Also known as simpler's joy and blue verbena, blue vervain is a native perennial plant found throughout New England and the United States. The entire plant grows 2 to 6 feet high, with multiple, small, blue-violet flowers emerging from spikes about five inches long. The tubular blossoms have five lobes that open 1/8 inch wide. The plant has a tall, square-edged stem with stalks that terminate into the spikes. The stalks may be green or reddish, and may be covered in fine white hairs. Narrow and rough serrated leaves, about 6 inches long and 1 inch across, grow in an opposite pattern up the stems, attached to the stalk by short petioles. The root system of the plant is fibrous. Blue vervain can be easily distinguished from other types of vervain because of its distinctive color.
Blue vervain is a perennial plant that grows each year from the root stock of the year before. It is also a biennial, so it does not begin to bloom until the second year of its life. The flowers bloom for about a month and a half from July to September. Four nutlets are produced from each flower. Blue vervain attracts a lot of wildlife: many different species of insects and bees, particularly bumblebees, collect nectar and pollen; cotton-tailed rabbits eat the young plants; and many birds, such as sparrows and cardinals, eat the seeds.
Prefers moist habitats with full or partial sunlight. Because of this it is found in damp thickets, shores, roadsides, pastures, and other places near ponds and streams. This plant easily adapts to areas from degraded wetlands to high quality habitats.
Very common plants in moist areas, some states even consider it a weed. Still, blue vervain is thought to be a medicinal cure-all in many cultures. The Latin name, verbena hastate, translates to "sacred plant."
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Range and Habitat in Illinois
Localities documented in Tropicos sources
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)
Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
- SPECIMEN BASED RECORD. Published protolog data. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/9990002
- Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1103
- Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/636
- Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1493
- Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1515
- Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/637
- Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1717
- Cronquist, A. J., A. H. Holmgren, N. H. Holmgren, J. L. Reveal & P. K. Holmgren. 1984. Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. 4: 1–573. In A. J. Cronquist, A. H. Holmgren, N. H. Holmgren, J. L. Reveal & P. K. Holmgren (eds.) Intermount. Fl. Hafner Pub. Co., New York. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1695
- Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Dicot. 933 pp. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1711
Range and Habitat in Illinois
Flower-Visiting Insects of Blue Vervain in Illinois
(Bees usually suck nectar, but sometimes collect pollen as indicated below; other insects usually suck nectar, although some of the Syrphid flies may feed on pollen; observations are from Robertson, Reed, Graenicher, Krombein et al., Conger, and Swengel & Swengel as indicated below)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn fq (Rb, Re); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus auricomus sn (Rb), Bombus bimaculatus (Re), Bombus griseocallis (Re), Bombus impatiens sn cp (Rb), Bombus pensylvanica sn fq (Rb), Bombus vagans (Re), Psithyrus citrinus sn (Rb); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina sp. (Re), Ceratina dupla dupla sn (Rb, Cng); Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus bifasciatus sn fq (Rb), Triepeolus concavus sn (Rb), Triepeolus cressonii cressonii sn (Rb), Triepeolus helianthi helianthi sn (Rb), Triepeolus lunatus concolor sn (Rb), Triepeolus lunatus lunatus sn (Rb), Triepeolus pectoralis sn (Rb), Triepeolus remigatus sn (Rb), Triepeolus simplex sn (Rb); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn (Rb), Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn (Rb), Melissodes coloradensis sn (Rb), Melissodes comptoides sn (Rb), Melissodes dentiventris sn (Rb), Melissodes nivea sn (Rb), Melissodes rustica sn fq (Rb), Melissodes trinodis sn fq (Rb, Re), Svastra atripes atripes sn (Rb); Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys octodentata sn fq (Rb), Coelioxys sayi sn fq (Rb); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis (Re), Megachile latimanus sn (Rb, Cng)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn (Rb, Re, Cng), Augochlorella striata sn fq (Rb, Re), Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn (Rb), Halictus confusus sn fq (Rb, Re), Halictus ligatus sn (Rb, Re), Halictus rubicunda sn (Rb), Lasioglossum coriaceus sn (Rb), Lasioglossum pruinosus sn (Rb), Lasioglossum zephyrus sn (Rb); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn cp (Rb, Kr), Calliopsis nebraskensis (Kr), Calliopsis verbenae sn cp fq olg (Rb)
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bembix nubilipennis (Rb), Microbembex monodonta (Cng); Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila nigricans (Rb), Ammophila pictipennis (Rb), Ammophila procera (Rb), Eremnophila aureonotata fq icp (Rb), Prionyx atrata (Rb), Sphex ichneumonea (Rb); Scoliidae: Scolia bicincta (Rb); Vespidae (Eumeninae): Euodynerus foraminatus (Cng); Vespidae (Vespinae): Dolichovespula maculata (Rb)
Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua (Cng), Helophilus latifrons (Cng), Sphaerophoria contiqua (Re, Cng), Syritta pipiens (Cng), Tropidia quadrata (Cng); Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa decora (Gr), Exoprosopa fasciata (Rb, Gr) fq, Exoprosopa fascipennis (Rb), Rhynchanthrax parvicornis (Gr), Sparnopolius confusus (Rb), Systoechus vulgaris (Rb, Gr) fq, Systropus macer fq (Rb), Tmemophlebia cyanoceps (Cng), Villa alternata (Gr); Conopidae: Physocephala texana fq (Rb), Physocephala tibialis (Rb), Stylogaster biannulata fq (Rb); Tachinidae: Archytas analis (Rb); Sarcophagidae: Ravinia derelicta (Rb); Calliphoridae: Lucilia sp. (Re)
Pieridae: Colias philodice (Rb), Pontia protodice (Rb); Lycaenidae: Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Cng, Sw)
Hesperiidae: Ancyloxypha numitor (Rb), Epargyreus clarus (Rb, Cng), Pholisora catullus (Rb)
Ctenuchidae: Cisseps fulvicollis (Rb); Noctuidae: Spragueia onagrus (Cng)
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus fq (Rb)
Miridae: Adelphocoris rapidus (Rb)
This species is included in the New York Metropolitan Flora Project of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Click here more information, including a distribution map for the metro New York area http://nymf.bbg.org/species/1557.
This species is grown by the Greenbelt Native Plants Center on Staten Island, NY. This facility is part of the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation and its purpose is to support and promote the use of native species in planting projects. For more information, go to:http://www.nycgovparks.org/greening/greenbelt-native-plant-center.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Verbena hastata
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Some research on V. hastata seems to reflect its potential medicinal use. Often used in traditional medicine, V. hastata has been investigate for potential anti-ulcer and antimicrobial properties (Akuodor et al. 2012).
V. hastata is also featured in wetland ecological studies, such as Dittmar and Neely 1999 and Kao-Kniffin et al. 2010.
There is a report of this species hybridizing with other members of the Verbena genus (Poindexter 1962).
Akuodor GC, JL Akpan, MN Ezeunala, GA Ajoku, AD Essien, AU Megwas, DO Okoroafor, TC Iwuanyanwu, and UA Osunkwo. 2012. Evaluation of anti-ulcer and antimicrobial effects of Verbena hastata leaf extract. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 6(11):778-782.
Dittmar LA and RK Neely. 1999. Wetland seed bank respose to sedimentation varying in loading rate and texture. Wetlands. 19(2):341-351.
Kao-Kniffin J, DS Freyre, and TC Balser. 2010. Methane dynamics across wetland plant species. Aquatic Botany. 93(2):107-113.
Poindexter, JD. 1962. Natural hybridization among Verbena stricta, V. hastata, and V. urticifolia in Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 65(4):409-419.
- "Blue Vervain" redirects here. This name is also used for Common Vervain (V. officinalis).
Verbena hastata (blue vervain or swamp verbena) is a flowering plant in the vervain family, Verbenaceae. It is a herb with opposite, simple leaves which have double-serate margins, borne on stiffly erect, branching square stems. The flowers appear in summer and are purple. This is a common plant that occurs across North America. They are hardy and drought resistant.
This species is a member of the diploid North American vervains which have 14 chromosomes altogether. Hybridization seems to have played some role in its evolution, presumably between some member of a group including the White Vervain (V. urticifolia), V. lasiostachys or V. menthifolia, and V. orcuttiana or a related species. In the recent evolutionary past, there has been an incident of chloroplast transfer of one of the latter or the Swamp Verbena to the mock vervain Glandularia bipinnatifida which is a close relative of the genus Verbena. It is unknown by what mechanism this happened, but it is suspected that hybridization is not responsible.
- "Blue Vervain Wildflowers".
- Yuan & Olmstead (2008)
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