Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phoradendron serotinum subsp. tomentosum (DC.) Kuijt:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phoradendron tomentosum (DC.) Oliv.:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phoradendron tomentosum (DC.) Engelm. ex A. Gray:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Type Information

Isotype for Phoradendron flavescens var. pubescens Engelm. ex A. Gray
Catalog Number: US 1814923
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): F. J. Lindheimer
Year Collected: 1846
Locality: Near New Braunfels and San Antonio., Texas, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Gray, A. 1850. Boston J. Nat. Hist. 6 (2): 212.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Isotype for Phoradendron flavescens var. pubescens Engelm. ex A. Gray
Catalog Number: US 49185
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): F. J. Lindheimer
Year Collected: 1846
Locality: Near New Braunfels and San Antonio., Texas, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Gray, A. 1850. Boston J. Nat. Hist. 6 (2): 212.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Associations

Known predators

Phoradendron tomentosum is prey of:
Crematogaster laeviuscula
Tacoma feriella
Vanduzea laeta
Pseudocoddicae
Lecanium
Aphididae
Leptoglossus brevirostris
Cyathissa percara
Atlides halesus
Aphrastus unicolor
Myrmex estriatus
Smiracraulax tuberculatus

Based on studies in:
USA: Texas (Plant substrate)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • P. L. Whittaker, 1984. The insect fauna of mistletoe (Phoradendron tomentosum, Loranthaceae) in southern Texas. Southw. Nat. 29:435-444, from p. 443.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Known prey organisms

Phoradendron tomentosum preys on:
Prosopis juliflora

Based on studies in:
USA: Texas (Plant substrate)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • P. L. Whittaker, 1984. The insect fauna of mistletoe (Phoradendron tomentosum, Loranthaceae) in southern Texas. Southw. Nat. 29:435-444, from p. 443.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Phoradendron tomentosum

Leafy Mistletoe, Phoradendron tomentosum is a plant parasite. It is characterized by its larger leaves and smaller berries than dwarf mistletoe. Leafy mistletoe seldom kill but they do rob their hosts of moisture and some minerals, causing stress during drought and reducing crop productions on fruit and nut trees.[1] Leafy mistletoe has the ability to photosynthesize on its own but it relies on other plants in order to obtain its nutrients. It attaches itself to a tree and then grows haustoria,[2] in order to get the food and water it needs.

Contents

Host and Symptoms

Symptoms can include dieback, swelling, formations of witches’ broom and weakened branches.[3] Leafy mistletoe can occur on several hundred host species. [3] These include hardwood trees. Signs are green leafy green stems, and berries.

Disease Cycle

Birds are the primary disease vector in the dispersal of the plant parasite Leafy Mistletoe.[4] Birds consume the seeds from the fruit of P. tomentosum, also called drupes, and excrete or regurgitate the seeds onto the branches of which the birds perch. The most important birds for effective dispersal include cedar waxwings, euphonias, silky flycatcher, bluebirds, thrushes, robins, and solitaires.[5] The seeds germinate within the tree for several years, eventually producing a haustorium, a root-like structure, that penetrates the host plant and extracts water and minerals from the infected tree or plant. Phoradendron is a hemiparasite, meaning that it produces its own chlorophyll, but relies on the host plant to provide essential elements for growth and survival. [6] Stems, flowers, and fruits also grow from the seed following germination with fruits being produced several years after infection.[5]

Environment

Leafy Mistletoe parasitizes a broad range of trees common in amenity and natural landscapes in the United States and the Americas, where winter temperatures are consistently warmer. As are all plants, Phoradendron is subject to death at extremely low temperatures.[7]

Management

Leafy Mistletoe, Phoradendron tomentosum can adversely affect trees growing in urban environments as well as in forests.[6] Although mistletoe is photosynthetic, it is an obligate, semi parasitic evergreen plant that infects host plants to derive support, water, and essential elements. They are considered a nuisance in urban environments because of their appearance in deciduous trees during winter. When colonization is extensive in individual trees, mistletoe can adversely affect tree health causing a decline and death.

Phoradendron tomentosum primarily infects broad-leaved tree species such as hackberry, mesquite oak, and elm in USDA zone 6 and warmer in the United States. It also commonly infects cherry, walnut, beech, and other tree species. Although some mistletoe species show host specialization, new sites, and new host species have been reported for broadleaf mistletoe. Improving control methods for mistletoe in urban forests is important as a result of the particular interactions of different tree species in varied environments.

Operations include regenerating with a non-host tree, thinning trees to improve vigor and tolerance of the infestation, and sanitation by removing infected trees or branches or removing aerial shoots. Pruning infected branches is often sufficient; where the loss of infected branches cannot be accepted, the aerial shoots can be just knocked off. Mistletoe can be removed from the tree by pruning out the mistletoe shoots at the branch surface. Although the mistletoe might quickly resprout, some benefit is derived by annual mistletoe removal because it reduces seed production and spread of mistletoe within and among trees. Removing the shoots does not eliminate the mistletoe infection but does reduce its reproduction and damage. Shoots will reappear after several years. Covering infected branches with tarpaper or creosote has not proven either attractive or effective. These treatments work by prohibiting photosynthesis of the haustorium by opaque coverings. Perhaps the best way for discouraging additional bird-dispersal of mistletoe seeds is with branch pruning or shoot removal (since it is often the mistletoe fruits that initially attract the birds). Given the modest damage and slow rate of increase of these mistletoes, these methods are usually sufficient.[5]

After seeds germinate, they produce a haustorium or root-like structures that penetrate the host to extract water and minerals. This endophytic portion results in a challenging control problem because treatments must kill the outer ectophytic portion of the plant as well as the endophytic portion without damaging the host.


Importance

Although the Phoradendron mistletoes that infect conifers are widely distributed in the Western United States and in Mexico on a number of common and valuable hosts, their importance is mostly on a local basis and for special uses. In the United States, Phoradendron are most important in California on incense cedar and true fir in certain areas and important broadly across the Southwest (California to Texas) on junipers. [5]

Extensive infections and mortality are uncommon in ashes. However, infections occur typically in open-grown trees. This true mistletoe is used as greenery in Christmas decorations.[8]

Many species of hardwood trees are affected by mistletoe, but oaks and hickories are most commonly attacked.The impact of infestation is not normally severe, but the parasite may lower individual branch vigor. Where infestations are severe, tree decline may progress to the point where insect and fungus pests combine to kill trees.[9]

Injury caused by dwarf mistletoe is manifested in a variety of ways: reduction in tree growth, distortion of growth, reduction in wood quality, predisposition of trees to secondary attack, and reduction in seed yield.[10]

References

  1. ^ Krautwurst, Terry. “ The truth About Mistletoe.” Mother Earth News, 195 (2003): 26-29
  2. ^ Hiller, Julie Brooks. “Marvelling at Mistletoe.” Highlights for Children. 65, no 12:40-41
  3. ^ a b "Mistletoe Article". Ag.arizona.edu. http://ag.arizona.edu/cochise/mg/mistletoe.htm. Retrieved 2011-10-26. 
  4. ^ Aukema, J. E. 2004. Distribution and Dispersal of Desert Mistletoe is Scale-Dependent, Hierarchically Nested. Ecography 27. pp. 137-144.
  5. ^ a b c d Geils, B.W., Wiens, D., Hawksworth, Phoradendron in Mexico and the United States. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech. Rep. 2002
  6. ^ a b W T Watson, T Martinez-Trinidad. Strategies and treatments for leafy mistletoe (Phoradendron tomentosum (DC.) Engelm ex. Gray) suppression on cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia Nutt.) Arboriculture and Urban Forestry (2006) Volume: 32, Issue: 6, Pages: 265-270
  7. ^ Lichter, John M.; Reid, Michael S.; Berry, Alison M. NEW METHODS FOR CONTROL OF LEAFY MISTLETOE (Phoradendron SPP.) ON LANDSCAPE TREES. 1991. Journal of Arboriculture. 17(5). pp. 127-130.
  8. ^ Solomon, J.D.; Leininger, T.D.; Wilson, A.D.; Anderson, R.L.; Thompson, L.C.; McCracken, F.I. 1993. Ash pests: A guide to major insects, diseases, air pollution injury and chemical injury. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-96. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, and Southern Forest Experiment Station. 45 p.
  9. ^ Insects and Diseases of Trees in the South. 1989. USDA Forest Service - Forest Health Protection. R8-PR16. 98 pp. Taken from http://fhpr8.srs.fs.fed.us/forstpst.html
  10. ^ Hull, Richard J.; Leonard, Oliver A. Physiological Aspects of Parasitism in Mistletoes (Arceuthobium and Phoradendron). The Carbohydrate Nutrition of Mistletoe.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!