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Overview

Brief Summary

The primary cultivated grape species, Vitis vinifera, is one of around 60 Vitis species. Species in this genus are native to the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, with a few species reaching the tropics. In North America, there are around two dozen species. A number of species occur in Asia, but just one is native to Europe, Vitis vinifera. Vitis vinifera is by far the most economically important Vitis species and accounts for most commercial grape plantings, not just for wine. Nearly three quarters of the world's commercial grape production is devoted to wine grapes, around a quarter to table grapes, and much smaller amounts to dried grapes (raisins) and non-alcoholic grape juice.

Vitis vinifera is a vigorous climber, growing to a height of 16 to 20 m if left unpruned. It climbs by means of forked tendrils produced intermittently at two out of three vegetative nodes. Its leaves are 9 to 28 cm wide, long-stalked, palmately lobed, and coarsely toothed. The petals of the small greenish flowers are joined at the tips. The fruits are (technically) berries, with or without seeds.

Wild V. vinifera is found from the Atlantic to the western Himalayas. This is one of the oldest fruit crops in the Old World. Seeds have been found at a late Neolithic site (4500 BCE) in Cyprus, at early Bronze Age sites at Jericho (around 3200 BCE), and at other ancient sites in the Levant. Viticulture, including wine production, occurred in Egypt at least as early as 2400 BCE, as recorded in the hieroglyphics of the time. It is uncertain where this grape was first domesticated—possibly in Armenia or along the eastern shores of the Mediterranean. The Romans brought the crop to temperate European countries, including Britain. It was brought to the New World by Christopher Columbus in 1492; Portugese and Spanish explorers brought it to North and South America. It was later brought to the Atlantic Coast of North America by British, French, and Dutch settlers (some hybridization likely occurred between this species and the North American natives V. rotundifolia [Muscadine Grape] and V. labrusca.)

Grapes contain a large amount of sugar (15 to 25%), with roughly equal amounts of glucose and fructose and only a trace of sucrose. Vitamin C content is low (around 3 mg/100g). The fruits contain tartaric acid and malic acid in similar concentrations (around 0.5 g/100g). The red and black grape pigments are anthocyanins.

Grapes are generally classified as either black (including red and purple) or white (including yellow and green). They may also be categorized by use as either table or dessert grapes (firm flesh and low acidity), wine grapes (soft flesh and high acidity), or dried grapes (firm flesh, high sugar, and moderate to low acidity). The number of cultivars of wine grape is in the thousands.

Note that the basic difference between red wine and white wine is that the skins are included in the former. Thus, only dark-skinned grapes can produce red wine, but dark-skinned grapes can also be used to produce white wines since the skin is removed.

In the mid-1800s the European wine industry was devastated by the appearance of a North American grape pest, the Grape Phylloxera, to which V. vinifera was extremely susceptible. Fortunately, grafting grapevines onto resistant American rootstocks turned out to be a workable solution and the European wine industry was saved.

  • Vaughan, J.G. and C.A. Geissler. 1997. The New Oxford Book of Food Plants (revised and updated edition). Oxford University Press, New York.
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Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Western Ghats. Endemic to Penisular India.
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Distribution

Range Description

Originated in central Asia but now occurs in many countries and regions of the world as a result of cultivation. The list of countries of occurrence is incomplete.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur Karnataka: Mysore Kerala: Idukki, Kollam Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Salem"
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Distribution: Native habitat unknown, probably native of Caspian and Caucaus region of S.W. Asia, cultivated extensively in Cent. Europe, Mediteranian, region, Iran, China, Japan, N. & S. Africa, Australia, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. In Pakistan it is cultivated in Baluchistan, Chitral, Swat, Baltistan, Astor & Kashmir.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Branchlets terete, with longitudinal ridges, glabrous or sparsely pilose; tendrils bifurcate. Leaves simple, conspicuously 3-5-lobed or cleft; stipules caducous; petiole 4-9 cm, nearly glabrous; leaf blade oval, 7-18 × 6-16 cm, basal veins 5, lateral veins 4 or 5 pairs, veinlets inconspicuously raised, base deeply cordate, notch rounded, 2 sides usually overlapping to nearly so, margin 22-27-toothed on each side, teeth large, irregular, and sharp, glabrous or sparsely pilose, apex of midlobes acute. Panicle sparse or dense, opposite to leaves, basal branches well developed, 10-20 cm; peduncle 2-4 cm, glabrous or with sparse arachnoid tomentum. Pedicel 1.5-2.5 mm, glabrous. Buds obovoid, 2-3 mm, apex rounded. Calyx glabrous, undulate. Filaments filiform, 0.6-1 mm; anthers yellow, oval, 0.4-0.8 mm. Pistil entirely abortive in male flowers; ovary oval; style short; stigma expanded. Berry globose or elliptic, 1.5-2 cm in diam. Seeds obovoid to obelliptic, apex subrounded, chalazal knot elliptic, raphe slightly raised, ventral holes broadly furrowed upward ca. 1/4 from base. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Aug-Sep. 2n = 38*.
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Description

A large shrub, main stem stout, reaching a girth of 1.5 m. Leaves orbicular, cordate, pentagonal or dissected, 10.5-20 x 7-15 cm, serrate or irregularly dentate, acuminate, cordate, glabrous or glabrescent above, sparsely grey tomentose beneath and glabrescent membranous; petiole 4-10 cm long. Peduncle 4-5 cm long, often bearing unbranched tendril. Flower bisexual or functionally pistillate with shorter sterile stamens, greenish in colour, c. 1.5 x 1 mm; pedicel c. 2 mm long, wiry, elongated and thickened in fruit. Calyx minute, cupular. Petals 5, c. 1.5 mm long, ± lanceolate. Disc with 5 hypogynous glands, adnate to the base of ovary. Berry variable in size, shape and colour, 6-22 mm long, purple, black-violet, red, pinkish or greenish, 2-4 seeded, with juicy sweet or sour pulp. Seed pyriform or ovoid, 5-6 mm long, beaked.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Climber
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated throughout China for grapes and wine-making [native to SW Asia and SE Europe].
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Associations

Foodplant / gall
Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes gall of stem (esp. base) of Vitis vinifera

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Vitis vinifera
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
emergent, free, red-brown pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta rufo-maculans causes spots on live fruit of Vitis vinifera

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Bromius obscurus grazes on live leaf of Vitis vinifera
Remarks: season: 5-10

Foodplant / saprobe
Coniothyrium coelomycetous anamorph of Coniothyrium diplodiella is saprobic on fruit stalk of Vitis vinifera

Foodplant / sap sucker
Daktulosphaira vitifoliae sucks sap of live root of Vitis vinifera
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Diplodia coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodia viticola feeds on Vitis vinifera

Plant / resting place / on
Drepanothrips reuteri may be found on live Vitis vinifera
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
hypophyllous acervulus of Sphaceloma coelomycetous anamorph of Elsino causes spots on live fruit of Vitis vinifera

Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe necator parasitises Vitis vinifera

Foodplant / pathogen
Glomerella cingulata infects and damages fruit of Vitis vinifera

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Hendersonia coelomycetous anamorph of Hendersonia sarmentorum is saprobic on dead Vitis vinifera

Foodplant / gall
Meloidogyne incognita causes gall of root of Vitis vinifera

Foodplant / saprobe
Pestalotia coelomycetous anamorph of Pestalotia pezizoides is saprobic on dead Vitis vinifera

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, becoming erumpent pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis viticola is saprobic on dead branch of Vitis vinifera
Remarks: season: 4-7

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous colony of sporangium of Plasmopara viticola parasitises live leaf of Vitis vinifera

Foodplant / spot causer
minute, black, immersed then erumpent pycnidium of Rhabdospora coelomycetous anamorph of Rhabdospora muggenburgii causes spots on branch of Vitis vinifera
Remarks: season: 4

Foodplant / pathogen
Rosellinia necatrix infects and damages yellowing, prematurely falling leaf of Vitis vinifera
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
amphigenous, fuscous, subconglomerate pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria badhami feeds on leaf of Vitis vinifera
Remarks: season: 10-11

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: May -July. Fr. Per:August-October.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Vitis vinifera

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Vitis vinifera

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2007

Assessor/s
Participants of the FFI/IUCN SSC Central Asian regional tree Red Listing workshop, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (11-13 July 2006)

Reviewer/s
Newton, A. & Eastwood, A. (Global Tree Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
A widespread species with a large extent of occurrence. Population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population size criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e., less than 10,000 mature individuals in conjunction with appropriate decline rates and subpopulation qualifiers). Population trend has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the threshold for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e., declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations), although fruit collection is a threat in at least parts of the range. For these reasons, it is evaluated as Least Concern.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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Threats

Major Threats
Threatened by fruit collection in central Asia.
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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Wikipedia

Vitis vinifera

For the town in Australia, see Vinifera, Victoria.

Vitis vinifera (common grape vine) is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, and southwestern Asia, from Morocco and Portugal north to southern Germany and east to northern Iran.[1] There are currently between 5000 and 10,000 varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes though only a few are of commercial significance for wine and table grape production.[2]

It is a liana growing to 35 yards tall, with flaky bark. The leaves are alternate, palmately lobed, 5–20 cm long and broad. The fruit is a berry, known as a grape; in the wild species it is 6 mm diameter and ripens dark purple to blackish with a pale wax bloom; in cultivated plants it is usually much larger, up to 3 cm long, and can be green, red, or purple (black). The species typically occurs in humid forests and streamsides.

The wild grape is often classified as V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris (in some classifications considered Vitis sylvestris), with V. vinifera subsp. vinifera restricted to cultivated forms. Domesticated vines have hermaphrodite flowers, but subsp. sylvestris is dioecious (male and female flowers on separate plants) and pollination is required for fruit to develop.

The grape is eaten fresh, processed to make wine, or dried to produce raisins. Cultivars of Vitis vinifera form the basis of the majority of wines produced around the world. All of the familiar wine varieties belong to Vitis vinifera, which is cultivated on every continent except for Antarctica, and in all the major wine regions of the world.

History[edit]

Humans are known to have interacted with the Vitis vinifera in the Neolithic period.

Wild grapes were harvested by foragers and early farmers. For thousands of years, the fruit has been harvested for both medicinal and nutritional value; its history is intimately entwined with the history of wine.[citation needed]

Changes in pip shape (narrower in domesticated forms) and distribution point to domestication occurring about 3500–3000 BC, in southwest Asia, South Caucasus (Armenia and Georgia), or the Western Black Sea shore region (Romania and Bulgaria). Cultivation of the domesticated grape spread to other parts of the Old World in pre-historic or early historic times.[citation needed]

The first written accounts of grapes and wine can be found in the Epic of Gilgamesh, an ancient Sumerian text from the third millennium BC. There are also numerous hieroglyphic references from ancient Egypt, according to which wine was reserved exclusively for priests, state functionaries and the pharaoh.[citation needed]

Grape harvest on Etruscan terracotta from the 6th century BC

The ancient Greeks introduced grape growing and wine making to Europe in the Minoan age.[dubious ] Hesiod in his Works and Days gives detailed descriptions of grape harvests and wine making techniques, and there are also many references in Homer. Greek colonists then introduced these practices in their colonies, especially in southern Italy (Magna Grecia), which was even known as Enotria due to its propitious climate.

The Etruscans improved wine making techniques and developed an export trade even beyond the Mediterranean basin.[citation needed]

The ancient Romans further developed the techniques learnt from the Etruscans, as shown by numerous works of literature containing information that is still valid today: De Agri Cultura (around 160 BC) by Cato the Elder, De re rustica by Marcus Terentius Varro, the Georgics by Virgil and De re rustica by Columella.[citation needed]

During the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, the long crisis of the Roman Empire generated instability in the countryside which led to a reduction of viticulture in general, which was mainly sustained only close to towns and cities and along coastlines.[citation needed]

Between the 5th and 10th centuries, viticulture was sustained almost exclusively by the different religious orders in monasteries. The Benedictines and others extended the grape growing limit northwards and also planted new vineyards at higher altitudes than was customary before. Apart from ‘ecclesiastical’ viticulture, there also developed, especially in France, a ‘noble’ viticulture, practiced by the aristocracy as a symbol of prestige.[citation needed]

Vineyard in Burgundy

Grape growing was a significant economic activity in the Middle east up to the 7th century, when the expansion of Islam caused it to decline.[citation needed]

Between the Low Middle Ages and the Renaissance, viticulture began to flourish again. Demographic pressure, population concentration in towns and cities, and the increased spending power of artisans and merchants gave rise to increased investment in viticulture, which became economically feasible once more.[citation needed]

Much was written during the Renaissance on grape growing and wine production, favouring a more scientific approach. This literature can be considered the origin of modern ampelography.[citation needed]

Grapes followed European colonies around the world, coming to North America around the 17th century, and to Africa, South America and Australia. In North America it formed hybrids with native species from the Vitis genus; some of these were intentional hybrids created to combat phylloxera, an insect pest which affected the European grapevine to a much greater extent than North American ones and in fact managed to devastate European wine production in a matter of years. Later, North American rootstocks became widely used to graft V. vinifera cultivars so as to withstand the presence of phylloxera.[citation needed]

V. vinifera accounts for the majority of world wine production; all of the most familiar grape varieties used for wine production belong to V. vinifera.[3]

In Europe, Vitis vinifera is concentrated in the central and southern regions; in Asia, in the western regions such as Anatolia, the Caucasus, the Middle east, and in China; in Africa, along the northern Mediterranean coast and in South Africa; in North America, in California and also other areas like Michigan, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Washington State, British Columbia, Ontario and Québec; in South America in Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Peru and Brazil; and in Oceania in Australia and New Zealand.

In the second half of the 20th century there was a shift in attitude in viticulture from traditional techniques to the scientific method based on fields such as microbiology, chemistry and ampelography. This change came about also due to changes in economic and cultural aspects and in the way of life and in the consumption habits of wide sectors of the population starting to demand quality products.[citation needed]

Genomic information
 NCBI genome ID  401
 Ploidy  diploid
 Genome size  about 500 Mb
 Number of chromosomes  19 pairs
 Year of completion  2008
 Sequenced organelle  plastid


Nature magazine published the genome sequence of V. vinifera.[4] This work was a collaboration between Italian researchers (Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Biologia Molecolare delle Piante, Istituto di Genomica Applicata) and French researchers (Genoscope and Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique). Vitis vinifera is the fourth angiosperm species whose genome has been completely sequenced. The results of this analysis contribute significantly to understanding the evolution of plants over time and of the genes involved in the aromatic characteristics of wine.

In March 2007, scientists from Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), working in the Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture, reported that their "research suggests that extremely rare and independent mutations in two genes [VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 of red grapes] produced a single white grapevine that was the parent of almost all of the world's white grape varieties. If only one gene had been mutated, most grapes would still be red and we would not have the more than 3000 white grape cultivars available today."[5][6]

Uses[edit]

A cultivated Common Grape Vine, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera

Use of grapes is known to date back to Neolithic times, following the discovery in 1996 of 7,000 year-old wine storage jars in present-day northern Iran.[7] Further evidence shows the Mesopotamians and Ancient Egyptians had vine plantations and winemaking skills. Greek philosophers praised the healing powers of grapes both whole and in the form of wine. Vitis vinifera cultivation and winemaking in China began during the Han Dynasty in the 2nd century[8] with the importation of the species from Ta-Yuan. However, wild vine "mountain grapes" like Vitis thunbergii were being used for wine making before that time.[9] In traditional medicine of India V. vinifera is used in prescriptions for cough, respiratory tract catarrh, subacute cases of enlarged liver and spleen, as well as in alcohol-based tonics (Aasavs).[10]

Using the sap of grapevines, European folk healers sought to cure skin and eye diseases. Other historical uses include the leaves being used to stop bleeding, pain and inflammation of hemorrhoids. Unripe grapes were used for treating sore throats, and raisins were given as treatments for consumption (tuberculosis), constipation and thirst. Ripe grapes were used for the treatment of cancer, cholera, smallpox, nausea, skin and eye infections as well as kidney and liver diseases.

Seedless grape varieties were developed to appeal to consumers, but researchers are now discovering that many of the healthful properties of grapes may actually come from the seeds themselves, thanks to their enriched phytochemical content.[11][12]

Grapevine leaves are filled with minced meat (such as lamb, pork or beef), rice and onions in the making of Balkan traditional dolma.

A grapevine is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 2 lipa coin, minted since 1993.

Chemistry[edit]

Phenolics[edit]

V. vinifera contains many phenolic compounds. Anthocyanins can be found in the skin of the berries, hydroxycinnamic acids in the pulp and condensed tannins of the proanthocyanidins type in the seeds. Stilbenoids can be found in the skin and in wood.

Stilbenoids[edit]

Trans-resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced against the growth of fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea[13] and delta-viniferin is another grapevine phytoalexin produced following fungal infection by Plasmopara viticola.[14]

Anthocyanins[edit]

Vitis vinifera red cultivars are rich in anthocyanins that impart their colour to the berries (generally in the skin). The 5 most basic anthocyanins found in grape are:

Cultivars like Graciano[15][16] may also contain :

acetylated anthocyanins
coumaroylated anthocyanins
caffeoylated anthocyanins

Other chemicals[edit]

Isoprenoid monoterpens are present in grape, above all acyclic linalool, geraniol, nerol, citronellol, homotrienol and monocyclic α-terpineol, mostly occurring as glycosides. Carotenoids accumulate in ripening grape berries. Oxidation of carotenoids produces volatile fragments, C13-norisoprenoids. These are strongly odoriferous compounds, such as β-ionone (aroma of viola), damascenone (aroma of exotic fruits), β-damascone (aroma of rose) and β-ionol (aroma of flowers and fruits). Tetrahydro-β-carbolines are indole alkaloids occurring in grape to a low amount and contributing to its antioxidant power.[17] Melatonin, an alkaloid, has been identified in grape.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Vitis vinifera
  2. ^ Wine & Spirits Education Trust "Wine and Spirits: Understanding Wine Quality" pgs 2-5, Second Revised Edition (2012), London, ISBN 9781905819157
  3. ^ Robinson, Jancis. Concise Wine Companion. 2001, Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ The French–Italian Public Consortium for Grapevine Genome Characterization (27 September 2007). "The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla". Nature 449 (7161): 463–467. doi:10.1038/nature06148. PMID 17721507. 
  5. ^ "Finding the white wine difference" (Press release). Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. 2 March 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 
  6. ^ Walker, A. R. et al. (March 2007). "White grapes arose through the mutation of two similar and adjacent regulatory genes". The Plant Journal 49 (5): 772–785. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02997.x. PMID 17316172. 
  7. ^ Berkowitz, Mark, The Archaeological Institute of America (September–October 1996). "World's Earliest Wine". 
  8. ^ Plocher, T; Rouse, G; Hart, M. (2003). Discovering Grapes and Wine in the Far North of China
  9. ^ Eijkhoff, P. (2000). Wine in China; its history and contemporary developments.
  10. ^ Wang L, Waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig EM, Blunder M, Liu X, Malainer C, Blazevic T, Schwaiger S, Rollinger JM, Heiss EH, Schuster D, Kopp B, Bauer R, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM, Atanasov AG. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): a review. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014 Jul 29. pii: S0006-2952(14)00424-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2014.07.018. PubMed PMID: 25083916.
  11. ^ Shi J, Yu J, Pohorly JE, Kakuda Y (2003). "Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality". J Med Food 6 (4): 291–9. doi:10.1089/109662003772519831. PMID 14977436. 
  12. ^ Parry J, Su L, Moore J et al. (May 2006). "Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (11): 3773–8. doi:10.1021/jf060325k. PMID 16719495. 
  13. ^ Favaron, F.; Lucchetta, M.; Odorizzi, S.; Pais da Cunha, A. T.; Sella, L. (2009). "The role of grape polyphenols on trans-resveratrol activity against Botrytis cinerea and of fungal laccase on the solubility of putative grape PR proteins". Journal of Plant Pathology 91 (3): 579–588. doi:10.4454/jpp.v91i3.549. 
  14. ^ Timperio, A. M.; d’Alessandro, A.; Fagioni, M.; Magro, P.; Zolla, L. (2012). "Production of the phytoalexins trans-resveratrol and delta-viniferin in two economy-relevant grape cultivars upon infection with Botrytis cinerea in field conditions". Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 50 (1): 65–71. doi:10.1016/j.plaphy.2011.07.008. PMID 21821423.  edit
  15. ^ Núñez, V.; Monagas, M.; Gomez-Cordovés, M. C.; Bartolomé, B. (2004). "Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Graciano grapes characterized by its anthocyanin profile". Postharvest Biology and Technology 31: 69. doi:10.1016/S0925-5214(03)00140-6.  edit
  16. ^ Monagas, María; Núñez, Verónica; Bartolomé, Begoña; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen (2003). "Anthocyanin-derived Pigments in Graciano, Tempranillo, and Cabernet Sauvignon Wines Produced in Spain". Am. J. Enol. Vitic 54 (3): 163–169. 
  17. ^ Grape phytochemicals: A bouquet of old and new nutraceuticals for human health. Marcello Iriti and Franco Faoro, Medical Hypotheses, Volume 67, Issue 4, 2006, Pages 833–838, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2006.03.049
  18. ^ Bioactivity of grape chemicals for human health. Iriti M and Faoro F, Nat Prod Commun., 2009 May, 4(5), pages 611-634, PubMed

Further reading[edit]

  • Francesco Emanuelli, Silvia Lorenzi, Lukasz Grzeskowiak, Valentina Catalano, Marco Stefanini, Michela Troggio, Sean Myles, José M. Martinez-Zapater, Eva Zyprian, Flavia M. Moreira, and M. Stella Grando (2013). "Genetic diversity and population structure assessed by SSR and SNP markers in a large germplasm collection of grape". BMC Plant Biology (BioMed Central Ltd.) 13: 39. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-13-39. 
  • Manzi Luigi, La viticoltura e l'enologia al tempo dei romani, Er. Botta, Roma 1883
  • Marescalchi Arturo, Dalmasso Giovanni, Storia della vite e del vino in Italia, 3 voll., Unione Italiana Vini, Milano 1931-33-37
  • Daniel Zohary, Maria Hopf (2000). Domestication of plants in the Old World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850356-3. 
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Pixie Grape

The Pixie Grape is a new type of Vitis vinifera cultivar. The Pixie is a natural dwarf grapevine that is derived from the periclinal L1/L2 chimera Pinot Meunier. These dwarf grapevines tend to have short internodes and prefer to grow tendrils instead of flowering. They grow from 1 foot to 2 feet in height and produce clusters with a size on average of 10 cm. It is simple to cultivate in greenhouses and grows year round. Its purpose was to create an easy tool with which to conduct grapevine research. The grape was developed by grape rootstock breeder Dr. Peter Cousins of the USDA.

Description[edit]

Flowering[edit]

The Pixie is a unique grape in that its size is the most important part of its genotype and phenotype. It usually only grows up to about 2 feet in height and does not usually span out in horizontal growth. Internodes on a Pixie are about 25% the length of the Pinot Meunier chimeras length. Flowering is constant on a vine that is still alive and it is not uncommon to view all types of flowering from buds all the way up to ripe fruit just on one vine. Pixies do not grow tendrils however, instead they grow Inflorescenses(group or cluster of flowers).

Fruit[edit]

Pixie Grape berries.

Fruit can be obtained all year round from the Pixie. The Pixie's fruit is a black fruited grape with seeds in it. Cluster length usually maxes out at 10 cm in length and the vines that are not regularly thinned tend to grow a lot of fruit and in turn slow growth and reduce the number of flowers produced. Seeds can be obtained and there have been known results of seedlings growing and showing flowers. However due to a reduced sensitivity to gibberellins a Gibberellic Acid treatment is necessary when undergoing seed germination.

Propagation[edit]

The Propagation process started with the Pinot Meunier chimera. Unopened flower buds were taken and the anthers were isolated on a medium to create embryogenic callus cultures. Then they were grown into plants where they tissue cultured acclimated to soil and then moved to a greenhouse. Grown under all day artificial light. Once grown pollen was obtained where it was cultured on vines from the vineyard. Seeds were then treated with 1.5% hydrogen peroxide for 24 hrs, 1000 ppm GA3 for one day, after that was three months of moist stratification, then treated with 5000 ppm GA3 for one day before being placed in an incubator at 29.3 °C. These seeds were then treated normally grown and grew into mature plants.

Uses[edit]

Potted Pixie Grapes

The Primary use of the Pixie is for research. The intent of scientists when propagating and obtaining this dwarf was to provide a grapevine that was suited to expedite viticulture and other areas of grapevine research. These grapevines are vastly reduced in size so they can easily be grown in a pot in the greenhouse. This allows for year round growth and flowering which in turn provides researchers to study flowering continuously throughout the year. It is also believed that the Pixies may be used to speed up backcrossing or pseudobackcrossing. Teaching and studying grape growth, development and morphology at any times of the year is made possible by being able to obtain grapes of any age at any time of the year no matter the weather outside because it is grown in a protected environment. Interactions with diseases can also be studied more in depth and also berry development. Not having to cope with a 2-3 month window in the summer to obtain your data you can now have access to it year around. With this plant you can study any topic from genetics to pathology to physiology. all year round and obtain a plethora of more information.

References[edit]

  • Cousins, Peter (2005) NOTICE TO NURSERY OPERATORS AND GRAPE RESEARCHERS OF THE

RELEASE OF PIXIE GRAPE

  • Cousins, Peter (2007)Pixie, a dwarf grapevine for teaching and research
  • Boss, P. K. and Thomas, M. R. 2002. Association of dwarfism and floral induction with a grape

‘green revolution’ mutation. Nature 416:847-850.

  • Ryder, E. J. 1985. Use of early flowering genes to reduce flowering time in backcrossing, with

special application to lettuce breeding. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 110:570-573.

  • Skene, K. G. M. and Barlass, M. 1983. Studies on the fragmented shoot apex of grapevine.

Journal of Experimental Botany 35(147):1271-1280.

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Several horticultural varieties of grape are grown in Pakistan, many of them are hybrid between Vitis rotundifolia Mich., Vitis labrusca L., Vitis rupestris Sch. or Vitis gegas. Md. Asghar Ginai,( Treatise on Hort. 426-439.1968) mentions about 36 varieties of grapes in Pakistan.
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