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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Shrub or small tree. Leaves simple yellowish-green, glabrous, resinous; lamina narrowly elliptic; apex acute or acuminate; base decurrent into the petiole. Inflorescences terminal on the branches. Flowers greenish-yellow at first, often turning reddish later. Stamens 6. Style 4-6 mm long. Fruits with 2-3 papery wings.
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Derivation of specific name

viscosa: viscid, sticky
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Summary

"Common in dry scrub as shrubs; however, also found along margin of high elevation evergreen forests as trees, up to 2400 m."
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Evergreen Dry Deciduous and Shola forests
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub Distribution notes: Exotic
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Botanical Description

Bole: Branched. Small. To 10 m. Bark: Black/brown. Rough. Slash: NR. Leaf: Simple. Alternate. Petiole: 0 - 2.5 cm. Lamina: Small. 4 - 13 × 1.3 - 4.2 cm. Elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Obtuse/apiculate. Entire. Glabrous. Domatia: NR. Glands: Leaf surfaces glandular. Stipules: Absent. Thorns & Spines: Absent. Flower: Loose panicles at ends of twigs. Flower green-yellow. Unisexual or bisexual. Fruit: Papery winged capsule 1.5 - 2.3 × 0.8 - 1.1 cm with wings 0.3 - 0.7 cm.
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Pantropical
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: S. FL, FL Keys, pantropical.

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"Most aggresive colonizer on disturbed ground from plains to 1500m. Common. S.Africa, Madagascar, tropical Africa, Arabia, S. Asia, Malesia to Pacific Islands and Australia."
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"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Kottayam, Kollam, Idukki, Malappuram, Thiruvananthapuram, Kozhikkode, Wayanad

"
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"Karnataka: Belgaum, Chikmagalur, Coorg, Dharwar, Hassan, Mysore, N. Kanara Kerala: Kollam, Kottayam, Kozhikode, Malapuram, Thiruvananthapuram"
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Pantropical; in the Western Ghats- throughout.
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coastal Tanzania; Eastern Arc Mountains; Lake Malawi region; northern Tanzania; southern Africa; tropical Africa; subtropics worldwide; tropics worldwide
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Distribution in Egypt

Gebel Elba.

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Global Distribution

Tropical west and east Africa to Mozambique, Madagascar, Arabia, India, Malaysia, Australia, Pacific Islands, America, tropical and subtropical regions.

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Distribution: Australia, S. Africa, N. America, China, India, Ceylon and W. Pakistan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In terminal or axillary racemes or panicles; green. Flowering from August-November and February-April.

Fruit

A winged capsule, strongly nerved, yellowish-brown; seeds globose, 1-3. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Bark thin, grey; leaves glabrous, sub-sessile, gland-dotted.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate-spiral

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Elliptic-oblanceolate

Leaf Apex

Obtuse-acute

Leaf Base

Attenuate

Leaf Margin

Entire

"
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Description

Shrubs or small trees, 1-3 m tall or higher. Branches flat, narrowly winged or ridged, with sticky juice. Leaves simple; petiole short or subsessile; blades variable in shape and size, linear, linear-spoon-shaped, linear-lanceolate, or oblong, 5-12 × 0.5-4 cm, papery, both surfaces with sticky juice, glabrous, nitid when dry, lateral veins many, dense, very slender, margin entire or inconspicuously shallowly wavy, apex acute, obtuse, or rounded. Inflorescences terminal or axillary near apices, shorter than leaves, densely flowered, rachis and branches ridged. Pedicels 2-5 mm, sometimes to 1 cm, slender. Sepals 4, lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, ca. 3 mm, apex obtuse. Stamens 7 or 8; filaments less than 1 mm; anthers incurved, ca. 2.5 mm, glandular. Ovary ellipsoid, abaxially with sticky juice, 2- or 3-loculed; style ca. 6 mm, apex 2- or 3-lobed. Capsules obcordiform or compressed-globose, 2- or 3-winged, 1.5-2.2 cm tall, with wing 1.8-2.5 cm wide; testa membranous or papery, veined. Seeds 1 or 2 per locule, black, lenslike. Fl. late autumn, fr. late autumn-early spring. 2n = 28.
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Description

An evergreen shrub up to 5 m tall; young parts covered with a yellow, viscid resin. Leaves sub-sessile, oblanceolate to spathulate, 3-9 cm long, 0.5-2 cm broad, glabrous, entire, sub-acute to apiculate. Panicles terminal, c. 3 cm long; flowers greenish yellow; pedicel 4-8 mm long. Sepals 3-5, connate at the base, ovate, 3 mm long, puberulous; persistent. Stamens 6-8, free, rudimentary in the female flower; anthers subsessile, oblong, 2-5 mm long, sparsely hairy at the tip. Disc annular, cushion-shaped. Ovary triquetrous, 2.2 mm long, 3-locular, sparsely hairy, rudimentary in the male flower; style 3 mm long, minutely papillose; stigma 3-fid. Capsule 12-14 mm long, 15-19 mm broad, 2-4 valved; valves membranous, light brown, green or maroon, winged at the back. Seed sub-globose, c. 4 mm long, black.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Shrubs to small sized trees, up to 4 m tall; branches terete, often angled; young parts scurfy puberulous. Leaves alternate, 1-8 x 0.2-1.5 cm, oblanceolate-obovate or broadly elliptic, subacute or shortly apiculate or sometimes notched, abruptly tapering towards the basal end, viscid, with shining yellowish resinous exudation. Inflorescence panicled cymes, up to 7 cm long, lateral nerves up to 35, looping. Flowers greenish yellow. Sepals oblong. Anthers oblong-linear. Capsules membranous, compressed, up to 1.5 cm long, notched at apex and base, 2-3-winged, 1-2-seeded; seeds black."
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Diagnostic

"Habit: A stiff, medium sized shrub, upto 3m."
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Diagnostic

"
Habit

Large shrubs or small trees up to 5 m tall.

Trunk\bark

Bark greyish brown, fissured.

Branchlets

Young branchlets angular to subterete, scurfy puberulous.

Exudates
Leaves

Leaves simple, alternate, spiral, clustered at twig ends; petiole ca. 0.2 cm long, stout, swollen at base, planoconvex in cross section; lamina 2.5-6.5 x 0.5-1.2 cm, narrow elliptic to oblanceolate, apex acuminate to acute with apiculate tip, base decurre

Flowers

Inflorescence panicled cymes, up to 7 cm long, terminal or axillary; flowers small, polygamous; pedicel up to 0.5 cm long.

Fruit& seed

Capsule, membranous, compressed, with 3 wings; seeds 1-2, black.

"
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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub to Small tree
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Synonym

Ptelea viscosa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 118. 1753.
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Type Information

Isotype for Dodonaea eriocarpa var. varians O. Deg. & Sherff
Catalog Number: US 1992359
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): O. Degener & T. Murashige
Year Collected: 1949
Locality: Waiakeakua., Maui, Lana`i, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Isotype: Degener, O. & Sherff, E. E. 1951. Amer. J. Bot. 38: 59.
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Isotype for Dodonaea eriocarpa var. sherffii O. Deg. & I. Deg.
Catalog Number: US 2512225
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): O. Degener & I. Degener
Year Collected: 1958
Locality: Maunahui, Makai., Maui, Moloka`i, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Isotype: Degener, O. & Degener, I. 1961. Phytologia. 7: 465.
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Isotype for Dodonaea sandwicensis var. latifolia O. Deg. & Sherff
Catalog Number: US 2159328
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): O. Degener
Year Collected: 1952
Locality: Lauai city., Maui, Lana`i, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Isotype: Degener, O. & Sherff, E. E. 1954. Bot. Leafl. 9: 6.
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Isotype for Dodonaea eriocarpa var. lanaiensis Sherff
Catalog Number: US 3335706
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): F. R. Fosberg
Year Collected: 1935
Locality: Maui, Lana`i, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
Elevation (m): 50 to 50
  • Isotype: Sherff, E. E. 1945. Amer. J. Bot. 32: 207.
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Isotype for Dodonaea eriocarpa var. confertior Sherff
Catalog Number: US 2186037
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. F. Rock
Year Collected: 1910
Locality: Ahamoa Crater, Mauna Kea., Hawaii, Hawai`i, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Isotype: Sherff, E. E. 1945. Amer. J. Bot. 32: 206.
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Isotype for Dodonaea eriocarpa var. forbesii Sherff
Catalog Number: US 1597727
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. N. Forbes
Year Collected: 1911
Locality: Kamehaha, Kona., Hawaii, Hawai`i, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Isotype: Sherff, E. E. 1945. Amer. J. Bot. 32: 206.
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Isotype for Dodonaea eriocarpa var. degeneri Sherff
Catalog Number: US 1862369
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): O. Degener
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Puu Lio NE of Hopoi camp, W Maui., Maui, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
Elevation (m): 305 to 305
  • Isotype: Sherff, E. E. 1945. Amer. J. Bot. 32: 208.
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Type fragment for Dodonaea microcarya Small
Catalog Number: US 1738387
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. K. Small
Year Collected: 1919
Locality: Florida, United States, North America
  • Type fragment: Small, J. K. 1925. Torreya. 25: 39.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Pinelands and hammocks. Sandy beach thickets, well drained mountainous hillsides.

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General Habitat

"Shola, evergreen and dry deciduous forests"
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Mountain ledges.

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Habitat & Distribution

Forest margins, savannahs, coastal vegetation on or behind sandy beaches. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions].
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Population Biology

Frequency

Common
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General Ecology

Ecology

"Common in dry scrub as shrubs; however, also found along margin of high elevation evergreen forests as trees, up to 2400 m."
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: January-May
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per: Jan-March.
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Life Expectancy

Perennial.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dodonaea viscosa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dodonaea viscosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 26
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Folklore

Indigenous Information: The young leaves are soaked in hot water and the water used to massage the body to relieve body pain.
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Uses

Medicinal
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Uses

The stem is very hard and used for making walking sticks and tool handles.
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Wikipedia

Dodonaea viscosa

Dodonaea viscosa is a species of flowering plant in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae, that has a cosmopolitan distribution in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of Africa, the Americas, southern Asia and Australasia.

Fruit
Form

Description[edit]

D. viscosa is a shrub growing to 1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft) tall,[2] rarely a small tree to 9 m (30 ft) tall. The leaves are variable in shape: generally obovate but some of them are lanceolate, often sessile,[3] 4–7.5 cm (1.6–3.0 in) long and 1–1.5 cm (0.39–0.59 in) broad, alternate in arrangement, and secrete a resinous substance. Many specimens have a pointed or rounded apex. Leaf base is extended. Leaf texture is leathery, tough, but also pliable. Midribs are medium becoming less visible close to the apex. Secondary veins are thin, generally indistinct; Veins: often 6 to 10 pairs, indifferently opposite, subopposite, and alternate, camptodrome. Venation branches from the midrib at different angles, which may vary from 12° to 70°. The basal veins are very ascending in some plants: the angle of divergence may be close to 45°. The basal secondary venation branches from a point near the base of the main vein and becomes parallel with the leaf margin, with the distance of 1 millimeter to 2 millimeters from the edges. Margins are usually toothed or undulating. The remaining secondary veins lay at regular intervals with flowers usually growing at the branches’ ends. The flowers are yellow to orange-red and produced in panicles about 2.5 cm (0.98 in) in length. The flowers may be only male or female ones, and one plant bears either male or female flowers. However, sometimes they are observed to bear flowers of both sexes. The pollen is transported by anemophily. It is believed that D. viscosa flowers lack petals during evolution to increase exposure to the wind. The fruit is a capsule 1.5 cm (0.59 in) broad, red ripening brown, with two to four wings.[4]

Fruits

Common names[edit]

The common name hopbush is used for D. viscosa specifically but also for the genus as a whole.

Australian common names include: broad leaf hopbush, candlewood, giant hopbush, narrow leaf hopbush, sticky hopbush, native hop bush, soapwood, switchsorrel, wedge leaf hopbush, and native hop.[5]

Additional common names include: ʻaʻaliʻi, as well as ‘a‘ali‘i-ku ma kua and ‘a‘ali‘i ku makani in the Hawaiian language language; akeake (New Zealand); lampuaye (Guam); mesechelangel (Palau); chirca (Uruguay, Argentina); romerillo (Sonora, Mexico); jarilla (Southern Mexico); hayuelo (Colombia); ch'akatea (Bolivia); casol caacol (Seri);[6] ghoraskai (Afghanistan).

Uses[edit]

The wood is extremely tough and durable, and New Zealand's Māori have used akeake to fashion clubs and other weapons. The Māori name for the shrub, akeake, means "forever and ever". D. viscosa (also known as “hopbush”) is used by the people from the western part of the island of New Guinea, Southeast Asia, West Africa and Brazil for house building and as firewood. Its leaves may also be used as plasters for wounds.[7]

Native Hawaiians made pou (house posts), laʻau melomelo (fishing lures), and ʻōʻō (digging sticks) from ʻaʻaliʻi wood and a red dye from the fruit.[8]

The cultivar 'Purpurea', with purple foliage, is widely grown as a garden shrub. Dodonaea viscosa easily occupies open areas and secondary forest, and is resistant to salinity, drought and pollution.[7] It can be used for dune stabilization, remediation of polluted lands and for reforestation. The plant is tolerant to strong winds, and therefore is commonly used as hedge, windbreak, and decorative shrub.

The Seri use the plant medicinally.[6] It was also used to stimulate lactation in mothers, as a dysentery treatment, to cure digestive system disorders, skin problems and rheumatism in Africa and Asia. In New Guinea, people use it as olibanum for funerals. In the past D. viscosa was used instead of hops for beer brewing by Australians (as reflected in the name “hopbush”).[7]

Systematics[edit]

It is identified that D. viscosa split into two intraspecific groups (group I, II) in the Pleistocene 1.1–2.1 Ma (million years ago) (95% Highest Posterior Density, HPD).[9] These two intraspecific groups are distributed differently within Australia. Group I plants are strandline shrubs growing from north-eastern Queensland to the New South Wales border. This clade has a number of genetically divergent lineages (I:a,b,c,d,e,f,g,). It is identified that subclade Ib shared a last common ancestor with subclade Ia in the mid-Pleistocene, 0.5–1.2 Ma. The Group II plants of D. viscosa is present almost everywhere on the continent. Group II has at least three evolutionary lineages (II a, b and c), which distributions generally overlap. According to West [10] these subspecies have morphological intergradation, particularly in the higher-rainfall regions of Australia, but not in the arid zone, where they generally overlap. There is also a hypothesis of ongoing gene flow between D. procumbens and D. viscosa’s Group II resulting from hybridization events of two populations in central regions of South Australia.[9] The Group II members are believed to disperse in the mid-Pleistocene (0.5–1.2 Ma) from mainland Australia to New Zealand.

Group I a: D. viscosa Pagan, D. viscosa ssp viscosa Yorkeys Knob Beach, D. viscosa ssp viscosa Trinity Beach, D. viscosa ssp viscosa Clifton Beach, D. viscosa ssp viscosa Wonga Beach, D. viscosa Tanzania2, D. viscosa ssp viscosa Airlie Beach, D. viscosa Virgin Islands.

Group I b: D. viscosa Maui Ulupalakua, D. viscosa, Hawii Pohakuloa, D. viscosa Maui PoliPoli, D. viscosa Hawaii Kona, D. viscosa Hawaii Kauai.

Group I c: D. viscosa Arizona 1, D. viscosa Arizona 2, D. viscosa Mexico, D. viscosa Brazil, D. viscosa Columbia, D. viscosa Bolivia

Group I d: D. viscosa Taiwan 1, D. viscosa Taiwan 2, D. viscosa Japan, D. viscosa China, D. viscosa Tanzania1.

Group I e: D. viscosa Oman, D. viscosa South Africa1, D. viscosa India

Group I f: D. viscosa South Africa 3, D. viscosa South Africa 4, D. South Africa 2, D. viscosa New Caledonia 1, D. viscosa New Caledonia 2, D. viscosa Papua New Guinea

Group I g: D. viscosa ssp burmanniana 1, D. viscosa ssp burmanniana 2

Group II a: D. viscosa New Zealand South Island 2, D. viscosa New Zealand South Island 3, D. viscosa New Zealand South Island 1, D. viscosa New Zealand North Island 4, D. viscosa ssp angustissima 1, D.viscosa ssp angustissima 3, D. viscosa ssp angustissima 2.

Group II b: D. viscosa ssp spatulata, D. viscosa ssp cuneata, D. viscosa ssp angustifolia, D. procumbens, D. procumbens 2.

Group II c: D. biloba, D. viscosa ssp mucronata.

Subspecies and synonyms[edit]

There are several subspecies as follows:[11]

  • D. viscosa subsp. angustifolia (L.f.) J.G.West
  • D. viscosa subsp. angustissima (DC.) J.G.West
  • D. viscosa subsp. burmanniana (DC.) J.G.West
  • D. viscosa subsp. cuneata (Sm.) J.G.West
  • D. viscosa subsp. mucronata J.G.West
  • D. viscosa subsp. spatulata (Sm.) J.G.West
  • D. viscosa (L.) Jacq. subsp. viscosa

Botanical synonyms

  • D. eriocarpa Sm.
  • D. sandwicensis Sherff
  • D. stenocarpa Hillebr.

Cultivation[edit]

D. viscosa can be grown from seeds. However, pre-treatment of the seed in very hot water may be needed.[7] The plant can also be cultivated by taking cuttings. Sometimes this method is also used to obtain female plants with their winged fruits for the aesthetic value. Hopbush can survive long dry periods and is easily cultivated without heavy feeding.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dodonaea viscosa Jacq.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-04-08. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  2. ^ Selvam, V. (2007). "Trees and Shrubs of the Maldives" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  3. ^ Dodonaea viscosoides Berry, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper, Volume 84, page 142, 1914.
  4. ^ Little Jr., Elbert L.; Roger G. Skolmen (1989). "ʻAʻaliʻi" (PDF). Common Forest Trees of Hawaii. United States Forest Service. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  5. ^ Robson, P. J. 1993. Checklist of Australian Trees.
  6. ^ a b Felger, R. S. and M. B. Moser, 1985, People of the Desert and Sea. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
  7. ^ a b c d "Kew Royal Botanic Garden". 
  8. ^ Medeiros, A. C.; C.F. Davenport; C.G. Chimera (1998). "Auwahi: Ethnobotany of a Hawaiian Dryland Forest" (PDF). Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. 
  9. ^ a b Harrington M., Gadek P. Phylogenetics of hopbushes and pepperflowers (Dodonaea, Diplopeltis – Sapindaceae), based on nuclear ribosomal ITS and partial ETS sequences incorporating secondary-structure models. Australian Systematic Botany. Volume 23, Issue 6, pages 431-442, December 2010
  10. ^ West J.G. A revision of Dodonaea Miller (Sapindaceae) in Australia. Brunonia 7, 1–194. 1984
  11. ^ "Dodonaea viscosa". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
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Two forms of this species are often recognized, one coastal and the other at higher elevations.
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A component of the scrub vegetation of low hilly areas. The quick growth and gregarious habit of this shrub makes it an excellent hedge plant. The branches are used as fire-wood and as a support for the flat mud roofs in village houses. The wood can be used for making walking sticks and tool-handles.
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