Buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus) is a widespread species of terrestrial mangrove along tropical and subtropical coasts of the Americas and West Africa. It grows as a shrub or small tree on on the coastal mainland and on islands of a variety of sizes, down to the smallest vegetated islands (it is sometimes the only species of terrestrial vascular plant on an island). There are both "silver" and "green" morphs (with some intermediates), having highly pubescent (downy) and nearly glabrous (smooth) leaves, respectively. (Schoener 1988; Nettel 2008)
The distribution of this species throughout the south mid-Atlantic Islands should be confirmed.
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Global Range: Shores of central and southern Florida including Florida Keys, Bermuda, nearly throughout West Indies from Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad and Tobago and Dutch West Indies. On both coasts of continental tropical America from Mexico south through Central America and northern South America to Ecuador and Galapagos Islands and to Brazil (Little and Wadsworth 1964). Occurrence also known along the West African coast (Little and Wadsworth 1964 and Record and Mell 1924).
The geographic range of Buttonwood includes the shores of central and southern Florida, including the Florida Keys; Bermuda; most of the West Indies; both coasts of continental tropical America from Mexico south through Central America and northern South America to Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands and Brazil; and tropical West Africa. (Little and Wadsworth 1964; Nettel et al. 2008)
Semple (1970) gives the distribution as "along the coasts of west tropical Africa, the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of tropical and subtropical North and South America and throughout the West Indies". Semple notes that pubescent-leaved individuals (as well as the typical glabrous, or smooth-leaved ones) are restricted to the northern West Indies, southern Florida, and northern Central America.
Buttonwood has been introduced to Hawaii at least twice and the silver-leaved variety sericeus is still commonly planted as an ornamental. The green-leaved variety was introduced to Oahu before 1910, possibly from Florida, and the variety sericeus was introduced to Oahu from the Bahamas in 1946. Both forms of Buttonwood have escaped cultivation and established small wild populations on some islands. In contrast to Red Mangrove, which was introduced to Hawaii and is now very common and widespread there, Buttonwood has not shown much tendency to spread beyong the initial introduction sites. In Hawaii it is cultivated and sparingly naturalized in coastal areas of Kauai, Oahu, Lanai, and Molokai. (Allen 1998 and references therein)
Buttonwood is often shrubby in form (although it can grow to 6 meters or more in height) and usually grows on the landward side of tidal mangrove swamp forests. In Florida and the Caribbean, it is the only mangrove species with alternately arranged leaves. The lance-shaped or elliptic yellow-green leaves are long-pointed at both ends, leathery and slightly fleshy, 3 to 8 cm long and 1 to 3 cm wide. Leaves have slightly winged petioles, 0.5 to 1 cm long, with 2 dot-like glands. Leaf blade edges are untoothed and usually have several dot-like glands near vein angles on the lower surface. The fragrant greenish flowers are tiny, less than 2 mm across, and crowded in balls less than 6 mm in diameter in terminal and lateral clusters. Flowers are mostly bisexual, but some trees bear heads of male flowers. Purplish-brown rounded cone-like fruits are 1 cm in diameter and are composed of many scale-like 1-seeded fruits about 3 mm long. (Little and Wadsworth 1964)
Marismas Nacionales-San Blas Mangroves Habitat
This taxon is found in the Marismas Nacionales-San Blas mangroves ecoregion contains the most extensive block of mangrove ecosystem along the Pacific coastal zone of Mexico, comprising around 2000 square kilometres. Mangroves in Nayarit are among the most productive systems of northwest Mexico. These mangroves and their associated wetlands also serve as one of the most important winter habitat for birds in the Pacific coastal zone, by serving about eighty percent of the Pacific migratory shore bird populations.
Although the mangroves grow on flat terrain, the seven rivers that feed the mangroves descend from mountains, which belong to the physiographic province of the Sierra Madre Occidental. The climate varies from temperate-dry to sub-humid in the summer, when the region receives most of its rainfall (more than 1000 millimetres /year).
Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), Black Mangrove (Avicennia germinans), Buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus) and White Mangrove trees (Laguncularia racemosa) occur in this ecoregion. In the northern part of the ecoregion near Teacapán the Black Mangrove tree is dominant; however, in the southern part nearer Agua Brava, White Mangrove dominates. Herbaceous vegetation is rare, but other species that can be found in association with mangrove trees are: Ciruelillo (Phyllanthus elsiae), Guiana-chestnut (Pachira aquatica), and Pond Apple (Annona glabra).
There are are a number of reptiles present, which including a important population of Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) and American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in the freshwater marshes associated with tropical Cohune Palm (Attalea cohune) forest. Also present in this ecoregion are reptiles such as the Green Iguana (Iguana iguana), Mexican Beaded Lizard (Heloderma horridum) and Yellow Bellied Slider (Trachemys scripta). Four species of endangered sea turtle use the coast of Nayarit for nesting sites including Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), Olive Ridley Turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas).
A number of mammals are found in the ecoregion, including the Puma (Puma concolor), Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), Jaguar (Panthera onca), Southern Pygmy Mouse (Baiomys musculus), Saussure's Shrew (Sorex saussurei). In addition many bat taxa are found in the ecoregion, including fruit eating species such as the Pygmy Fruit-eating Bat (Artibeus phaeotis); Aztec Fruit-eating Bat (Artibeus aztecus) and Toltec Fruit-eating Bat (Artibeus toltecus); there are also bat representatives from the genus myotis, such as the Long-legged Myotis (Myotis volans) and the Cinnamon Myotis (M. fortidens).
There are more than 252 species of birds, 40 percent of which are migratory, including 12 migratory ducks and approximately 36 endemic birds, including the Bumblebee Hummingbird, (Atthis heloisa) and the Mexican Woodnymph (Thalurania ridgwayi). Bojórquez considers the mangroves of Nayarit and Sinaloa among the areas of highest concentration of migratory birds. This ecoregion also serves as wintering habitat and as refuge from surrounding habitats during harsh climatic conditions for many species, especially birds; this sheltering effect further elevates the conservation value of this habitat.
Some of the many representative avifauna are Black-bellied Whistling Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis), Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias), Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja), Snowy Egret (Egretta thula), sanderling (Calidris alba), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), Mexican Jacana (Jacana spinosa), Elegant Trogan (Trogan elegans), Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra), White-tailed Hawk (Buteo albicaudatus), Merlin (Falco columbarius), Plain-capped Starthroat (Heliomaster constantii), Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) and Wood Stork (Mycteria americana).
- World Wildlife Fund & C. Michael Hogan. 2013."Marismas Nacionales-San Blas mangroves". Encyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC ed. Mark McGinley
- L.A. Bojórquez-Tapia, S. Díaz-Mondragón, and R Saunier, R. 1997. Ordenamiento Ecológico de la Costa Norte de Nayarit. OEA-IEUNAM, México.
Belizean Coast Mangroves Habitat
This species is found in the Belizean coast mangroves ecoregion (part of the larger Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves ecoregion), extending along the Caribbean Coast from Guatemala, and encompassing the mangrove habitat along the shores of the Bahía de Annatique; this ecoregion continues along the Belizean coast up to the border with Mexico. The Belizean coast mangroves ecoregion includes the mainland coastal fringe, but is separate from the distinct ecoregion known as the Belizean reef mangroves which are separated from the mainland. This ecoregion includes the Monterrico Reserve in Guatemala, the estuarine reaches of the Monkey River and the Placencia Peninsula. The ecoregion includes the Burdon Canal Nature Reserve in Belize City, which reach contains mangrove forests and provides habitat for a gamut of avian species and threatened crocodiles.
Pygmy or scrub mangrove forests are found in certain reaches of the Belizean mangroves. In these associations individual plants seldom surpass a height of 150 centimetres, except in circumstances where the mangroves grow on depressions filled with mangrove peat. Many of the shrub-trees are over forty years old. In these pygmy mangrove areas, nutrients appear to be limiting factors, although high salinity and high calcareous substrates may be instrumental. Chief disturbance factors are due to hurricanes and lightning strikes, both capable of causing substantial mangrove treefall. In many cases a pronounced gap is formed by lightning strikes, but such forest gaps actually engender higher sapling regrowth, due to elevated sunlight levels and slightly diminished salinity in the gaps.
Chief mangrove tree species found in this ecoregion are White Mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), Black Mangrove (Avicennia germinans); the Button Mangrove (Conocarpus erectus) is a related tree associate. Red mangrove tends to occupy the more seaward niches, while Black mangrove tends to occupy the more upland niches. Other plant associates occurring in this ecoregion are Dragonsblood Tree (Pterocarpus officinalis), Guiana-chestnut (Pachira aquatica) and Golden Leatherfern (Acrostichum aureum).
In addition to hydrological stabilisation leading to overall permanence of the shallow sea bottom, the Belizean coastal zone mangrove roots and seagrass blades provides abundant nutrients and shelter for a gamut of juvenile marine organisms. A notable marine mammal found in the shallow seas offshore is the threatened West Indian Manatee (Trichecus manatus), who subsists on the rich Turtle Grass (Thalassia hemprichii) stands found on the shallow sea floor.
Wood borers are generally more damaging to the mangroves than leaf herbivores. The most damaging leaf herbivores to the mangrove foliage are Lepidoptera larvae. Other prominent herbivores present in the ecoregion include the gasteropod Littorina angulifera and the Mangrove Tree Crab, Aratus pisonii.
Many avian species from further north winter in the Belizean coast mangroves, which boast availability of freshwater inflow during the dry season. Example bird species within or visiting this ecoregion include the Yucatan Parrot (Amazona xantholora), , Yucatan Jay (Cyanocorax yucatanicus), Black Catbird (Dumetella glabrirostris) and the Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulfuratus)
Upland fauna of the ecoregion include paca (Agouti paca), coatimundi (Nasua narica), Baird’s Tapir (Tapirus bairdii), with Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta caraya) occurring in the riverine mangroves in the Sarstoon-Temash National Park. The Mantled Howler Monkey (Alouatta palliata) can be observed along the mangrove fringes of the Monkey River mouth and other portions of this mangrove ecoregion.
Other aquatic reptiian species within the ecoregion include Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletti), Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas), Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta), and Kemp’s Ridley (Lepidochelys kempi).
- C. Michael Hogan. 2012."Belizean Coast Mangroves". Encyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC ed.Harold Ormes. updated 2013
- Les Beletsky and David Beadle. 2005. Belize & Northern Guatemala. Interlink Books. 477 pages
Rio Negro-Rio San Sun Mangroves Habitat
This taxon occurs in the Rio Negro-Rio San Sun mangroves, which consists of a disjunctive coastal ecoregion in parts of Costa Rica, extending to the north slightly into Nicaragua and south marginally into Panama. Furthermore, this species is not necessarily restricted to this ecoregion. Mangroves are sparse in this ecoregion, and are chiefly found in estuarine lagoons and small patches at river mouths growing in association with certain freshwater palm species such as the Yolillo Palm (Raphia taedigera), which taxon has some saline soil tolerance, and is deemed a basic element of the mangrove forest here. These mangrove communities are also part of a mosaic of several habitats that include mixed rainforest, wooded swamps, coastal wetlands, estuarine lagoons, sand backshores and beaches, sea-grasses, and coral reefs.
The paucity of mangroves here is a result of the robust influx of freshwater to the coastline ocean zone of this ecoregion. Among the highest rates of rainfall in the world, this ecoregion receives over six metres (m) a year at the Nicaragua/ Costa Rica national border. Peak rainfall occurs in the warmest months, usually between May and September. A relatively dry season occurs from January to April, which months coincides with stronger tradewinds. Tides are semi-diurnal and have a range of less than one half metre.
Mangroves play an important role in trapping sediments from land that are detrimental to the development of both coral reefs and sea grasses that are associated with them. Mangrove species including Rhizopora mangle, Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, Conocarpus erecta and R. harrisonii grow alone the salinity gradient in appropriate areas. Uncommon occurrences of Pelliciera rhizophorae and other plant species associated with mangroves include Leather ferns Acrostichum spp., which also invade cut-over mangrove stands and provide some protection against erosion. In this particular ecoregion, the mangroves are associated with the indicator species, freshwater palm, Raphia taedigera. Other mangrove associated species are Guiana-chestnut ( Pachira aquatica) and Dragonsblood Tree (Pterocarpus officinalis).
Reptiles include the Basilisk Lizard (Basiliscus basiliscus), Caiman (Caiman crocodilus), Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas), Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) and Green Iguana (Iguana iguana). The beaches along the coast within this ecoregion near Tortuguero are some of the most important for nesting green turtles. The offshore seagrass beds, which are among the most extensive in the world, are a source of food and refuge for the endangered Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas). Several species of frogs of the family Dendrobatidae are found in this mangrove ecoregion as well other anuran species and some endemic salamander taxa.
Mammal species found in this highly diverse ecoregion include: Lowland Paca (Agouti paca), primates such as Mantled Howler Monkey (Alouatta palliata), Geoffrey's Spider Monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), White-faced Capuchin (Cebus capucinus), Brown-throated Sloth (Bradypus variegatus), Silky Anteater (Cyclopes didactylus) and Nine-banded Armadillo (Dasypus novemcintus). Also found in this ecoregion are carnivores such as Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), Central American Otter (Lutra annectens), Jaguar (Panthera onca), Northern Racooon (Procyoon lotor), and Crab-eating Racoon (P. cancrivorus).
- World Wildlife Fund & C. Michael Hogan. 2010."Rio Negro-Rio San Sun mangroves". Encyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC ed.Mark McGinley. updated 2013
- L.C. Roth. 1997. Implications of periodic hurricane disturbance for the sustainable management of caribbean mangroves. B. Kjerfve, L.D. Lacerda, and E.H.S. Diop, editors. Mangrove ecosystem studies in Latin America and Africa. UNESCO, Paris France.
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean Mangroves Habitat
This taxon is found in the Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves ecoregion, but not necessarily exclusive to this region.The Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves occupy a long expanse of disjunctive coastal zone along the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico for portions of Central America and Mexico. The ecoregion has a very high biodiversity and species richness of mammals, amphibians and reptiles. As with most mangrove systmems, the Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean ecoregion plays an important role in shoreline erosion prevention from Atlantic hurricanes and storms; in addition these mangroves are significant in their function as a nursery for coastal fishes, turtles and other marine organisms.
This disjunctive Neotropical ecoregion is comprised of elements lying along the Gulf of Mexico coastline of Mexico south of the Tampico area, and along the Caribbean Sea exposures of Belize, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.There are 507 distinct vertebrate species that have been recorded in the Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves ecoregion.
Chief mangrove tree species found in the central portion of the ecoregion (e.g. Belize) are White Mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), and Black Mangrove (Avicennia germinans); Buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus) is a related tree associate. Red mangrove tends to occupy the more seaward niches, while Black mangrove tends to dominate the more upland niches. Other plant associates occurring in this central part of the ecoregion are Swamp Caway (Pterocarpus officinalis), Provision Tree (Pachira auatica) and Marsh Fern (Acrostichum aureum).
The Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves ecoregion has a number of mammalian species, including: Mexican Agouti (Dasyprocta mexicana, CR); Mexican Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra, EN); Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdii, EN); Central American Spider Monkey (Ateles geoffroyi, EN); Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla); Deppe's Squirrel (Sciurus deppei), who ranges from Tamaulipas, Mexico to the Atlantic versant of Costa Rica; Jaguar (Panthera onca, NT), which requires a large home range and hence would typically move between the mangroves and more upland moist forests; Margay (Leopardus wiedii, NT); Mantled Howler Monkey (Alouatta palliata); Mexican Big-eared Bat (Plecotus mexicanus, NT), a species found in the mangroves, but who mostly roosts in higher elevation caves; Central American Cacomistle (Bassariscus sumichrasti).
A number of reptiles have been recorded within the ecoregion including the Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas, EN); Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata, CR); Central American River Turtle (Dermatemys mawii, CR), distributed along the Atlantic drainages of southern Mexico to Guatemala; Morelets Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii, LR/CD), a crocodile found along the mangroves of Yucatan, Belize and the Atlantic versant of Guatemala.
Some of the other reptiles found in this ecoregion are the Adorned Graceful Brown Snake (Rhadinaea decorata); Allen's Coral Snake (Micrurus alleni); Eyelash Palm Pitviper (Bothriechis schlegelii); False Fer-de-lance (Xenodon rabdocephalus); Blood Snake (Stenorrhina freminvillei); Bridled Anole (Anolis frenatus); Chocolate Anole (Anolis chocorum), found in Panamanian and Colombian lowland and mangrove subcoastal forests; Furrowed Wood Turtle (Rhinoclemmys areolata. NT); Brown Wood Turtle (LR/NT); Belize Leaf-toed Gecko (Phyllodactylus insularis), which occurs only in this ecoregion along with the Peten-Veracruz moist forests.
Salamanders found in this ecoregion are: Cukra Climbing Salamander (Bolitoglossa striatula); Rufescent Salamander (Bolitoglossa rufescens); Alta Verapaz Salamander (Bolitoglossa dofleini, NT), the largest tropical lungless salamander, whose coastal range spans Honduras, Guatemala and the Cayo District of Belize; Colombian Worm Salamander (Oedipina parvipes), which occurs from central Panama to Colombia; La Loma Salamander (Bolitoglossa colonnea), a limited range taxon occurring only in portions of Costa Rica and Panama;.Central American Worm Salamander (Oedipina elongata), who inhabits very moist habitats; Cienega Colorado Worm Salamander (Oedipina uniformis, NT), a limited range taxon found only in parts of Costa Rica and Panama, including higher elevation forests than the mangroves; Limon Worm Salamander (Oedipina alfaroi, VU), a restricted range caecilian found only on the Atlantic versant of Costa Rica and extreme northwest Panama. Caecilians found in the ecoregion are represented by: La Loma Caecilian (Dermophis parviceps), an organism found in the Atlantic versant of Panama and Costa Rica up to elevation 1200 metres
- C.Michael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund. 2013. "Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves".. Encyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC ed.Peter Saundry
- William G. D'Arcy, D. Mireya and A. Correa. 1985. The Botany and Natural History of Panama, Universidad de Panamá. , 455 pages
Habitat and Ecology
This species includes ever-growing shrubs to small trees with no protected terminal buds, thus requiring dormancy in winter (e.g. south Florida populations) (Tomlinson 1986). Flowering and fruiting are continuous throughout the year (Hernandez and Espino 1999). C. erectus has non-viviparous seeds which float and can be dispersed by water. Seed production is high but many are aborted or do not germinate (Tomlinson 1986). Seed viability is shown to be <12% (Hernandez and Espino 1999). The stems can sprout vegetatively (post hurricane) but experimental rooting success of cuttings was shown to be limited (Benitez-Pardo et al. 2002).
This species provides habitat for a number of species including crabs and also bald eagles (Curnutt and Robertson 1994). As an integral component of most western mangrove assemblages, C. erectus helps buffer the upper edge of highly valuable intertidal mangrove habitats, thus helping to maintain critical habitat.
Comments: In Puerto Rico, found in the mangrove swamp forests on silty shores near salt and brackish water, and sometimes also on rocky and sandy shores (Little and Wadsworth 1964). In general occurs along low muddy tide-water shores of lagoons and bays (Record and Mell 1924).
Depth range (m): 1 - 1
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Buttonwood is found in mangrove swamp forests on silty shores near salt and brackish water, usually growing on the landward side. It may also occur on rocky and sandy shores (as an ornamental, it grows in much broader conditions). (Little and Wadsworth 1964)
A study of patterns of herbivore damage to Buttonwood leaves on 74 small islands in the central Bahamas found that leaves on islands inhabited by lizards were less damaged than leaves on lizard-free islands and that pubescent (silver) leaves showed less damage than others (Schoener 1988). Furthermore, the silver pubescent form was relatively more common (as measured by percent cover) on lizard-free islands than on islands with lizards (Schoener 1987). There is evidence that at least some insect herbivores prefer green (smooth) leaves to silver (pubescent) ones (Agrawal and Spiller 2004) and much evidence from herbivory studies on other plants that leaf "hairiness" can effectively deter herbivory. Experimental introductions of lizards have reduced leaf damage (Schoener and Spiller 1999). These findings suggest that the presence of insect-eating lizards may reduce damage to Buttonwood leaves caused by insect herbivores, and that in the absence of lizards pubescent-leaved Buttonwoods may be favored over smooth-leaved ones by natural selection as a result of their greater resistance to herbivory. The full story, however, is likely more complex than this. For example, Agrawal and Spiller (2004) note that the silver and green leaves differ in ways other than hairiness (for example, in nitrogen content and leaf toughness). They also report that silver morphs are more common on protected islands, while green morphs are more common on exposed islands, suggesting that the green morph may be favored in the disturbed environment on exposed islands. Thus, some environmental conditions may favor the green form, while other conditions favor the silver form, which could explain the persistence of this polymorphism, but more experimental work is needed to clarify these interactions. Spiller and Schoener (2007) found that after hurricanes, herbivory increased dramatically, as did the disparity between herbivory levels on islands with and without lizards. The authors attributed the increase in herbivory to a reduction in numbers of both lizards and predatory arthropods.
Life History and Behavior
In a study of Buttonwood in Mexico, flowering and fruiting were found to be continuous, but seed viability was less than 12%. During the dry season, fewer than 5% of seeds germinated and only 1.6% of seedlings survived to flower after 25 to 28 months (Hernandez and Espino 1999).
Evolution and Systematics
Systematics and Taxonomy
In the northern portion of its range, silvery pubescent-leaved Buttonwood may occur along with the usual green smooth-leaved ones. These have historically been viewed as a distinct species, but today are treated either as a variety (Conocarpus erectus var. sericeus) or as examples of natural variation that do not warrant any distinct taxonomic status (Semple 1970).
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Nettel et al. (2008) have developed microsatellite markers for Buttonwood.
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Conocarpus erectus
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Shores of central and southern Florida including Florida Keys, Bermuda, nearly throughout West Indies from Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad and Tobago and Dutch West Indies. On both coasts of continental tropical America from Mexico south through Central America and northern South America to Ecuador and Galapagos Islands and to Brazil. Record and Mell (1924) report occurrence on the West African coast as well. In Puerto Rico, found in the mangrove swamp forests on silty shores near salt and brackish water, and sometimes also on rocky and sandy shores (Little and Wadsworth 1964). In general occurs along low muddy tide-water shores of lagoons and bays (Record and Mell 1924).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
Recommended conservation measures for this species include more research on population sizes. Conocarpus erectus's range is well established but updates to population sizes, fluctuations or losses need to be continued. It is recommended to expand GIS mapping and remote sensing projects (e.g. Cohen and Lara 2003) and regional scale habitat mapping (e.g. Layman et al. 2006). Demographic modeling could be useful: research is needed to establish a minimum viable population size for the taxon, as past and present exploitative uses threaten to exert continued impacts throughout its range. Continued studies of post-hurricane recovery, restoration performance, in particular restoration of multispecies complexes and mangrove associates, are needed. The value of this mangrove upper boundary species to the protection/buffering of intertidal mangroves from land-based impacts should be better articulated in the literature.
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Uses: FIBER, Building materials/timber, Fuelwood, Other fuel, Tannin/dye
Comments: Used locally for fuel and for charcoal and rarely for construction. The bark contains considerable tannin.
Conocarpus erectus, one of two species in the genus Conocarpus, is a mangrove shrub and tree in the family Combretaceae growing on shorelines in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including Florida, Bermuda, the Bahamas, the Caribbean, Central and South America from Mexico to Brazil on the Atlantic coast and Mexico to Ecuador on the Pacific coast, western Africa and in Melanesia and Polynesia. It was introduced in Kuwait because it can thrive in high temperatures and absorbs brackish water. English common names include buttonwood, buttonbush, button mangrove, button-tree, false mangrove, Florida button, Florida buttonwood, green buttonwood, grey mangrove and Zaragoza mangrove. See also the section Common names in other languages below.
C. erectus is usually a dense multiple-trunked shrub, 1–4 m (3.3–13.1 ft) tall, but can grow into a tree up to 20 m (66 ft) or more tall, with a trunk up to 1 m (3.3 ft) in diameter. The United States National Champion green buttonwood is 35 ft (11 m) tall, has a spread of 70 ft (21 m), and a circumference of 207 in (530 cm). The bark is thick and has broad plates of thin scales which are gray to brown. The twigs are brittle, and angled or narrowly winged in cross-section. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple and oblong, 2–7 cm (0.79–2.76 in) long (rarely to 10 cm or 3.9 in long) and 1–3 cm (0.39–1.18 in) broad, with a tapering tip and an entire margin. They are dark green and shiny on top, and paler with fine silky hairs underneath, and have two salt glands at the base of each leaf. The fruits are button-like (from which the common names derive), 5–8 mm (0.20–0.31 in) diameter, with no petals; they are produced in stalked panicles of 35-56 flowers. The fruit is a cluster of red to brown, small scaly, two-winged cone-like seeds, 5–15 mm (0.20–0.59 in) long. The seed heads burst when ripe, and the seeds are dispersed by water.
There are two varieties, not accepted as distinct by all authorities:
- Conocarpus erectus var. erectus - green buttonwood, leaves thinly hairy or hairless
- Conocarpus erectus var. sericeus - silver buttonwood, leaves densely silvery-hairy
The tree is used as an ornamental plant and in bonsai. The variety sericeus, with silvery leaves, is especially prized for landscaping. It is an important host plant for epiphytes. As a result of ornamental planting, it has become naturalized in Hawaii. It has been used extensively in landscaping in Kuwait and became the most abundant tree/shrub. Conocarpus is widely believed to be fodder for the African buffalo, and it is understood that this is the source of their acidic urine.
The wood is sometimes used in cabinets; it is difficult to work but takes a smooth finish. It is also used as firewood, and is reported to be good for smoking meat and fish, as it burns very hot and slowly; it also makes high quality charcoal. The bark is high in tannin, for which it has been harvested commercially.
Common names in other languages
Conocarpus erectus is known by a variety of other names in various localities, including Asokolo, Asopolo, Botoncahui, Botoncillo, Botonillo, Chene Guadeloupe, Conocarpe Droit, Estachahuite, Geli, Gra Mangrove, Grignon, Grijze Mangle, Grijze Mangrove, Iztac-cuahuitl, Jele, Kaba, Kan-chik-inche, Kanche, Kank-ank-che, Kank-che, Madre de Sal, Mangel, Mangel Blancu, Mangle, Mangle Blanco, Mangle Boton, Mangle Botoncillo, Mangle Cenizo, Mangle Garbancillo, Mangle Gris, Mangle Jeli, Mangle Lloroso, Mangle Marequita, Mangle Negro, Mangle Pinuelo, Mangle Prieto, Mangle Roche, Mangle Torcido, Mangle Zaragoza, Manglier, Manglier Gris, Mangrovia Grigia, Mangue, Mangue Branco, Mangue de Botao, Maraquito, N Ja, Paletuvier, Paletuvier Gris, Pash-chuhnul, Pataban, Saragosa, Taabche, Tabche, Witte Mangel, Witte Mangro, Wortelboom, X-kanche, Xtabche, Yana and Zaragosa.
- "Conocarpus erectus L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2002-02-25. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
- "Florida State and National Champions 2009". Florida Division of Forestry. 2009-08-07. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
- US Forest Service
- USDA Forest Service: Conocarpus erectus (pdf file)
- Center for Wood Anatomy Research - retrieved July 1, 2006
- Florida Forest Trees - Buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus) - retrieved July 1, 2006
- A Collection of Articles About Buttonwood from Issues of the Florida Bonsai Magazine - retrieved July 1, 2006
- Natives for your neighborhood - Buttonwood - retrieved July 1, 2006
- Mangroves-Florida's Coastal Trees - retrieved July 4, 2006