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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution in Egypt

Mediterranean region and Sinai.

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Global Distribution

Europe, Caucasia, Mediterranean region, Sinai, Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan; naturalized in north America, south Africa and Australia.

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Europe to C. Asia, N. Africa, Chitral, Swat, Himalaya(Kashmir to Nepal), N. America and cooler parts of C. & S. America.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Elevation Range

150 m
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Description

Stems branched or unbranched, 30-40 cm tall, base woody, densely appressed lanate-villous. Leaves reduced upward; petiole 0.7-1.5 cm; leaf blade ovate to circular, 2-3.5 × 1.8-3 cm, adaxially polished, corrugate, and sparsely villous, abaxially densely scabrid strigose-villous, base broadly cuneate to rounded, margin dentate-serrate, apex obtuse to subrounded. Verticillasters axillary, many flowered, widely spaced basally, crowded upward, globose, 1.5-2.3 cm in diam.; bracts subulate, as long as to longer than calyx tube, reflexed. Calyx 10-veined; teeth 10, main 5 long, alternate with to 5 accessory teeth, 1-4 mm, subulate, hooked. Corolla white, ca. 9 mm; tube ca. 6 mm, densely pubescent outside, pilose annulate inside; upper lip as long as or slightly shorter than lower lip, straight or spreading, 2-lobed; middle lobe of lower lip reniform, undulate, 2-cleft. Nutlets triquetrous, ovoid, warty. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Jul-Sep.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Marrubium vulgare Linnaeus var. lanatum Bentham.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Dry grassy loess, slopes. Xinjiang [Afghanistan, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; SW Asia, Europe]
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Common Horehound in Illinois

Marrubium vulgare (Common Horehound) introduced
(Insects suck nectar; one observation is from Krombein et al. as indicated below, otherwise observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus griseocallis, Bombus pensylvanica; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Nomiinae): Nomia nortoni nortoni (Kr)

Flies
Bombyliidae: Bombylius atriceps

Butterflies
Pieridae: Pontia protodice fq

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Plant / resting place / on
puparium of Amauromyza morionella may be found on leaf of Marrubium vulgare

Plant / resting place / within
Haplothrips marrubiicola may be found in live flower of Marrubium vulgare

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Longitarsus ballotae grazes on leaf of Marrubium vulgare

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Meligethes nanus feeds on Marrubium vulgare

Foodplant / parasite
Neoerysiphe galeopsidis parasitises live Marrubium vulgare

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Marrubium vulgare

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Marrubium vulgare

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Marrubium vulgare

Marrubium vulgare (white horehound or common horehound) is a flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to Europe, northern Africa, and southwestern + central Asia. It is also widely naturalized in many places, including most of North + South America.

It is a grey-leaved herbaceous perennial plant, somewhat resembling mint in appearance, and grows to 25–45 centimetres (10–18 in) tall. The leaves are 2–5 cm (0.8–2.0 in) long with a densely crinkled surface, and are covered in downy hairs. The flowers are white, borne in clusters on the upper part of the main stem.

Medicinal usage[edit]

Historical[edit]

De medicina

Horehound has been mentioned in conjunction with medicinal use dating at least back to the 1st century BC, where it appeared as a remedy for respiratory ailments in the treatise De Medicina by Roman encyclopaedist Aulus Cornelius Celsus.[2] The Roman agricultural writer Columella lists it as a remedy for expelling worms in farm animals in his important first-century work On Agriculture.[3] Since then, horehound has appeared for similar purposes in numerous herbals over the centuries, such as The Herball, or, Generall historie of plantes by John Gerard, and Every Man His Own Doctor: or, The Poor Planter’s Physician by Dr. John Tennent.[4]

Modern[edit]

Several modern scientific studies have been conducted on the usefulness of horehound. For example, a 2011 study concluded that the essential oil of M. vulgare contains potent antimicrobial and anticancer properties,[5] while a 2012 study found marrubiin, one of the primary active compounds found in horehound, to possess "antidiabetic, anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties".[6]

Candy[edit]

Horehound is used to make hard lozenge candies that are considered by folk medicine to aid digestion, soothe sore throats, and relieve inflammation.[7]

As an invasive weed[edit]

Horehound was introduced to southern Australia in the 19th century as a medicinal herb. It became a weed of native grasslands and pastures where it was introduced with settlers’ livestock, and was first declared under noxious weeds legislation. It now appears to have reached its full potential distribution.

It occupies disturbed or overgrazed ground, and is favoured by grazing because it is highly unpalatable to livestock. It may persist in native vegetation that has been grazed.

As biocontrol[edit]

Marrubium vulgare is also used as a natural grasshopper repellent in agriculture.

In astrology[edit]

According to John Gower in Book 7 of the Confessio Amantis, this plant was the herb of the fourth star of Nectanabus' astrology, Capella. Gower uses the older name, Alhaiot (VII:1338).

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Franz Eugen Köhler, 1897, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ [3]
  5. ^ Zeid Zarai, et al. "The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia", "Lipids in Health and Disease, 2011; 10:161"
  6. ^ N. Mnonopi, R.-A. Levendal, N. Mzilikazi & C. L. Frost (2012). "Marrubiin, a constituent of Leonotis leonurus, alleviates diabetic symptoms". Phytomedicine 19 (6): 488–493. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2011.12.008. PMID 22326550. 
  7. ^ Tennant, John (1727). Every Man His Own Doctor. p10. 
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Notes

Comments

A bitter herb, which when dried is used as tea for debility and colds. The plant is also used in certain candies for coughs and sore throat, as an expectorant, as a diaphoretic, and as a laxative when taken in large doses. It is the source of an essential oil used in liqueurs. It is also a honey plant.
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