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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution in Egypt

Mediterranean region and Sinai.

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Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Global Distribution

Europe, Caucasia, Mediterranean region, Sinai, Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan; naturalized in north America, south Africa and Australia.

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Europe to C. Asia, N. Africa, Chitral, Swat, Himalaya(Kashmir to Nepal), N. America and cooler parts of C. & S. America.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Elevation Range

150 m
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Description

Stems branched or unbranched, 30-40 cm tall, base woody, densely appressed lanate-villous. Leaves reduced upward; petiole 0.7-1.5 cm; leaf blade ovate to circular, 2-3.5 × 1.8-3 cm, adaxially polished, corrugate, and sparsely villous, abaxially densely scabrid strigose-villous, base broadly cuneate to rounded, margin dentate-serrate, apex obtuse to subrounded. Verticillasters axillary, many flowered, widely spaced basally, crowded upward, globose, 1.5-2.3 cm in diam.; bracts subulate, as long as to longer than calyx tube, reflexed. Calyx 10-veined; teeth 10, main 5 long, alternate with to 5 accessory teeth, 1-4 mm, subulate, hooked. Corolla white, ca. 9 mm; tube ca. 6 mm, densely pubescent outside, pilose annulate inside; upper lip as long as or slightly shorter than lower lip, straight or spreading, 2-lobed; middle lobe of lower lip reniform, undulate, 2-cleft. Nutlets triquetrous, ovoid, warty. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Jul-Sep.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Marrubium vulgare Linnaeus var. lanatum Bentham.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Dry grassy loess, slopes. Xinjiang [Afghanistan, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; SW Asia, Europe]
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Common Horehound in Illinois

Marrubium vulgare (Common Horehound) introduced
(Insects suck nectar; one observation is from Krombein et al. as indicated below, otherwise observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus griseocallis, Bombus pensylvanica; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Nomiinae): Nomia nortoni nortoni (Kr)

Flies
Bombyliidae: Bombylius atriceps

Butterflies
Pieridae: Pontia protodice fq

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Plant / resting place / on
puparium of Amauromyza morionella may be found on leaf of Marrubium vulgare

Plant / resting place / within
Haplothrips marrubiicola may be found in live flower of Marrubium vulgare

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Longitarsus ballotae grazes on leaf of Marrubium vulgare

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Meligethes nanus feeds on Marrubium vulgare

Foodplant / parasite
Neoerysiphe galeopsidis parasitises live Marrubium vulgare

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Marrubium vulgare

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Marrubium vulgare

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Notes

Comments

A bitter herb, which when dried is used as tea for debility and colds. The plant is also used in certain candies for coughs and sore throat, as an expectorant, as a diaphoretic, and as a laxative when taken in large doses. It is the source of an essential oil used in liqueurs. It is also a honey plant.
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