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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

See Cardiospermum halicacabum var. halicacabum for a general description. This variety differs mainly in the fruits which are less than 2 cm long
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Derivation of specific name

microcarpum: with (very) small fruits.
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Description

Annual climber. Stems with minutely puberulous, sometimes slightly woody; tendrils present. Leaves biternate, essentially 3-foliolate with each part divided again into 3 leaflets; leaflets with coarse serrate teeth. Flowers in axillary heads, usually 3-flowered by abortion, white with a yellowish centre. Fruit a membranous, inflated capsule, green, drying to brown, more than 2 cm long. Seeds round and black with a broadly heart-shaped or kidney-shaped spot (hilum). See C. halicacabum var. microcarpum for comparison.
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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Moist deciduous forests, also in scrub jungles"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Climber
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Pantropical.
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Worldwide distribution

Pantropical
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur Karnataka: Belgaum, Chikmagalur, Coorg, Hassan, Mysore, Shimoga Kerala: All districts"
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region and oases (Dakhla).

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Global Distribution

Pantropical weed.

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Tropics and Subtropics, often cultivated.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Climbers, herbaceous, 1-1.5 m. Stems and branches green, 5- or 6-sulcate, slender, glabrous or sparsely hairy. Leaves biternate, triangular in outline; petioles 3-4 cm; leaflets subsessile; blades thinly papery, margin sparsely serrate or pinnately parted, abaxially sparsely villous on midvein and lateral veins, adaxially subglabrous or sparsely pilosulose; terminal blade obliquely lanceolate or subrhombic, 3-8 × 1.5-2.5 cm, apex acuminate; lateral ones slightly smaller, ovate or narrowly elliptic. Panicles few flowered, ca. as long as or slightly longer than
leaves; peduncles straight, 4-8 cm, tendrils spiralled. Sepals 4, ciliate, outer 2 ovate, 8-10 mm, inner 2 narrowly elliptic, ca. 2 × as long as outer ones. Petals milky-white, obovate. Stamens (male flowers) ca. as long as or slightly longer than petals; filaments sparsely long villous. Ovary (female flowers) obovoid or sometimes subglobose, pubescent. Capsules brown, pearlike, turbinate-obtriangular or sometimes nearly ellipsoid, 1.5-3 × 2-4 cm, pubescent. Seeds black, shiny, ca. 5 mm in diam.; hilum green when fresh, white when dry, cordate. Fl. summer-autumn, fr. autumn-early winter.
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Elevation Range

900-1500 m
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Diagnostic Description

Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Sp. Pl. 366. 1753.

Fig. 149. A-G

Herbaceous vine, much branched from the base, that climbs by means of tendrils and attains 1.5-2 m in length. Stems with 5 longitudinal ribs, glabrous or puberulent; cross section with a single vascular cylinder. Leaves alternate, biternate; leaflets chartaceous, puberulent or sparsely pubescent, the apex obtuse, acute, or acuminate, the base attenuate, the margins lobate or laciniate; terminal leaflet lanceolate or triangularlanceolate, rhombic or narrowly lanceolate in outline, 2-3.5(5) cm long; lateral leaflets ovate, lanceolate, or oblong in outline, 1-2.5 cm long; rachis and petiole not winged; petioles 2-3 cm long; stipules lanceolate, ca. 5 mm long; tendrils in pairs, spirally twisted, at the end of short axillary axes (aborted inflorescences), from which an inflorescence usually develops. Flowers functionally unisexual, zygomorphic, in axillary racemiform thyrses, shorter than the accompanying leaf; cincinni usually in whorls of 3. Calyx light green, of 4 unequal sepals, the outer ones ca. 1.2 mm long, the inner ones 3-3.5 mm long. Petals white, obovate, 2.5-3.5 mm long; petaliferous appendages slightly shorter than the petals, fleshy and yellow at the apex, forming a hood that encloses the apex of the glands of the disc; disc unilateral, with 4 rounded or ovoid glands, ca. 0.4 mm long; stamens 8, the filaments unequal, pubescent; ovary trilocular, with one style and 3 stigmas. Capsule membranaceous, subglobose or turbinate-trigonal, inflated, stramineous when ripe. Seed one per locule, spherical, black, 3-5 mm in diameter, with a white cordiform hilum.

Selected Specimens Examined: Acevedo-Rdgz., P. 523; 961; 966; 967; 968; 969; 1088; 2429; 2474; 2501; 5235; 9463; 11490; Britton, N.L. 1882; Goll, G.P. 1004; Liogier, A.H. 10637; Prey, N. 24; Sargent, F.H. 530; Sintenis, P. 1725; Stevenson, J.A. 5261.

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Diagnostic

"Climbing or trailing herbs. Leaves alternate, bi-ternate; leaflets 2-4 x 1-2.5 cm, ovate-lanceolate, deeply dentate or lobed, apex acute to acuminate, membranous; petiole to 3 cm long. Flowers white, polygamous in 3-7-flowered axillary tendril-bearing peduncles; peduncle up to 5 cm long. Sepals 4, in 2-pairs, outer pair smaller. Petals 4, white, unequal, with basal scales. Stamens 8; filaments unequal, pilose. Ovary 3-locular; ovule 1-per locule; stigma 3-fid. Capsule papery, inflated, 3-lobed, winged. Seeds one in each chamber, black with a white eye."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Climber herb
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Synonym

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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Moist deciduous forests, also in scrub jungles"
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Edges of cultivation.

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Habitat & Distribution

Forest margins, shrublands, grasslands, cultivated areas, wastelands. Common in E, S, and SW China, rare in N China [common weed widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions].
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Associations

Insects whose larvae eat this plant species

Charaxes varanes varanes (Pearl charaxes)
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: July-February
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Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Chemistry

Seed oil reportedly has the properties of an insect repellent, antifeedant and anti-inflammatory.

  • Luu, C. 1975. Contribution à l'étude des plantes médicinales de la Guyane Francaise. Journal d'Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliqué 22(4-6): 121-141.
  • Schultes, R.E. and R.F. Raffauf. 1990. The Healing Forest: Medicinal and Toxic Plants of the Northwest Amazonia. 484 pp. Portland, Oregon: Dioscorides Press.
  • Sadique, J., Chandra, T., Thenmozhi, V. and V. Elango. 1987. Biochemical modes of action of Cassia occidentalis and Cardiospermum halicacabum in inflammation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 19(2): 201-212.
  • Devez, G. 1932. Les Plantes Utiles et les Bois Industriels de la Guyane. 90 pp. Paris: Societe d'Editions Geographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales.

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cardiospermum halicacabum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Whole plant: Infusion of seedling is used to clear the uterus after childbirth. Root: Infusion used as a stomachic and diuretic. Part unspecified: Emmenagogue.

  • Luu, C. 1975. Contribution à l'étude des plantes médicinales de la Guyane Francaise. Journal d'Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliqué 22(4-6): 121-141.
  • Devez, G. 1932. Les Plantes Utiles et les Bois Industriels de la Guyane. 90 pp. Paris: Societe d'Editions Geographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales.

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Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Cardiospermum halicacabum

Cardiospermum halicacabum, known as the balloon plant or love in a puff, is a climbing plant widely distributed in tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia.[1] Often found as a weed along roads and rivers, it has been examined for antidiarrhoeal[2] as well as homoeopathic medicinal[1] properties.

In New Zealand it is listed on the National Pest Plant Accord which identifies pest plants that are prohibited from sale, and commercial propagation and distribution.

It is one among the "Ten Sacred Flowers of Kerala State in India, collectively known as Dasapushpam.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Committee for veterinary medicinal products (2000). "Summary Report on "Cardiospermum halicacabum"". EMEA/MRL/664/99-FINAL (August 1999). The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit). Retrieved 2010-04-25. .
  2. ^ Rao, N Venkat; Chandra Prakash, K; Shanta Kumar, SM (2006), "Pharmacological investigation of Cardiospermum halicacabum (Linn) in different animal models of diarrhoea", Indian Journal of Pharmacology 38 (5): 346–349, doi:10.4103/0253-7613.27703, retrieved 2010-04-25 
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Notes

Common Names

French Guiana: persil diable, persil du diable.

  • Luu, C. 1975. Contribution à l'étude des plantes médicinales de la Guyane Francaise. Journal d'Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliqué 22(4-6): 121-141.
  • Devez, G. 1932. Les Plantes Utiles et les Bois Industriels de la Guyane. 90 pp. Paris: Societe d'Editions Geographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales.

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Comments

This species is used medicinally.
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