The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2005. eFloras: Flora of China
  • Elaeagnaceae of North America Update
  • Gut, Bernando. 2008. Trees in Patagonia
  • Gut, Bernando. 2008. Trees in Patagonia. x+283
  • Knopf, F.L., and T.E. Olson. 1984. Naturalization of Russian-olive: implications for Rocky Mountain wildlife. Wildlife Society Bulletin 12:289-298.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Shafroth, P.R., G.T. Aubla, and M.L. Scott. 1995. Germination and establishment of the native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marshall subsp. moniifera) and the exotic Russian-olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.). Conservation Biology 9:1169-1175.
  • Swearingen, J. 2009. WeedUS Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States: Russian-Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia).
  • USDA, NRCS. 2009. The PLANTS Database ( National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.


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