The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • Archibold, O. W., D. Brooks, and L. Delanoy. 1997. An investigation of the invasive shrub European Buckthorn, Rhamnus cathartica L., near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Canadian Field Naturalist 111(4): 617-621.
  • Boudreau, D., and G. Willson. 1992. Buckthorn research and control at Pipestone National Monument (Minnesota). Restoration and Management Notes 10:1 94-95.
  • Converse, C. 1985. Element Stewardship Abstract, Rhamnus cathartica. The Nature Conservancy.
  • Glass, S. 1994. Experiment finds less herbicide needed to control Buckthorn (Wisconsin). Restoration and Management Notes 12:1 93.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Rhamnaceae of North America Update
  • Rhamnus cathartica L.
  • Species Plantarum 1: 193. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)
  • Swearingen, J. 2009. WeedUS Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States: Common Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica).
  • USDA, NRCS. 2009. The PLANTS Database ( National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.


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