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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Annual herb, without bulbs. Stems procumbent or ascending, less often erect, often rooting at the nodes, with spreading hairs. Leaflets: lamina 3-15 × 5-20 mm, obcordate-cuneate, pubescent; apex deeply emarginate. Flowers yellow, in 1-6-flowered bracteate pseudumbels. Petals 8-10 mm. Capsule exserted, cylindric, ± 5-angled.
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Derivation of specific name

corniculata: with a small horn-like appendage
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Description

This wildflower is a short-lived perennial about 2-8" tall, although stolons that creep above or below the ground may be up to 2½' long. The stems are light green to reddish purple, hairy, terete, and slightly succulent. Trifoliate leaves alternate along these stems. The sessile leaflets are ¼-½" long and a little wider across; they are obcordate in shape and their margins are smooth (entire) and ciliate. The upper and lower surfaces of the leaflets are medium green to reddish purple and glabrous to appressed-pubescent; sometimes the lower sides of the central veins are pubescent or hairy. The petioles are about ¾-2" long, light green to reddish purple, hairy, and terete. The base of each petiole is swollen from a pair of fused stipules. The leaflets spread outward in response to light, while they contract inward in response to the absence of light. Flowers are produced either individually or in small umbels of 2-5 from the axils of the leaves and the tips of stems. Each flower is about ¼" across and a little longer in length, consisting of 5 light green to purple sepals, 5 yellow petals, 10 stamens, and a pistil with 5 styles that are fused together at the base. The sepals are lanceolate-oblong in shape and slightly pubescent; they are shorter than the petals. Sometimes the flowers are reddish toward the base of the petals. The pedicels of the flowers are about ¼-1" long, light green to reddish purple, terete, and appressed-pubescent, while the peduncle of an umbel of flowers is similar, except it is longer and more hairy. The blooming period occurs from early summer into the fall, lasting 2-4 months. Afterwards, the flowers are replaced by erect seed capsules about ½" long that are narrowly oblongoid-lanceoloid, 5-valved, and short-pubescent. The pedicels of the seed capsules are straight and either erect, ascending, or descending. Each capsule splits open into 5 parts, ejecting the seeds up to 10 feet. The seeds are 1.0-1.5 mm. in length, broadly ellipsoid in shape, somewhat flattened, and brown to reddish brown. Each lateral side of a seed has 7-9 transverse ridges. The root system consists of a fleshy taproot and stolons. This wildflower can reproduce vegetatively by forming rootlets along the nodes of its creeping stolons. Small colonies of plants are often produced.
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Degraded forests also in the Plains
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb
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Distribution

Range Description

Endemic to Ecuador, where it is known from the type collection, recorded before 1927 on the banks of the Río Machángara, in Guápulo (Pichincha province). This locale is currently inside the metropolitan area of Quito. The holotype was apparently destroyed in the Berlin herbarium during the Second World War, but the isotype is in the US herbarium in Washington, D.C. No specimens of this species are housed in Ecuadorean museums.
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Worldwide distribution

Cosmopolitan weed
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Range and Habitat in Illinois

The non-native Creeping Wood Sorrel is occasional in widely scattered areas of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It is probably more common than these records indicate. It is not entirely clear where Creeping Wood Sorrel originated, but it was probably introduced into temperate North America from tropical America or tropical areas of the Old World. Habitats include lawns, gardens, mulched areas around shrubbery, plant nurseries, and greenhouses. Potted plants or shrubs from greenhouses or nurseries are often responsible for introducing Creeping Wood Sorrel into gardens and mulched areas. This wildflower prefers disturbed areas with little competition where the surface of the soil has been exposed.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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"Found along roadsides, fallow fields and disturbed areas of above 500m. Common. Cosmopolitan."
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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Satara, Sindhudurg Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Hassan, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga Kerala: All districts"
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"
Global Distribution

Cosmopolitan

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile and Mediterranean regions, Oases, eastern desert (Along Suez Canal) and Sinai.

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Global Distribution

Cosmopolitan, especially warm regions.

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Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Nei Mongol, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, E Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Thailand; almost cosmopolitan].
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Distribution: A cosmopolitan weed.
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Almost cosmopolitan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In axillary pseudo-umbels, 1-6-flowered; yellow. Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

An oblong capsule, tapering above, puberulous; seeds many, ovoid or ellipsoid, transversely ridged. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Branchlets creeping, rooting at nodes, softly pilose.

Leaf Arrangement

Caulescent

Leaf Type

Digitate

Leaf Shape

Obcordate

Leaf Apex

Emarginate

Leaf Base

Cuneate

Leaf Margin

Entire

"
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Description

Annuals or short-lived perennials. Stems to 50 cm but often shorter, creeping, ascending to semierect, variably pubescent with adpressed simple hairs. Rootstock a slender taproot, sometimes woody; stems several, freely rooting at nodes in contact with soil; stolons absent. Stipules small, rectangular to auriculate. Leaves alternate or pseudoverticillate; petiole 1-8(-13) cm; leaflet blades obcordate, 0.3-1.8 × 0.4-2.3 cm, green or suffused purplish red, variably adaxially and abaxially pubescent, apex deeply emarginate. Inflorescences umbellate, (2-)1-5(-7)-flowered; peduncle usually slightly longer than petioles; bracts linear-lanceolate, 2-4 × ca. 1 mm. Pedicel 4-15(-20) mm, deflexed or horizontal in fruit, densely strigose. Sepals oblong-lanceolate, 3.5-5 × 1.2-2 mm, margin ciliate especially at apex. Petals bright yellow, oblong-obovate, 6-8 × 3-4 mm. Capsule long cylindric, 8-25 × 2-3 mm, 5-sided, strigose with abundant simple hairs and a few septate hairs on dehiscence sutures. Seeds brown to brownish red, 5-14 per locule, ovoid-oblong, 1-1.5 × 0.8-1 mm, transversely ridged. Fl. and fr. Feb-Oct. 2n = 24.
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Description

Plants creeping, pubescent, rooting at the nodes. Leaflets 4—15 mm long, 8—32 mm broad, obcordate, pilose-tomentose. Flowers solitary or in 2—5 flowered axillary umbels. Pedicel 5—15 mm long, deflexed in fruit. Bracts 3—5, linear. Sepals 5, linear lanceolate, pilose. Petals 5, yellow. Filaments glabrous. Carpels 5, pubescent; styles longer than the shorter stamens. Capsule 1—2.5 cm long, subcylindric, pubescent. Seeds 1.5 mm long, brown, transversely ribbed.
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Elevation Range

300-2900 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Prostrate herbs with creeping stem, rooting at lower nodes. Leaves digitately 3-foliolate; leaflets 0.5-1.5 x 0.6-2 cm, broadly obcordate, base cuneate, apex emarginate; petioles 1.5-3 cm long. Flowers yellow, solitary or in axillary umbels; peduncles 4-10 cm long; pedicels 0.5-1 cm long; bracts 2, 3-4 mm long, linear-lanceolate. Sepals 5, 2-3 mm long, ovate-lanceolate. Petals 5, 5-6 x 3-4 mm, ovate-lanceolate. Stamens 10, in two rows. Ovary 5-celled; ovules many; styles 5, distinct. Capsules 0.8-1.5 x 0.3-0.5 cm, linear, puberulous outside. Seeds many, minute, brown."
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Diagnostic

"Habit: A small branched, diffuse herb, upto 20cm."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Synonym

Acetosella corniculata (Linnaeus) Kuntze; Oxalis corniculata f. erecta Makino; O. corniculata subsp. repens (Thunberg) Masamune; O. corniculata var. repens (Thunberg) Zuccarini; O. corniculata subsp. subglabra (Kuntze) Masamune; O. corniculata var. taiwanensis Masamune; O. minima Steudel; O. procumbens Steudel; O. repens Thunberg; O. repens var. erecta (Makino) Masamune; O. repens f. speciosa Masamune; O. taiwanensis (Masamune) Masamune; Xanthoxalis corniculata (Linnaeus) Small; X. corniculata var. repens (Thunberg) Nakai; X. repens (Thunberg) Moldenke.
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Type Information

Holotype for Oxalis trinidadensis R. Knuth
Catalog Number: US 1046900
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): N. L. Britton
Year Collected: 1920
Locality: Aripo Savanna., Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies
  • Holotype: Knuth, R. G. P. 1927. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 276.
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Isotype for Oxalis norlindiana R. Knuth
Catalog Number: US 1284887
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): O. Heilborn & I. A. Holmgren
Year Collected: 1920
Locality: Guapulo near Machangara., Ecuador, South America
  • Isotype: Knuth, R. G. P. 1926. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 279.
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Isotype for Oxalis procumbens Steud. ex A. Rich.
Catalog Number: US 945532
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. W. Schimper
Year Collected: 1838
Locality: Near Entchetkab., Ethiopia, Africa
  • Isotype: Richard, A. 1847. Tent. Fl. Abyss. 1: 123.
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Isotype for Oxalis procumbens Steud. ex A. Rich.
Catalog Number: US 945532
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. H. W. Schimper
Year Collected: 1838
Locality: Near Entchetkab., Ethiopia, Africa
  • Isotype: Richard, A. 1847. Tent. Fl. Abyss. 1: 123.
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Holotype for Oxalis corniculata var. corcovadensis R. Knuth in Engl.
Catalog Number: US 1185409
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. F. M. Glaziou
Year Collected: 1880
Locality: Spitze des Corcovado., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, South America
  • Holotype: Engler, H. G. A. 1930. Pflanzenr. 95 (IV. 130): 151.
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Neotype for Oxalis corniculata L.
Catalog Number: US 1810662
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. L. Fernald & B. H. Long
Year Collected: 1938
Locality: West of Elko Station., Henrico, Virginia, United States, North America
  • Neotype: Haworth, A. H. 1803. Miscell. Natur. 183.; 1979. Phytologia. 42: 156.
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Holotype for Oxalis steudeliana R. Knuth
Catalog Number: US 1198661
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. Joseph
Year Collected: 1924
Locality: San Felipe, Aconcagua., Chile, South America
  • Holotype: Knuth, R. G. P. 1927. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 275.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A terrestrial herb found in high Andean forest (2,500–3,000 m).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Range and Habitat in Illinois

The non-native Creeping Wood Sorrel is occasional in widely scattered areas of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It is probably more common than these records indicate. It is not entirely clear where Creeping Wood Sorrel originated, but it was probably introduced into temperate North America from tropical America or tropical areas of the Old World. Habitats include lawns, gardens, mulched areas around shrubbery, plant nurseries, and greenhouses. Potted plants or shrubs from greenhouses or nurseries are often responsible for introducing Creeping Wood Sorrel into gardens and mulched areas. This wildflower prefers disturbed areas with little competition where the surface of the soil has been exposed.
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General Habitat

"Degraded forests, also in the plains"
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General Habitat

Common in fallow fields. Optimum size in shade at higher altitudes. Found upto 500m. Widely spread.
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Mountain slopes, forests, grasslands, riversides, roadsides, fields, wastelands; sea level to 3400 m.
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Associations

Insects whose larvae eat this plant species

Zizeeria knysna (Sooty blue) Zizula hylax (Gaika blue)
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Faunal Associations

The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract honeybees, little carpenter bees (Ceratina spp.), small leaf-cutting bees (Hoplitis spp., Osmia spp.), Halictid bees (Halictus spp., Lasioglossum spp.), Syrphid flies, small butterflies, and skippers (see Robertson, 1929). The caterpillars of an oligophagous moth, Galgula partita (The Wedgling), feed on Oxalis spp. Among vertebrate animals, the seeds are eaten by the Deer Mouse, White-Footed Mouse, and various birds, including the Bobwhite Quail, Mourning Dove, Slate-Colored Junco, Field Sparrow, Grasshopper Sparrow, Savannah Sparrow, and Tree Sparrow. The foliage of these plants is browsed by the Cottontail Rabbit and White-Tailed Deer. Because the foliage contains oxalic acid, it can be toxic to sheep and possibly other farm animals if it is eaten in quantity. A small amount of this foliage, however, is harmless.
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Flower-Visiting Insects of Creeping Wood Sorrel in Illinois

Oxalis corniculata (Creeping Wood Sorrel) introduced
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen; flies suck nectar and/or feed on pollen; other insects suck nectar; observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons sn, Osmia pumila sn cp

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Halictus confusus sn, Halictus ligatus sn, Lasioglossum albipennis sn cp, Lasioglossum foxii sn cp, Lasioglossum pectoralis sn cp, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum pruinosus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum tegularis sn cp, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp

Flies
Syrphidae: Toxomerus geminatus sn fp

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Phyciodes tharos sn fq; Pieridae: Pieris rapae sn, Pontia protodice sn

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Pholisora catullus sn

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe russellii parasitises Oxalis corniculata

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous, grouped pycnium of Puccinia sorghi causes spots on live leaf of Oxalis corniculata
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

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Population Biology

Frequency

Common in suitable habitats
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: March-December
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per. March December.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Oxalis corniculata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Oxalis corniculata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
A4c; B1ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Quintana, C. & Pitman, N.

Reviewer/s
Valencia, R., Pitman, N., Léon-Yánez, S. & Jørgensen, P.M. (Ecuador Plants Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Oxalis norlindiana is endemic to Ecuador, where it is known from the type collection, recorded before 1927. This locale is currently inside the metropolitan area of Quito. Habitat destruction is the only known threat.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Major Threats
Apart from habitat destruction, no specific threats are known.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Not known to occur inside Ecuador’s protected areas network, but could occur in the Reserva Geobotánica Pululahua.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun, mesic conditions, and a fertile loose soil. This weedy wildflower can spread aggressively.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Folklore

Indigenous Information: Leaf juice is used to remove the Artocarpus heterophyllus latex from hands.
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Uses

Medicinal
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Uses

Leaves edible after cooking.
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Wikipedia

Oxalis corniculata

Purple leafed variety.

Oxalis corniculata, the creeping woodsorrel, also called procumbent yellow-sorrel or sleeping beauty, resembles the common yellow woodsorrel, Oxalis stricta. It is a somewhat delicate-appearing, low-growing, herbaceous plant in the family Oxalidaceae. It has a narrow, creeping stem that readily roots at the nodes. The trifoliate leaves are subdivided into three rounded leaflets and resemble a clover in shape. Some varieties have green leaves, while others, like Oxalis corniculata var. atropurpurea, have purple. The leaves have inconspicuous stipules at the base of each petiole.

The fruit is a narrow, cylindrical capsule, 1 to 2 cm long and noteworthy for its explosive discharge of the contained, 1 mm long seeds.

Distribution[edit]

This species is cosmopolitan in its distribution, and its place of origin is unknown, but it is considered an Old World plant. It is regarded as weed in gardens,[1] agricultural fields, and lawns.[2]

Uses[edit]

The leaves of wood sorrel are quite edible, with a tangy taste of lemons. A drink can be made by infusing the leaves in hot water for about 10 minutes, sweetening and then chilling.[3] The entire plant is rich in vitamin C. Any wood sorrel is safe in low dosages, but if eaten in large quantities over a length of time can inhibit calcium absorption by the body.[3]

In India, where the plant is known as chichoda bhaji (approximately "earthalmond greens"), it is only eaten seasonally, starting around December.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hackney, P. 1992. Stewart & Corry's Flora of the North-east of Ireland. Institute of Irish Studies The Queen's University of Belfast.
  2. ^ UC Davis IPM
  3. ^ a b Lee Allen Peterson, Edible Wild Plants, Houghton Mifflin Company, New York City (1977), p. 104.
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Oxalis norlindiana

Oxalis norlindiana is a species of plant in the Oxalidaceae family. It is endemic to Ecuador.

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Notes

Comments

This species is used medicinally.

This highly successful weedy species is so widespread, particularly in areas disturbed by humans, that its origin is unknown. It has been reported from China in additional provinces, such as Heilongjiang, Jilin, Ningxia, and Xinjiang, where it is likely a weed in protected locations, such as in greenhouses. The most frequently encountered variety in China is Oxalis corniculata var. villosa (M. Bieberstein) Hohenacker, but this variety is often under-recorded due to the glabrescent nature of the adaxial surface of the leaves. Oxalis corniculata var. villosa has leaflet blades covered with trichomes all over the abaxial surface, whereas for var. corniculata the abaxial surface has trichomes only on the midrib of the terminal leaflet and the basal half of the lateral leaflets. Plants with leaves, and to a lesser extent all vegetative parts, suffused purplish red are Oxalis corniculata var. atropurpurea Planchon. The purple coloration is conspicuous in plants from exposed sunny habitats but is much less prominent in shaded plants and fades on drying, making confident determination of old herbarium specimens difficult. Determination of the exact distribution of these varieties in China needs additional study.

Synonyms of Oxalis corniculata var. villosa include: Oxalis villosa M. Bieberstein, Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 355. 1808; Acetosella corniculata var. villosa (M. Bieberstein) Kuntze; ?O. corniculata f. maritima Masamune; O. corniculata var. sericea Knuth; O. corniculata var. trichocaulon H. Léveillé; O. corniculata f. villosa (M. Bieberstein) Goiran; ?O. corniculata var. viscidula Wiegand; O. langloisii (Small) Fedde; O. thunbergiana Montrousier; Xanthoxalis langloisii Small. Synonyms of Oxalis corniculata var. atropurpurea include: Oxalis corniculata f. purpurea (Parlatore) Knuth; O. corniculata var. purpurea Parlatore; O. tropaeoloides Schlachter ex Planchon; Xanthoxalis corniculata f. atropurpurea (Planchon) Nakai; X. corniculata var. atropurpurea (Planchon) Moldenke; X. corniculata f. purpurea (Parlatore) Nakai.

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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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A very variable species in form and size. Common during the spring season from the plains to 2700 m. The leaves can be used as vegetable. The juice of the plant mixed with onion is used to remove warts.
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