Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: This species occurs in North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, and Georgia. West Virginia: Nicholas, Pocahontas, Randolph Cos., with largest population on Cheat River; Virginia, Giles Co; mountains of northeast North Carolina; Tennessee: Sevier Co.; Georgia: Towns Co.

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Fruits on 10-15 mm long pedicels.

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Ilex collina occurs in high elevation oligotrophic wetlands along streams, and streamheads from 2120-4815 ft. It often occurs in association with Tsuga canadensis, Betula lenta, Ilex montana, Picea rubens, and Rhododendron maximum.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Comments: Ilex collina is regionally restricted and occurrences are noted for five states. Approximately 37 occurrences are believed extant and 1 is historical.

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General Ecology

North Carolina -- Ilex collina occurs in tall shrub thickets and has been noted on one western slope in a creek valley. Plants associated with this species include Aronia sp., Carex trisperma, Epilobium leptophyllum, Kalmia sp., Lilium grayi, Lonicera canadensis, L. dioica, Rhododendron sp., Salix sp., Saxifraga pensylvanica, and Vaccinium sp. (NCNHP, 1996).

Virginia -- This species occurs along bog borders, beaver ponds, mucky ground, hydric peat, and oligotrophic saturated wetlands. It grows in sun and has been noted on a 3% slope with an eastern aspect. The elevations for these occurrences ranged from 3000-4815 ft. The generalized communities have been described as sphagnum/sedge bogs and open shrub near hardwood forest and including some spruce. It is associated with the following plants: Acer rubrum, Betula alleghaniensis, B. lenta, Glyceria melicaria, Osmunda cinnamomea, Picea rubens, Pinus strobus, Rhododendron arborescens, R. maximum, Tsuga canadensis, and Viburnum cassinoides (VANHP, 1995).

West Virginia -- This species in noted in wetland areas (bog, marsh, and swamp), river edges, high energy and/or scoured (rock sand and cobble) riverbanks, sandstone soils, and northern hardwoods. Elevations for occurrences ranged from 2150 to 4500 ft. Associated plant species included Acer rubrum, Aconitum uncinatum, Agrostis perennans, Betula alleghaniensis, B. lenta, Brachyelytrum erectum, Calamagrostis canadensis, Cicuta maculata, Clintonia borealis, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, Fagus grandifolia, Galium obtusum, Hamamelis virginiana, Ilex montana, Kalmia sp., Liriodendron tulipifera, Maianthemum canadense, Physocarpus opulifolius, Picea rubens, Quercus rubra, Rhododendron aborescens, Solidago graminifolia, Thalictrum polygamum, and Tsuga canadensis (WVNHP, 1996).

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Ilex collina reproduces sexually; flowering in May. The plant is dioecious (Ammons and Core, 1945).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ilex collina

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ilex collina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: There are 37 recent sites in five states, occurring in a limited range of high-elevation streamside habitats. Total population size is estimated to be a few thousand individuals.

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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Currently stable. The majority of all occurrences are extant. However, continued loss of riparian habitat will likely reduce the number of extant occurrences.

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Threats

Comments: Ilex collina has a somwehat limited distribution, making it vulnerable to land-use conversion and habitat fragmentation (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002). Threats are related to timbering and changes in hydrology of local streams and wetlands. Although the habitat lends itself to many other uses, much of the habitat in the element's range is to some degree protected.

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Management

Preserve Selection and Design Considerations: Preserve design should include adequate buffer area surrounding occurrences to allow for management activities including removal of exotic plant species. Any preserve should be in an area protected from changes in hydrology.

Management Requirements: No management requirements were identified.

Management Research Programs: No management research programs were identified.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Comments: There is no known economic use.

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Risks

Stewardship Overview: Special considerations should be given to hydrology as this element occurs along streamsides. Stewardship should include rerouting trails and informing visitors on protecting this element in high use areas of State and National parks.

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Wikipedia

Ilex collina

Ilex collina is a species of holly known by the common name longstalk holly. It is native to the eastern United States, where it can be found in North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, and Georgia.[1]

This plant is a shrub or tree up to 3 to 4 meters tall. The leaves are oval with pointed tips and serrated edges. It is dioecious, with male and female reproductive parts on separate plants. The flowers are yellow-green and four-parted, blooming in May. The fruit is a drupe which is red to yellow in color and just under a centimeter in width.[1]

This plant grows in thickets in moist areas, such as the margins of bogs and ponds. It is often associated with Tsuga canadensis, Betula lenta, Ilex montana, Picea rubens, and Rhododendron maximum.[1]

Threats to this species include habitat loss.[2] There are about 37 occurrences for an estimated total of 4000 individuals.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Ilex collina. The Nature Conservancy.
  2. ^ Ilex collina. Center for Plant Conservation.
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