Plains Agricultural Council, complier. Windbreaks: Living with the wind: Proceedings, windbreak renovation workshop; 1990 October 23-25; Hutchinson, KS. Great Plains Agriculture Council Publ. No. 133. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University, Cooperative Extension Service: 35-41. [15254]
  • 23. Henry, Jimmy. 1980. A bonanza for wildlife. Soil Conservation. 45(8): 13. [21596]
  • 31. Kessler, Kenneth J., Jr. 1985. Companion planting of black walnut with autumn olive to control mycosphaerella leaf spot of walnut. In: Dawson, Jeffrey O.; Majerus, Kimberly, A., eds. 5th central hardwood forest conference: Proceedings; 1985 April 15-17; Urbana-Champaign, IL. SAF Publication 85-05. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters: 285-288. [45290]
  • 32. Kessler, Kenneth J., Jr. 1990. Destruction of Gnomonia leptostyla perithecia on Juglans nigra leaves by microarthropods associated with Elaeagnus umbellata litter. Mycologia. 82(3): 387-390. [45102]
  • 44. Ponder, Felix, Jr. 1988. Weed control and autumn-olive affect early growth and survival of black walnut in a hardwood clearcut. New Forests. 2: 195-201. [21595]
  • 49. Schlesinger, Richard C.; Funk, David T. 1977. Manager's handbook for black walnut. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-38. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 22 p. [11641]
  • 50. Schlesinger, Richard C.; Williams, Robert D. 1984. Growth response of black walnut to interplanted trees. Forest Ecology and Management. 9: 235-243. [21998]
  • 60. Tiffney, W., Jr.; Eveleigh, D.; Barrera, J.; Mitchell, S. 1979. Evaluation of some nitrogen-fixing plants for coastal zone management applications. In: Gordon, J. C.; Wheeler, C. T.; Perry, D. A., eds. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the management of temperate forests: Proceedings of a workshop; 1979 April 2-5; Corvallis, OR. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Forest Research Laboratory: 420-428. [4309]
  • 70. von Althen, F. W. 1990. The effects of alternate-row interplanting of five species on black walnut growth. Information Report 0-X-409. Sault Ste. Marie, ON: Forestry Canada, Ontario Region, Great Lakes Forestry Centre. 14 p. [44937]
  • 1. Allan, Philip F.; Steiner, Wilmer W. 1965. Autumn olive for wildlife and other conservation uses. Leaflet No. 458 [Revised]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 8 p. [44936]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the terms: cover, tree

Autumn-olive has been promoted as a beneficial wildlife species and planted in wildlife management areas in the eastern U.S. to provide food and cover [8,9,10,14,20,23]. Fruit remains on the plant until late winter (see Seasonal Development), potentially becoming an important wildlife food during periods of seasonal food scarcity [14]. Fruits are consumed by a variety of wildlife, including songbirds, northern bobwhite, ruffed grouse, mourning doves, ring-necked pheasants, wild turkeys, mallards, raccoons, skunks, opossums, and black bears [1,23,57]. Songbirds that eat autumn-olive fruit include: gray catbirds, hermit thrushes, wood thrushes, house finches, American robins, cardinals, cedar waxwings, common grackles, evening grosbeaks, fox sparrows, house sparrows, song sparrows, white-throated sparrows, mockingbirds, myrtle warblers, purple finches, rufous-sided towhees, starlings, tree swallows, and veerys [1,40,58]. Autumn-olive is also browsed by white-tailed deer [65].

Palatability/nutritional value: No information

Cover value: Autumn-olive provides cover for wildlife, especially songbirds, game birds, and rabbits [65].

  • 8. Ebinger, John E. 1983. Exotic shrubs: A potential problem in natural area management in Illinois. Natural Areas Journal. 3(1): 3-6. [45288]
  • 9. Ebinger, John E.; McClain, William. 1996. Recent exotic woody plant introductions into the Illinois flora. In: Warwick, Charles, ed. 15th North American prairie conference: Proceedings; 1996 October 23-26; St. Charles, IL. Bend, OR: The Natural Areas Association: 55-58. [30251]
  • 10. Ebinger, John; Lehnen, Larry. 1981. Naturalized autumn olive in Illinois. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Science. 74(3&4): 83-85. [45286]
  • 14. Fowler, Linda J.; Fowler, Dale K. 1987. Stratification and temperature requirements for germination of autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) seed. Tree Planter's Notes. 38(1): 14-17. [21550]
  • 40. Nestleroad, James; Zimmerman, Douglas; Ebinger, John. 1987. Autumn olive reproduction in three Illinois state parks. Transactions, Illinois Academy of Science. 80(1&2): 33-39. [44919]
  • 57. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 65. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1987. `Redwing' autumn olive. Program Aid Number 1392. Washington, DC. 4 p. [21592]
  • 20. Hays, James F., Jr. 1990. Wildlife considerations in windbreak renovation. In: Great Plains Agricultural Council, complier. Windbreaks: Living with the wind: Proceedings, windbreak renovation workshop; 1990 October 23-25; Hutchinson, KS. Great Plains Agriculture Council Publ. No. 133. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University, Cooperative Extension Service: 35-41. [15254]
  • 23. Henry, Jimmy. 1980. A bonanza for wildlife. Soil Conservation. 45(8): 13. [21596]
  • 58. Suthers, Hannah B.; Bickal, Jean M.; Rodewald, Paul G. 2000. Use of successional habitat and fruit resources by songbirds during autumn migration in central New Jersey. The Wilson Bulletin. 112(2): 249-260. [41724]
  • 1. Allan, Philip F.; Steiner, Wilmer W. 1965. Autumn olive for wildlife and other conservation uses. Leaflet No. 458 [Revised]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 8 p. [44936]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Risks

Stewardship Overview: Elaeagnus umbellata is planted in some states for wildlife cover. It invades disturbed areas adjacent to the plantings where encroachment can be rapid due to the high production of seeds, high germination rate, and hardiness of the plants. It also resprouts quickly after burning or cutting. Repeating cutting or burning may prevent spread, but may need to be conducted for many years, as resprouting will occur. Herbicides offer more effective control, and glyphosate is commonly painted on stumps after cutting in a 10-20% dilution in late August or September. Foliar sprays of glyphosate and dicamba may be effective but will damage other vegetation under the olive. Basal applications of triclopyr alone or in combination with 2,4-D applied in March (dormant season) will also provide effective control.

Species Impact: Elaeagnus umbellata has the potential of becoming one of the most troublesome adventive shrubs in the central and eastern United States (Sternberg 1982). It exhibits prolific fruiting, rapid growth, is widely disseminated by birds, and can easily adapt to many sites. It is vigorous and competitive against native species, and resprouts after cutting (Nestleroad et al. 1984). Due to its nitrogen-fixing capabilities, it has the capacity to adversely affect the nitrogen cycle of native communities that may depend on infertile soils. E. umbellata is just beginning to be recognized as a potentially serious problem exotic. Seeds are still distributed for wildlife plantings in some states such as Missouri, although the state conservation department is working to stop distribution (Kurz pers. comm.).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecological Threat in the United States

It threatens native ecosystems by out-competing and displacing native plant species, creating dense shade and interfering with natural plant succession and nutrient cycling.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Elaeagnus umbellata

Elaeagnus umbellata, is known as Japanese silverberry,[1] umbellata oleaster,[2] autumn olive,[1][3] autumn elaeagnus,[3] or spreading oleaster.[3] The species is indigenous to eastern Asia and ranges from the Himalayas eastwards to Japan. Because it fixes atmospheric nitrogen in its roots, it often grows vigorously and competitively in infertile soils.

Description[edit]

Elaeagnus umbellata grows as a deciduous shrub or small tree, typically up to 3.5 m tall, with a dense crown.[4] It commonly bears sharp thorns in the form of spur branches.[5] The leaves are alternate, 4–10 cm long and 2–4 cm wide, entire, but with wavy margins. The leaves are covered with minute silvery scales when they emerge early in spring, but turn greener above as the scales wear off during the summer. In this the plant differs from the related E. angustifolia, which remains silvery until it sheds its leaves in the fall.

The flowers are borne in the leaf axils in clusters of 1-7. They are pale yellowish-white, fragrant, (often heavily fragrant) and have a four-lobed corolla 1 cm long. The fruit is a small round drupe 1/4 to 1/3 inches (0.65 to 0.85 cm) in diameter.[6] The unripe fruit is silvery-scaled and yellow. It ripens to red, dotted with silver or brown.

When ripe, the fruit is juicy and edible, and also makes a good dried fruit. Though the fruit are small, the tree bears them abundantly. They are tart-tasting, with chewable seeds. Their content of the carotenoid, lycopene, is some seven to seventeen times higher than that of tomatoes.[7]

In some parts of North America where it has become naturalized, Elaeagnus umbellata is considered an invasive species.[8][1] It is considered a "prohibited noxious weed" under the Alberta Weed Control Act 2010.[9]



Leaves

Ripe fruit

Leaf underside

Zoomed view

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Species Profile - Autumn Olive, National Invasive Species Information Center, National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Elaeagnus umbellata.
  2. ^ Black B, Fordham I (2007). "Autumn olive: weed or new cash crop?". New York Berry News. Retrieved November 1, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". 
  4. ^ Parmar, C. and M.K. Kaushal. 1982. Elaeagnus umbellata. p. 23–25. In: Wild Fruits. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, India. at The Web site of the Center for New Crops & Plant Products, at Purdue University
  5. ^ Munger, Gregory T. 2003. Elaeagnus umbellata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2012, November 30].
  6. ^ Dirr, M. 1998. Manual of woody landscape plants : their identification, ornamental characteristics, culture, propagation and uses. Stipes, Champaign, Ill.
  7. ^ Fordham, IM, Clevidence BA, Wiley ER et al. "Fruit of autumn olive; A rich source of lycopene" HortScience. Alexandria 36:1136-1137, 2001
  8. ^ USDA invasive species identification sheet (pdf)
  9. ^ "Alberta Invasive Plant Identification Guide". [[Wheatland County, Alberta|]]. 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

A deciduous tree or shrub with fragrant yellow flowers. Common in the Himalayas in dry exposed places from 1000-3300 m. It is also cultivated. The fruit is edible. The following specimens, without flowers and fruit and with the habit of Elaeagnus umbellatus Thunb., but leaves with dense soft pubescence on the under surfaces, may with further material represent a different taxon. They have been provisionally placed here.

A-7 Gilgit: cult., R.R. Stewart s.n., p.p. (RAW); C-6 Kurram: Parachinar, R.R. Stewart 28038 (RAW).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: In North America, only var. parvifolia of the species Elaeagnus umbellata is established as an exotic outside cultivation (Kartesz, 1994 checklist).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The currently accepted scientific name for autumn-olive is Elaeagnus
umbellata Thunb. (Elaeagnaceae) [5,18,19,29,38,46,48,51,57,71,75,77].
Kartesz and Meacham [29] recognize the variety Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.
var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid.

Several cultivars have been developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Soil Conservation Service, and distributed for wildlife and other conservation uses
(see Importance To Livestock And Wildlife)
[1,8,10,23,25,65].
  • 46. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 5. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124]
  • 8. Ebinger, John E. 1983. Exotic shrubs: A potential problem in natural area management in Illinois. Natural Areas Journal. 3(1): 3-6. [45288]
  • 10. Ebinger, John; Lehnen, Larry. 1981. Naturalized autumn olive in Illinois. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Science. 74(3&4): 83-85. [45286]
  • 18. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 19. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 25. Higginbotham, Julie S. 1990. New plants for 1990. Part II: selections from universities, botanic gardens, arboretums and foundations for Zone 5 and warmer. American Nurseryman. 171(4): 40-49. [45107]
  • 51. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 57. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 65. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1987. `Redwing' autumn olive. Program Aid Number 1392. Washington, DC. 4 p. [21592]
  • 71. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 75. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]
  • 77. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 806 p. [28655]
  • 23. Henry, Jimmy. 1980. A bonanza for wildlife. Soil Conservation. 45(8): 13. [21596]
  • 48. Rolfsmeier, Steven B.; Steinauer, Robert F.; Sutherland, David M. 1999. New floristic records for Nebraska--5. Transactions, Nebraska Academy of Sciences. 25: 15-22. [37459]
  • 29. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with the Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]
  • 1. Allan, Philip F.; Steiner, Wilmer W. 1965. Autumn olive for wildlife and other conservation uses. Leaflet No. 458 [Revised]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 8 p. [44936]
  • 38. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Common Names

autumn-olive

autumn olive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!