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Overview

Brief Summary

Mangifera indica is among the most economically and culturally important tropical fruits, especially in Asia. It was originally found in the foothills of the Himalayas in northeastern India, Burma, and Bangladesh and domesticated thousands of years ago (possibly independently in Southeast Asia). It is now grown in most tropical countries and some subtropical ones (it is grown as far north as 35° to 37° N in southern Spain). Many cultivars in India have been vegetatively propagated for hundreds of years. Early on, hundreds of years ago, mango was brought to Malaysia and other East Asian countries, then to East and West Africa, and finally to the New World. The Portugese introduced the mango to Brazil from their colonies in Mozambique and Angola and mangos were introduced to Mexico and Panama via the Philippines. Mangos were introduced to the West Indies in the mid-to late 1700s, probably via Brazil. In the tropics, mangos grow at elevations up to 1200 m. The trees may reach 40 m or more in height and live for several hundred years. They bear rosettes of evergreen leaves (red or yellow at first) and dense panicles up to 30 cm long of small (5 to 10 mm) reddish or yellowish flowers. The fruits, which range from 2.5 cm to more than 30 cm in length, depending on the cultivar, vary in shape (from round to oval, egg-shaped, or kidney-shaped) and color (green, yellow, red, purple) with a dotted skin. (Vaughan and Geissler 1997; Bompard 2009 and references therein; Mukherjee and Litz 2009 and references therein) A single mature mango tree can produce 2000 to 2500 ripe fruits (Jiron and Headström 1985).

India has long been a major mango producer, but as of 2009 China had risen to become the world's second largest mango producer, with India's production representing less than half the world total. Fresh mangos are now available in stores year-round in North America, Europe, and Japan. (Litz 2009) According to Evans and Mendoza (2009), the majority of the mangos imported by North America come from Mexico, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and Haiti. India and Pakistan are the main suppliers of western Asia. Southeast Asia is supplied mainly by the Philippines and Thailand. Europe imports mangos mainly from South America and Asia. India and Mexico each account for roughly a fifth to a quarter of world mango exports. World mango imports more than doubled between 1996 and 2005, with the United States accounting for a third of all mango imports.

The peel of the fruit and other parts of the mango can cause contact dermatitis in some people, as is the case for many species in the plant family Anacardiaceae.

The many contributors to Litz (2009) provide a comprehensive overview of mango biology and cultivation.

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Comprehensive Description

Description

General: The cashew family (Anacardiaceae), of which mango is a member, includes a number of species which can cause severe skin irritation in humans. Poison ivy (Rhus toxicodendron), found in North America, is one particularly notable example. For most people, mango has no such effect, but in sensitive individuals ingestion of the fruit, or skin contact with its juice, may cause a poison ivy-like rash.

Mango is a large evergreen tree that can reach 15 to 30 m tall. They are fast growing erect trees with slender to broad and rounded upright canopy that can be used for landscape and shade. The trees are long -lived with some still producing fruit at 300 years old. The tree is anchored by a long unbranched taproot can descend to a depth of 6-8 m plus a mass of feeder roots. The feeder roots send down anchor roots which penetrate the soil to a depth of 1.2 m and spread lateral as far as 7.5 m.

The leaves are alternate, simple, leathery, oblong-lanceolate, 29-30 cm long X 3-5 cm wide on flowering branches, up to 50 cm on sterile branches. The young leaves are red, aging to shiny dark green above, lighter below, with yellow or white venation.

The inflorescence is a much-branched panicle bearing many very small (4 mm) greenish white or pinkish flowers. Both male and bisexual flowers are borne on the same tree. The flowers are radially symmetrical, and usually have 5 petals, streaked with red. There is usually only 1 fertile stamen per flower; the 4 other stamens are sterile. The flower has a conspicuous 5-lobed disk between the petals and stamens.

The fruit is an irregularly egg-shaped and slightly compressed fleshy drupe, 8-12 (-30) cm long, attached at the broadest end on a pendulous stalk. The skin is smooth greenish-yellow, sometimes tinged with red. The underlying yellow-orange flesh varies in quality from soft, sweet, juicy and fiber-free in high-quality selected (clonal) varieties to turpentine-flavored and fibrous in unselected (wild) seedlings. The single, compressed-ovoid seed is encased in the white fibrous inner layer of the fruit.

Mangoes can be round, oval, heart-shaped, or kidney-shaped; and can weigh as little as a few ounces or as much as five pounds. Their highly aromatic flesh surrounds a very large inedible flat seed. At its best, it has a pleasant resinous quality, but at its worst can smell like kerosene. The soft pulp is juicy and sweet, although it can sometimes has an acid overtone. Some mangoes have fibrous flesh, while others are buttery all the way through.

The round or oval fruit is somewhat flattened and can weigh up to 0.5 kg. The flesh of good fruit has a pleasant aromatic flavor, but inferior varieties have a turpentine flavor and can be rather fibrous. In the centre is the large fibrous flat seed containing a kernel.

Distribution and Habitat: The mango is native to southern Asia, especially Burma and eastern India. It spread early on to Malaya, eastern Asia and eastern Africa.

Mangoes are grown throughout the tropics, from the Caribbean to Africa, South-East Asia, Australia, as well as India, where the history of the fruit goes back over 6,000 years and closely connected to the Hindu religion. As long ago as the 16th century, mangoes had been distributed via cultivation throughout the Indian subcontinent, and eventually to all tropical regions of the world.

It performs best at elevations from 0-1200 m. with a pronounced rainy season for vegetative growth, a dry season for flowering and fruiting, and on well-drained soils ranging in pH between 5.5 to 7.5. It was not until the 19th century that traders introduced the fruit to the West Indies, Africa, South America, Mexico, Florida, and Hawaii. Mangoes were introduced to California (Santa Barbara) in 1880.

For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

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Brief

"The name mango, almost identical in countless languages, is derived from Tamil, and was transferred to the West by the Portuguese. The general term for """"mango"""" in Tamil is mamaran, but the fruit is usually referred to either as manpalam (also transcribed mambazham for """"ripe mango fruit"""" or mangai for """"unripe mango fruit"""". The term 'mangai' seems to have been picked up by Portuguese sailors who encountered the fruits at harbours and markets. It is possible that mangoes were dominantly traded in their unripe state at that time. The North Indian names for mango derive from Sanskrit 'amra', which is probably also derived from the Tamil word for mango. The genus name Mangifera (""""bringer of mango"""") contains Latin ferre """"carry, bring"""" (see also asafetida), cf. Lucifer """"bringer of light"""" or Christopher """"he who carries Christ"""". A native of Burma, Sikkim, Khasia and the W. Ghats (India) , Mango, the national fruit of India, Philippines and Pakistan, is among the most economically and culturally important tropical fruits, especially in Asia. Mangoes belong to the family Anacardiaceae and genus Mangifera. The genus Mangifera contains several species that bear edible fruit. Most of the fruit trees that are commonly known as mangoes belong to the species Mangifera indica. The other edible Mangifera species generally have lower quality fruit and are commonly referred to as wild mangoes. Mangoes were originally found in the foothills of the Himalayas in northeastern India, Burma, and Bangladesh, and were domesticated thousands of years ago, possibly independently in Southeast Asia. Many cultivars in India have been vegetatively propagated for hundreds of years. Now, however, this tree is grown in most tropical countries and some subtropical ones - it is grown as far north as 35° to 37° N in southern Spain. Very soon after it's discovery, mangoes were brought to Malaysia and other East Asian countries, then to East and West Africa, and finally to the New World. Mangoes were introduced to Brazil by the Portugese from their colonies in Mozambique and Angola; to Mexico and Panama via the Philippine; and, to the West Indies in the mid-to late 1700s, probably via Brazil. Much of the spread and naturalization of mangoes has occurred in connjunction with the spread of human populations, and as such, the mango plays an important part in the diet and cuisine of many diverse cultures. That there are over 1000 named mango varieties throughout the world today is in itslf a testament to their value to humans."
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests and also widely cultivated.
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree
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Description

Medium to large tree. Leaves alternate, simple, glabrous, oblong-lanceolate with prominent midrib. Inflorescence a panicle with male and female flowers in the same infl; axis reddish, shortly hairy. Flowers greenish-cream with reddish veins. Fruit a large fleshy drupe, variable in shape and size, yellow to red when ripe.
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Derivation of specific name

indica: of India
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Alternative names

Kangit, idele, mago, mangot, manako, mango, manggah saipan, manko, meneke, mangko, mangou, manga, mangga, manja, mangoro, manguier, mangue, manguiera, paho, mempelam, te mangko, asai, damangko, mago, edel, kanit, kehngid, tumi vi.

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Distribution

Range Description

The common mango has been cultivated for thousands of years and now has a pantropical distribution. Wild populations can be found in Assam, India and Myanmar, especially the Assam-Chittagong Hills.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur Karnataka: Belgaum, Chikmagalur, Coorg, Hassan, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga, S. Kanara Kerala: All districts"
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"Found along the river banks and also cultivated in the homesteads. Common. India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indo-China and Malesia."
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"
Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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"Pantropical distribution. Native to India and Burma. Wild populations can be found in Assam, India and Myanmar, especially the Assam-Chittagong Hills. Introduced to Bangladesh; China (Fujian, Hainan, Yunnan); Indonesia (Kalimantan); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah); Myanmar; Philippines; Sri Lanka;Thailand; Viet Nam in South Asia; eastern Asia and eastern Afria; Exotic to Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Barbados, Benin, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, China, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Nepal, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Sao Tome et Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Sudan, Surinam, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands (US), Zanzibar"
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S Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, S Yunnan [native to continental SE Asia; cultivated in tropical regions worldwide].
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Worldwide distribution

Native of E tropical Asia
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Distribution: Widely cultivated in the tropics.
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Tropical Himalaya, India, Ceylon, Burma, Indo-China, Malaysia, widely cultivated and often naturalised in Tropics.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In terminal panicles; cream. Flowering from January-March.

Fruit

A ovoid-oblong drupe, green when young, ripening yellow; seed solitary. Fruiting from July-August.

Field tips

Bark rough, dark grey. Sap white. Young leaves shining, reddish.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate-spiral

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Oblong or elliptic-lanceolate

Leaf Apex

Cuneate-subacute

Leaf Base

Acuminate

Leaf Margin

Entire

"
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"Mangifera indica is a large erect evergreen tree, with a dark green, umbrella-shaped canopy which may, with age, attain 100 to 125 ft (30-38 m) in width, or a more upright, oval, relatively slender crown. In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 20 ft (6 in), the profuse, wide-spreading, feeder root system also sends down many anchor roots which penetrate for several feet. Trunk stout, 90 cm in diameter; bark brown, smoothish, with many thin fissures; thick, becoming darker, rough and scaly or furrowed; branchlets rather stout, pale green and hairless. Inner bark light brown and bitter. A whitish latex exudes from cut twigs and a resin from cuts in the trunk. Leaves alternate, simple, leathery, oblong-lanceolate, 16-30 x 3-7 cm, on flowering branches, up to 50 cm on sterile branches, curved upward from the midrib and sometimes with edges a little wavy. Young leaves red, aging to shiny dark green above, lighter below, with pale and conspicous midrib, yellow or white venation; petioles 4.5 cm long, striate and swollen at the base. Full-grown leaves may be 4 to 12.5 in (10-32 cm) long and 3/4 to 2 1/8 in (2-5.4 cm) wide. Inflorescence 16 cm or more in length, a much-branched panicle bearing many very small (4 mm) greenish-white or pinkish flowers. Hundreds and even as many as 3,000 to 4,000 small, yellowish or reddish flowers, 25% to 98% male, the rest hermaphroditic, are borne in profuse, showy, erect, pyramidal, branched clusters 2 1/2 to 15 1/2 in (6-40 cm) high. Flowers radially symmetrical, usually have 5 spreading petals, 3-5 mm long, 1-1.5 mm broad, streaked with red, imbricate, with the median petal prolonged like a crest at the base, finely hairy and fragrant, partly male and partly bisexual; stalk short; 5 stamens, 1 fertile, the other 4 shorter and sterile, borne in a disc. The flower has a conspicuous 5-lobed disc between the petals and stamens. Calyx yellow-green, very short, deeply 5-lobed; 5 sepals, each 2-2.5 mm long x 1-1.5 mm broad, green with whitish margin, or yellowish-green, hairy outside. There is great variation in the form, size, color and quality of the fruits. These drupes may be nearly round, oval, ovoid-oblong, or somewhat kidney-shaped, often with a break at the apex, and are usually more or less lop-sided. They range from 2 1/2 to 10 in (6.25-25 cm) in length and from a few ounces to 4 to 5 lbs (1.8-2.26 kg). The skin is leathery, waxy, smooth, fairly thick, aromatic and ranges from light-or dark-green to clear yellow, yellow-orange, yellow and reddish-pink, or more or less blushed with bright-or dark-red or purple-red, with fine yellow, greenish or reddish dots, and thin or thick whitish, gray or purplish bloom, when fully ripe. Some have a """"turpentine"""" odor and flavor, while others are richly and pleasantly fragrant. The flesh ranges from pale-yellow to deep-orange. It is essentially peach-like but much more fibrous (in some seedlings excessively so-actually """"stringy""""); is extremely juicy, with a flavor range from very sweet to subacid to tart. There is a single, longitudinally ribbed, pale yellowish-white, somewhat woody stone, flattened, oval or kidney-shaped, sometimes rather elongated. It may have along one side a beard of short or long fibers clinging to the flesh cavity, or it may be nearly fiberless and free. Within the stone is the starchy seed, monoembryonic (usually single-sprouting) or polyembryonic (usually producing more than one seedling)."
  • AgroForestryTree Database, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)
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Description

Trees, 10-20 m tall; branchlets brown, glabrous. Petiole 2-6 cm, grooved apically, inflated basally; leaf blade oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 12-30 × 3.5-6.5 cm, leathery, deep green adaxially, light green abaxially, glabrous on both sides, base cuneate to obtuse, margin entire, undulate, apex acute to long acuminate, lateral veins 20-25 pairs, midrib prominent on both sides, reticulate venation obscure. Inflorescence paniculate, terminal, 20-35 cm, glabrous to tomentose-pilose; bracts ca. 1.5 mm, lanceolate pubescent. Pedicels 1.5-3 mm, articulate. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, 2.5-3 × ca. 1.5 mm, glabrous to pubescent, acuminate. Petals light yellow with prominent red tree-shaped pattern adaxially, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 3.5-4 × ca. 1.5 mm, glabrous, recurved at anthesis. Fertile stamen 1, ca. 2.5 mm, with ovate anther; staminodes 4, 0.7-1 mm. Disk inflated, fleshy, 5-lobed. Ovary oblique, ovate, ca. 1.5 mm in diam. at anthesis; style ca. 2.5 mm, eccentric. Drupe oblong to subreniform, greenish yellow to red, 5-10 × 3-4.5 cm; fleshy mesocarp bright yellow; endocarp ± compressed. Fl. Mar-Apr, fr. May-Jul.
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Description

A glabrous tree up to 15 m tall. Leaves 11-24 x 4-8 cm, oblong, lanceolate, acuminate, coriaceous, shiny and dark green on upper surface. Flowering panicles erect, conspicuous, longer than the leaves, pubescent. Calyx lobes ovate, pubescent on the outside. Petals imbricate, oblong, inner surface prominently 3-nerved. Drupe ± ovoid in outline, compressed, 3.5-20 cm long. Mesocarp fleshy. Endocarp (stone) hard and fibrous.
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Elevation Range

300-700 m
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Size

"On average, adult trees are approximately 30 to 100 ft (roughly 10-30 m) high."
  • Morton, J. 1987. Mango. p. 221–239. (In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. ) New Crop Resource Online Program, Purdue University. Last updated: 6/28/12
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Evergreen trees, to 30 m high, bark 2-2.5 cm, dark grey, rough with vertical fissures; blaze yellow; exudation yellowish, gummy. Leaves simple, alternate, clustered at the tips of branchlets, estipulate; petiole 10-75 mm long, stout, glabrous, pulvinate; lamina 9.2-40 x 2.5-8 cm, elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, linear-oblong, base attenuate or acute, apex acuminate, acute or obtusely acute, margin entire, glabrous, shiny, coriaceous; lateral nerves 14-28 pairs, pinnate, prominent; intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers polygamous, yellowish-green, in terminal panicles; pedicels jointed; bract deciduous; calyx 4-5 partite, ovate, imbricate, hairy without, cauducous; petals 4-5, oblong-obovate, subequal, nerves at base gland crested, free or adnate to the disc; disc fleshy, cupular, 4-5 lobed; stamens 4-5, inserted inside or on the disc, fertile stamens 1 or 2; filaments free, glabrous; staminodes gland-tipped; ovary sessile, superior, oblique, 1-celled, ovule pendulous; style lateral; stigma simple. Fruit a drupe, 5-15 cm long, oblong-reniform, compressed, yellowish-red, mesocarp fleshy, endocarp fibrous; seed subreniform."
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Diagnostic

"Habit: A large evergreen tree, upto 20m."
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SubSpecies Varieties Races

"There are more than 500 varieties of mangoes in India. Some of the most popular of these varieties are listed below, classified according to when they fruit: Early: 'Bombay Yellow' ('Bombai')–high quality. 'Malda' ('Bombay Green'). '01our' (polyembryonic)–a heavy bearer. 'Pairi' ('Paheri', 'Pirie', 'Peter', 'Nadusalai', 'grape', 'Raspuri', 'Goha bunder'). 'Safdar Pasand' 'Suvarnarekha' ('Sundri') Early to Mid-Season: 'Langra' 'Rajapuri' Mid-Season: 'Alampur Baneshan'–high quality but shy bearer 'Alphonso' ('Badami', 'gundu', 'appas', 'khader')–high quality 'Bangalora'('Totapuri', 'collection', 'kili-mukku', abu Samada' in the Sudan)–of highest quality, best keeping, regular bearer, but most susceptible to seed weevil. 'Banganapally' ('Baneshan', 'chaptai', 'Safeda')–of high quality but shy bearer 'Dusehri' ('Dashehari aman', 'nirali aman', 'kamyab')–high quality 'Gulab Khas' 'Zardalu' 'K.O. 11' Mid- to Late-Season: 'Rumani' (often bearing an off-season crop) 'Samarbehist' ('Chowsa', 'Chausa', 'Khajri')–high quality 'Vanraj' 'K.O. 7/5' ('Himayuddin' ´ 'Neelum') Late: 'Fazli' ('Fazli malda')–high quality 'Safeda Lucknow' Often Late: 'Mulgoa'–high quality but a shy bearer 'Neelum' (sometimes twice a year)–somewhat dwarf, of indifferent quality, and anthracnose-susceptible. A more detailed list of cutltivars of mangoes in the world is available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mango_cultivars"
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Diagnostic

"Habit : Evergreen Trees. Reaches heights of 15–30 m (50–100 ft); cultivated trees are usually 3–10 m (10–33 ft) high when mature. Trunk & Bark : Trunk fluted near base; bark scaly. Branches and Branchlets : Terete. Branchlets brown, glabrous. Exudates : Watery and acrid. In sensitive individuals, ingestion of the fruit, or skin contact with its juice, may cause a poison ivy-like rash. Leaves : Leaves simple, alternate, spiral, clustered at twig ends; petiole 1.2-6.2 cm long, swollen at base, planoconvex in cross section; lamina 8-25 x 1.7-6 cm, narrow oblong-elliptic or lanceolate, apex gradually acuminate, base acute to attenuate, margin slightly undulate, subcoriaceous, glabrous; midrib raised above; secondary_nerves many, nearly straight or gradually curved 28 to 30 pairs; tertiary_nerves reticulate. Inflorescence / Flower : Inflorescence terminal panicle; flowers polygamous, radially symmetrical, greenish white.Usually only 1 fertile stamen per flower; 4 other stamens are sterile. Each flower has a conspicuous 5-lobed disk between the petals and stamens. Fruit and Seed : Irregularly egg-shaped and slightly compressed fleshy drupe, 8-12 (-30) cm long, attached at the broadest end on a pendulous stalk. Skin smooth greenish-yellow, sometimes tinged with red. Underlying yellow-orange flesh varies in quality from soft, sweet, juicy and fiber-free in high-quality selected (clonal) varieties to turpentine-flavored and fibrous in unselected (wild) seedlings. Individual fruits can be round, oval, heart-shaped, or kidney-shaped; and can weigh as little as a few ounces or as much as five pounds. The soft pulp is juicy and sweet, although it can sometimes has an acid overtone. At its best, mangoes have a pleasant resinous quality, but at its worst can smell like kerosene. The single, large, inedible compressed-ovoid seed is 3.5-20 cm long and encased in the white fibrous inner layer of the fruit. For diagnostic images of each part of the tree, refer: http://www.biotik.org/india/species/m/mangindi/mangindi_en.html"
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Diagnostic

Habit: Large tree
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Synonym

Mangifera austroyunnanensis Hu.
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Look Alikes

"There are almost 100 other species of plants under the genus Mangifera. Some of the most common among them are: Mangifera acutigemma Mangifera altissima Mangifera andamanica Mangifera applanata Mangifera austro-indica Mangifera austro-yunnanensis Mangifera blommesteinii Mangifera bullata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera campnospermoides Mangifera casturi Mangifera collina Mangifera decandra Mangifera dewildei Mangifera dongnaiensis Mangifera flava Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera gracilipes Mangifera griffithii Mangifera hiemalis Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera lalijiwa Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera magnifica Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera minutifolia Mangifera monandra Mangifera nicobarica Mangifera odorata Mangifera orophila Mangifera pajang Mangifera paludosa Mangifera parvifolia Mangifera pedicellata Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera rubropetala Mangifera rufocostata Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera sumbawaensis Mangifera superba Mangifera swintonioides Mangifera sylvatica Mangifera taipa Mangifera torquenda Mangifera transversalis Mangifera zeylanica Though the fruits of most of these trees are similar to the fruit from Mangifera indica, they are generally of lower quality and referred to as 'wild mangoes'. Some of these varieties are cultivated for their fruit, while others may be used as rootstocks. For instance, in Malaya, the following species are cultivated for either one or both of these reasons: M. sylvatica Roxb. - Large tree to 150 ft (45 m) growing wild in the eastern Himalayas, Nepal and the Andaman Islands. Elevation: 980 to 4,200 ft (300-1,300 m). Fruit: elliptict, 3 1/4 to 4 in (8-10 cm) long, yellow skin and fiberless, though rather thin, flesh. Uses of fruit: mostly used while still unripe for pickles and other preserves. Other uses: Valued mainly for its timber which is largely sapwood, light in weight and easily worked but medium-hard and strong. M. foetida Lour. - called horse mango. A well-formed tree, 60 to 80 ft (18-24 m) tall with very stiff leaves and showy particles of pink-red, odorless flowers. Fruit: oblong, 3 to 5 1/2 in (7.5-16 cm) long, plump, with yellowish- or grayish-green skin when ripe. The flesh is variable, in some types orange, acid, strongly turpentine-scented; in others, pale-yellow, sweet in flavor and mildly aromatic. All types are fibrous and the stone has much fiber. Uses - The sweet ones are eaten raw when ripe; others are used for pickles, chutneys and in curries. Sap: of both the tree and immature fruit is highly irritating. M. caesia Jack - ranging from 65 to 150 ft (20-45 m) at low altitudes in Malaysia and the Philippines, is frequently cultivated in Indonesia. Flowers: blue or lavender. Fruit: oval to pear-shaped, strongly aromatic, 4 1/4 to 6 in (11-15 cm) long, with thin, pale-green or light-brown, scurfy skin which clings to the white or pale-yellow, juicy, fibrous flesh. Quality highly variable; some types being subacid to sweet and agreeable and these are commonly eaten in Malaya. Seed: Large and pink, enclosed in matted fibers; edible; monoembryonic. Uses: Young leaves eaten raw. Toxicity: Sap of the tree and immature fruits is exceedingly irritant. M. Odorata Griff. - A medium to large tree, 60 to 80 ft (15-24 m) high, better suited than the mango to humid regions and widely cultivated from Malaya to the Philippines. Flowers - Whitish to yellowish, and very fragrant. Fruit - Round-oblique, somewhat oblate; to 5 in (12.5 cm) long, plump, with green or yellow-green, thick, tough skin. When ripe the flesh is pale-orange or yellowish, fibrous and resinous but juicy and sweet, though most types are distinctly turpentine -flavored. Seed: Large with many coarse fibers. Sap: fairly mild tree sap, but extremely acrid milky white fruit sap. Uses - All types of fruit are popular for curries and pickles. Apart from these, Malayan villagers occasionally cultivate some lesser-known species: M. longipetiolata King, M. maingayi Hook f., M. kemanga Blume, and M. pentandra Hook f."
  • Morton, J. 1987. Mango. p. 221–239. (In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. ) New Crop Resource Online Program, Purdue University. Last updated: 6/28/11
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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General Habitat

"Terrestrial habitat. Grows from sea level to 1200 m (3950 ft) in tropical latitudes; however, most commercial varieties are grown below 600 m (1950 ft); rainfall 400–3600 mm (16–140 in), fruits best with a well defined winter dry period. Vegetation: Grows with a wide range of cultivated species. Soils: Tolerates a range of soils; thrive in well-drained soils. Optimal pH 5.5–7.5, fairly tolerant of alkalinity. For good growth, they need a deep soil to accommodate the extensive root system. Mean annual temperature: 19-35 deg. C. Mean annual rainfall: 500-2500 mm."
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General Habitat

Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests and also widely cultivated
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Cultivated; 200-1400 m.
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Dispersal

"The fruits are eaten and dispersed by bats, hornbills, porcupines, monkeys, elephants and humans."
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Establishment

Extensive information on propagation and establishment, particularly through grafting for the Pacific Basin Islands can be found in Bally (2006). This document is available on the Web at <www.traditionaltree.org>.

In deep sandy type soil the tap root will decend to 20 feet with the feeder roots growing in descending order. The mango requires full sun and perfect air drainage in winter.

Mangos will grow in almost any well-drained sandy, loam or clay soil but does not grow well in heavy wet soils. Soil ph must be between 5.5 and 7.5. They are somewhat tolerant of alkalinity. Plantings established during the dry season will require rainfall or irrigation everyday. The amount of irrigation required will depend on soil type, amount of rainfall, and temperature. Light sandy soils will require almost continues watering until the fruit is harvested. Irrigation should be discontinued when rainfall is sufficient enough to keep the soil moist. Young seedlings require applications of nitrogen fertilizer to promote healthy growth and flower production. However, care must be taken not to create fertilizer burn.

Propagation by seed: Remove the husk and plant the seed with the hump at soil level. Seed will normally germinate in two to four weeks. Seedlings developed from seed will bloom and bear in three to six years.

Propagation by grafting: Small plants with a diameter about the size of a pencil graft well with the common whip graft. Crown groove graft allows several scions to be put on at once. Fully grown trees may be top-worked by crown groove bark graft or prune hard and whip graft sprouts later. Plastic bagging with a few drops of moisture will improve the graft’s chances of being successful. Grafts are most successful if the leaves are allowed to remain below the graft, but removed suckers. When top working, do not dehorn the entire tree, leave several braches fully leafed.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

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Associations

"Fruit bats, flies, wasps, wild bees, butterflies, moths, beetles, ants and thrips have been observed to visit mango flowers."
  • Morton, J. 1987. Mango. p. 221–239. (In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. ) New Crop Resource Online Program, Purdue University. Last updated: 6/28/11
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Weaver ants (Oecophylla) can be used to control a variety of mango pests. Drops of formic acid from the ants can leave black marks on the mango fruit skin, but this aesthetic problem can be reduced if ant colonies are isolated from each other, thereby minimizing aggression. (Peng and Christian 2009; VanMele et al. 2009)

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Diseases and Parasites

Diseases

"Pests/ Parasites: 1. Fruit flies - Dacus ferrugineus and D. zonatus, attack mangoes in India; D. tryoni (now Strumeta tryoni) in Queensland; D. dorsalis in the Philippines; Pardalaspis cosyra in Kenya, and, Anastrepha suspensa, in Florida. 2. Mango Seed Weevils - In India, South Africa and Hawaii, Sternochetus (Cryptorhynchus) mangiferae and S. gravis, are major pests, undetectable until the larvae tunnel their way out. 3. Hoppers - Jassid hoppers (Idiocerus spp.) are major predators of mango trees in India. They attack the trunk and branches or foliage and flowers, and cause shedding of young fruits. The honeydew they excrete on leaves and flowers gives rise to sooty mold. 4. Caterpillars - The mango-leaf webber, or """"tent caterpillar"""", Orthaga euadrusalis, has become a major problem in North India, especially in old, crowded orchards where there is excessive shade. Around Lucknow, 'Dashehari' is heavily infested by this pest; 'Samarbehist' ('Chausa') less. Leaves and shoots of some varieties are preyed on by the caterpillars of Parasa lepida, Chlumetia transversa and Orthaga exvinacea. 5. Scales - In South Africa, 11 species of scales have been recorded on the fruits. Coccus mangiferae and C. acuminatus are the most common scale insects giving rise to the sooty mold that grows on the honeydew excreted by the pests. In some areas, there are occasional outbreaks of the scales, Pulvinaria psidii, P. polygonata, Aulacaspis cinnamoni, A. tubercularis, Aspidiotus destructor and Leucaspis indica. In Florida, pyriform scale, Protopulvinaria Pyrformis, and Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis, are common, and the lesser snow scale, Pinnaspis strachani, infests the trunks of small trees and lower branches of large trees. Heavy attacks may result in cracking of the bark and oozing of sap. 6. Thrips - The citrus thrips, Scirtothrips aurantii, blemishes fruit in some mango-growing areas. The red-banded thrips, Selenothrips rubrocinctus, heavily infests mango foliage in Florida, killing young leaves and causing shedding of mature leaves. 7. Mealybugs - Phenacoccus citri and P. mangiferae, and Drosicha stebbingi and D. mangiferae may infest young leaves, shoots and fruits. The mango stem borer, Batocera rufomaculata invades the trunk. 8. Mites - feed on mango leaves, flowers and young fruits. In Florida, the most common is the avocado red mite, Paratetranychus yothersii. 9. Mistletoe - (Loranthus and Viscum spp.) parasitizes and kills mango branches in India and tropical America. Diseases: 1. Powdery Mildew: This is one of the most serious diseases affecting Mango trees. Common in most growing areas of India, occurs mostly in March and April in Florida. Caused by a fungus, Oidium mangiferae, the flowers are affected, young fruits dehydrate and fall and up to 20% of the crop may be lost. 2. Anthracnose - In humid climates, this is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Glomerella cingulata), and affects flowers, leaves, twigs, fruits, both young and mature. Fruits of affected trees show black spots externally and the corresponding flesh area is affected. The black spots are similar to those produced by AIternaria sp. often associated with anthracnose in cold storage in India. Inside the fruits attacked by AIternaria, there are corresponding areas of hard, corky, spongy lesions. 3. Rot - A pre-harvest dry stem-end rot was first noticed on 'Tommy Atkins' in Mexico in 1973, and it has spread to all Mexican plantings of this cultivar causing losses of 10-80% especially in wet weather. Fusarium, Alternaria and Cladosporium spp. were the most prominent among associated fungi. 4. Malformations - of inflorescence and vegetative buds is caused by combined action of Fusarium moniliforme and any of the mites, Aceria mangifera, Eriophyes sp., Tyrophagus castellanii, or Typhlodromus asiaticus. This is most serious in mango trees of Pakistan, India, South Africa and Egypt, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Mexico, Brazil and Venezuela, but not as yet in the Philippines. In India, there has been an increase in the number of reports of incidence of this disease. 5. Galls - There are 14 types of mango galls in India, 12 occurring on the leaves. The most serious is the axillary bud gall caused by Apsylla cistellata of the family Psyllidae. 6. Leaf Spot - In Florida, leaf spot is caused by Pestalotia mangiferae, Phyllosticta mortoni, and Septoria sp.; algal leaf spot, or green scurf by Cephaleuros virescens. In 1983, a new disease, crusty leaf spot, caused by the fungus, Zimmermaniella trispora, was reported as common on neglected mango trees in Malaya. 7. Dieback - Twig dieback and dieback are from infection by Phomopsis sp., Physalospora abdita, and P. rhodina. 8. Wilt - Wilt is caused by Verticillium alboatrum. 9. Others- Brown felt is caused by Septobasidium pilosum and S. pseudopedicellatum; wood rot, by Polyporus sanguineus; scab by Elsinoe mangiferae (Sphaceloma mangiferae); and Cercospora mangiferae attacks the fruits in the Congo. White sap, heart rot, gray blight, leaf blight, white pocket rot, white spongy rot, sap rot, black bark and red rust In India are caused by a variety of organisms. Young shoots in South Africa are attacked by Aspergillus attacks and fruit rot is caused by A. niger. Gloeosporium mangiferae causes black spotting of fruits. Erwinia mangiferae and Pseudomonas mangiferaeindicae cause bacterial black spot in South Africa and Queensland; Bacterium carotovorus causes soft rot; and stem-end rot in India and Puerto Rico are caused from infection by Physalospora rhodina (Diplodia natalensis). Mineral Deficiencies: 1. Chlorides - an excess may cause Leaf tip burn. 2. Manganese - a deficiency is indicated by paleness and limpness of foliage followed by yellowing, with distinct green veins and midrib, fine brown spots and browning of leaf tips. 3. Zinc - a deficiency is evident in less noticeable paleness of foliage, distortion of new shoots, small leaves, necrosis, and stunting of the tree and its roots. 4. Boron - a deficiency leads to reduced size and distortion of new leaves, and browning of the midrib. 5. Copper - a deficiency is seen in paleness of foliage and severe tip-bum with gray-brown patches on old leaves; abnormally large leaves; also die-back of terminal shoots; sometimes gummosis of twigs and branches. 6. Magnesium - deficiency makes young trees look stunted and pale, with yellow-white areas in new leaves between the main veins, and prominent yellow specks on both sides of the midrib. There may also be browning of the leaf tips and margins. 7. Iron - deficiency causes chlorosis in young trees."
  • Morton, J. 1987. Mango. p. 221–239. (In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. ) New Crop Resource Online Program, Purdue University. Last updated: 6/28/11
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Population Biology

Frequency

Rare (as a naturalised plant)
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General Ecology

Ecology

"Mangoes are canopy trees in evergreen to semi-evergreen forests. When in bloom, A single 10 to 60 cm flower panicle can contain 1000 to 6000 flowers. Mangifera indica produces only hermaphrodite and staminate (male) flowers. In nearly all mango flowers, of the five stamens around the outer edge of the disc of observed hermaphrodite flowers, nearly all had just a single well developed stamen, which produced pollen; just a few percent had two fertile stamens. Some studies have reported that trees with a high proportion of staminate flowers produce few fruits. Mango flowers are rather strongly scented, with a sweetish odour that is easily detected by humans from several metres away. Many insects are attracted to the flowers by their scent, especially cyclorrhaphan flies. Nectar is produced from sepal glands located on the outer margin of the disc between the petals and the disc proper in the flower. This nectar is fed on by flies, beetles, and lepidopterans. Among observed diurnal flower visitors are flies (especially syrphids, calliphorids, and sciarids), lepidopterans (especially nymphalids and lycaenids), beetles and hymenopterans. Nocturnal visitors included Culex mosquitos and unidentified noctuid moths. Many insects have been observed to rest on flowers at night. Some of these include, Rhynchosciarid sciarids, tipulid flies, Strigoderma rutelina (Scarabaeidae), and Chauliognathus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae). Among these, some studies have indicated that flies may be the most frequent visitors, while Tetragonisca angustulabees and Diabrotica speciosa beetles are examples of other consistent visitors. Most observed visitors are known to carry pollen, except the lepidopterans, tipulids, and the hymenopteran Synoeca septentrionalis. Syrphids and calliphorids are believed to carry the most pollen on their bodies."
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Ecology

The flowers of Mangifera indica are rather strongly scented, producing a sweetish odor that is easily detected by a human from several meters away. Many insects appear to be attracted by the scent, especially cyclorrhaphan flies. The flowers produce nectar from sepal glands located on the outer margin of the disc, between the petals and the disc proper. The nectar is consumed by flies, beetles, and lepidopterans. A single 10 to 60 cm flower panicle can contain 1000 to 6000 flowers. However, 65 to 85% of the flowers remain unpollinated and, based on pollinator-exclusion trials, mango flowers are apparently not capable of autogamy (self-fertilization). Of observed diurnal flower visitors, Jiron and Headström (1985) reported that 51.6% were flies (especially syrphids, calliphorids, and sciarids), 33% were lepidopterans (especially nymphalids and lycaenids), 11.6% were beetles, and 3.6% were hymenopterans. Syrphid flies acounted for 20.9% of all flower visitors. Nocturnal visitors included Culex mosquitos and unidentified noctuid moths. Insects observed resting on flowers at night included rhynchosciarid sciarids, tipulid flies, Strigoderma rutelina (Scarabaeidae), and Chauliognathus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae). Although detailed pollination studies were not carried out, all observed visitors carried pollen except the lepidopterans, tipulids, and the hymenopteran Synoeca septentrionalis. The syrphids and calliphorids carried the most pollen on their bodies. (Jiron and Headström 1985)

Malerbo-Souza and Halak (2009) also found that flies were the most frequent visitors to mango flowers (other consistent visitors were Tetragonisca angustula bees and Diabrotica speciosa beetles). Fruit set was higher from flowers visited by insects.

Mangifera indica produces only hermaphrodite and staminate (male) flowers. Jiron and Headström (1985) found that in nearly all mango flowers, of the five stamens around the outer edge of the disc of observed hermaphrodite flowers, nearly all had just a single well developed stamen, which produced pollen; just a few percent had two fertile stamens. Singh (1954) found that mango varieties with a high proportion of staminate flowers produced few fruits.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: January-May
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Flowering Period: March-April.
  • Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org. Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA. ""Mangifera indica L."". Encyclopedia of Life, available from ""http://www.eol.org/pages/582270"". Accessed 28 Jun 2011.
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: March-April.
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Life Expectancy

"Mango trees are long-lived, some specimens being known to be 300 years old and still fruiting."
  • Morton, J. 1987. Mango. p. 221–239. (In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. ) New Crop Resource Online Program, Purdue University. Last updated: 6/28/11
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Reproduction

"Individual trees often flower irregularly; some trees do not flower for periods of 10-20 years, sometimes even longer, others less than 10 years old may flower and fruit regularly every year. Thereafter, most mangos tend toward alternate, or biennial, bearing. A great deal of research has been done on this problem which may involve the entire tree or only a portion of the branches. Branches that fruit one year may rest the next, while branches on the other side of the tree will bear. Blooming is strongly affected by weather, dryness stimulating flowering and rainy weather discouraging it. In general, flowering starts at the beginning of the rainy season and fruits ripen at the end of the rainy season. In most of India, flowering occurs in December and January; in northern India, in January and February or as late as March. There are some varieties called """"Baramasi"""" that flower and fruit irregularly throughout the year. The cultivar 'Sam Ru Du' of Thailand bears 3 crops a year–in January, June and October. In the drier islands of the Lesser Antilles, there are mango trees that flower and fruit more or less continuously all year around but never heavily at any time. Some of these are cultivars introduced from Florida where they flower and fruit only once a year. In southern Florida, mango trees begin to bloom in late November and continue until February or March, inasmuch as there are early, medium, and late varieties. During exceptionally warm winters, mango trees have been known to bloom 3 times in succession, each time setting and maturing fruit. In the Philippines, various methods are employed to promote flowering: smudging (smoking), exposing the roots, pruning, girdling, withholding nitrogen and irrigation, and even applying salt. In the West Indies, there is a common folk practice of slashing the trunk with a machete to make the tree bloom and bear in """"off"""" years. Deblos-soming (removing half the flower clusters) in an """"on"""" year will induce at least a small crop in the next """"off"""" year. Almost any treatment or condition that retards vegetative growth will have this effect. Spraying with growth-retardant chemicals has been tried, with inconsistent results. Potassium nitrate has been effective in the Philippines. In India, the cultivar 'Dasheri', which is self incompatible, tends to begin blooming very early (December and January) when no other cultivars are in flower. And the early panicles show a low percentage of hermaphrodite flowers and a high incidence of floral malformation. Furthermore, early blooms are often damaged by frost. It has been found that a single mechanical de-blossoming in the first bud-burst stage, induces subsequent development of panicles with less malformation, more hermaphrodite flowers, and, as a result, a much higher yield of fruits. There is one cultivar, 'Neelum', in South India that bears heavily every year, apparently because of its high rate (16%) of hermaphrodite flowers. (The average for 'Alphonso' is 10%.) However, Indian horticulturists report great tree-to-tree variation in seedlings of this cultivar; in some surveys as much as 84% of the trees were rated as poor bearers. Over 92% of 'Bangalora' seedlings have been found bearing light crops. Bisexual and male flowers appear on the same cluster, in proportions that vary from 1:4 to 2:1. Evidence from various countries shows that some cultivars develop fruit without fertilization but that others need cross-pollination; the determining factors are not yet well understood. Pollinators are nectarivorous bats and insects such as flies, bees, ants, wasps, butterflies, moths, beetles and possibly thrips, but a certain amount of self-pollination also occurs. Honeybees do not especially favor mango flowers and it has been found that effective pollination by honeybees would require 3 to 6 colonies per acre (6-12 per ha). Rain and high humidity at blossoming reduce pollination and fruit setting. Heavy rains wash off pollen and thus prevent fruit setting. Many of the unpollinated flowers are shed or fail to set fruit, or the fruit is set but is shed when very young. Usually only small proportions of the flowers develop into fruit. Some cultivars tend to produce a high percentage of small fruits without a fully developed seed because of unfavorable weather during the fruit-setting period. Hermaphrodite flowers are predominantly outcrossing and exhibit protogynous dychogamy, but trees are generally self-compatible, and self-fertilization by pollen from the same flower is possible. It has been shown that 65-85% of hermaphrodite flowers remain unpollinated and that only 0.1-0.25% of them reach the harvesting stage, with fruit drop occurring at all stages. The time of development after fertilization to maturity of fruit is 2-5 months, depending on the cultivar and temperature. Fruiting is often biennial; some cultivars, in addition to the main fruiting seasons, set a few fruits throughout the year."
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Growth

"Growth rate: Fast, >1.5 m/yr (5 ft/yr) in ideal conditions."
  • AgroForestryTree Database, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)
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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

"Eiadthong et al. (1999) has used PCR-RFLP to investigate relationships among 13 Mangifera species in Thailand, but low genetic variation allowed little phylogenetic resolution. Yonemori et al. (2002) used ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA to investigate phylogenetic relationships among 14 of the 15 Mangifera species (including M. indica) known from Thailand. Nishiyama et al. (2006) used genomic in situ hybridization to examine phylogenetic relationships among Mangifera indica and eight wild Mangifera species."
  • Shapiro, Leo. EOL Rapid Response LifeDesk Team. ""Mangifera indica L."". Encyclopedia of Life, available from ""http://www.eol.org/pages/582270"". Accessed 28 Jun 2011.
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Systematics and Taxonomy

Eiadthong et al. (1999) used PCR-RFLP to investigate relationships among 13 Mangifera species in Thailand, but low genetic variation permitted little phylogenetic resolution. Yonemori et al. (2002) used ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA to investigate phylogenetic relationships among 14 of the 15 Mangifera species (including M. indica) known from Thailand. Nishiyama et al. (2006) used genomic in situ hybridization to examine phylogenetic relationships among Mangifera indica and eight wild Mangifera species.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

"Microsatellite markers for investigating genetic variation and distinguishing mango cultivars have been developed by Duval et al. (2005), Honsho et al. (2005), Schnell et al. (2005), and Viruel et al. (2005)."
  • Shapiro, Leo. EOL Rapid Response LifeDesk Team. ""Mangifera indica L."". Encyclopedia of Life, available from ""http://www.eol.org/pages/582270"". Accessed 28 Jun 2011.
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Microsatellite markers for investigating genetic variation and distinguishing mango cultivars have been developed by Duval et al. (2005), Honsho et al. (2005), Schnell et al. (2005), and Viruel et al. (2005).

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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Mangifera indica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Mangifera indica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 33
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1998
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
World Conservation Monitoring Centre

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s

History
  • 1997
    Vulnerable
    (Walter and Gillett 1998)
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Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient . ver 2.3 Year Assessed: 1998 Annotations: Needs updating Assessor/s: World Conservation Monitoring Centre. History: 1997 – Vulnerable (Walter and Gillett 1998)
  • IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. . Downloaded on 24 June 2011.
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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

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Threats

Pests and potential problems

In the Pacific Basin, the mango fly (Bactrocera frauenfeldi Schiner) is quite widespread (Pest Management in the Pacific Project 2007). Also, the mango shoot caterpillar (Penicillaria jocosatrix Guenee) affects mango throughout the area (Nafus 2005).

Major insect pests are: mites [avocado red mite (Oligonychus yothersii McG.), tumid mite (Tetranychus tumidus Banks), and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks)]; scales [lesser snow scale (Pinnaspis strachani Cooley); soft scales: pyriform scale (Protopulvinaria)p pyriformis Ckll.), mango shield scale (P. mangiferae Green), acuminate scale (Kilifia acuminata Sign.), Florida wax scale (Ceroplastes floridensis Comst.); armored scales: Florida red scale (Chrysomphalus ficus L.), and dictyospermum scale (C. dictyospermi Morg.)]; and thrips [red-banded thrips (Selenothrips rubrocinctus Giard.), and Florida flower thrips (Frankliniella cephalica D.L. Crawford)]. Mango trees are also affected by mango decline, a problem associated with micronutrient deficiency. Diseases include: anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.), which affects fruits, inflorescences and foliage; powdery mildew (Oidium sp.) on inflorescences; and mango scab (Elsinoe, mangiferae, Bitanc & Jenk.). Internal breakdown of the fruit is an important problem, the cause of which has not yet been determined. Alga spot (Cephaleuros sp) attacks flowers, young fruit, twigs and leaves.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There is a protected population in the biosphere reserve on the Mysore Plateau, India.
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"Extensive information on the management of mango in Hawaii and the Pacific Basin Islands can be found in Bally (2006). This document is available on the Web at http://www.traditionaltree.org. In general, mango trees managed for commercial fruit production should be irrigated once weekly in coastal areas and almost continuously in dry areas until the fruit is harvested. After harvest, irrigation should be reduced to a level that prevents wilt. This process should continue for about 2 months before increasing irrigation to initiate new bloom and growth cycle. While irrigation is important for tree establishment and survival, it must be part of an overall management plan that includes fertilization. Mango trees require a feeding program similar to the one used for citrus, and includes nitrogen and a variety of micro-nutrients, especially iron. Once plants are established pruning is recommended, in late winter and early spring to avoid loss of fruit, to stimulate new growth, provide for uniform annual fruit bearing, and control size. Pruned material and other mango litter should not be burned to avoid breathing affected air."
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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Popular varieties in Hawai‘i include ‘Haden’, ‘Ah Ping’, ‘Gouviea’, ‘Momi K’, ‘Fairchild’, ‘Pope’, ‘Rapoza’, and ‘Harders’. In the Solomon Islands and Fiji, the Australian variety ‘Kensington Pride’ has been introduced and grown successfully. In Samoa, the mango varieties ‘Momi K’, ‘Fiji’, ‘Mapulehu’, ‘White Pirie’, ‘Rapoza’, ‘Jara’, and ‘Kensington Pride’ are common. In Tahiti, ‘Kopu Reva’ is a popular variety (Bally 2006). Bally provides an extensive discussion of recommended varieties for Hawaii and the Pacific Basin Islands on the Web at <www.traditionaltree.org>.

Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Extensive information on the management of mango in Hawaii and the Pacific Basin Islands can be found in Bally (2006). This document is available on the Web at <www.traditionaltree.org>.

Mango trees managed for commercial fruit production should be irrigated once weekly in coastal areas and almost continuously in dry areas until the fruit is harvested. After harvest, irrigation should be reduced to a level that prevents wilt. This process should continue for about two months before increasing irrigation to initiate new bloom and growth cycle. While irrigation is important for tree establishment and survival, it must be part of an overall management plan that includes fertilization. These trees require a feeding program similar to the one used for citrus. This feeding program must include nitrogen and the micronutrient especially iron.

Once plantings are established pruning can be used to stimulate new growth, provide for uniform annual fruit bearing, and control size. Pruning should be preformed in late winter and early spring to avoid loss of fruit. When pruning or removing litter avoid getting the sap on unprotected skin, because the sap can cause severe dermatitis. Pruned material and other mango litter should not be burned to avoid breathing affected air.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: Fruit

Comments: The succulent fruit is greatly relished and the wood is of good quality for general carpentry. It is important to note, however, that this species is not native to the New World.

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Folklore

"Historical References: Mango (Mangifera indica) trees are mentioned more than once in the Ramayana - in the Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 of the Ramayana, as located on the banks of the Pampa lake; in the Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 as present in the Panchavati; and, in the Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 as growing near the Matanga hermitage. This species is also mentioned in the nusasana Parva of the Mahabharata as located in King Kusika's country. This fruit is believed to have been tasted by Alexander (3rd century BCE) and Chinese pilgrim, Hieun Tsang (7th century CE). It is mentioned in the songs of 4th century CE Sanskrit poet, Kalidasa; and, in the 16th century Mughal Emperor, Akbar is known to have planted 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, Bihar at a place now known as Lakhi Bagh. Similarly, the Marathas and the Gonds planted mangoes and other useful trees along their marching routes and halting places, some of which are still surviving. Symbology: In Hinduism, the perfectly ripe mango is often held by Lord Ganesha as a symbol of attainment, representing the potential perfection of devotees. It is also said to be a form of Prajapati, an epithet, which in the vedas, was originally applied to Savitri, Soma, Tvashtri, Hiranya-garbha, Indra, and Agni, but afterwards the name of a separate god presiding over procreation. The tree provides one of the pancha-pallava or aggregate of five sprigs used in Hindu ceremonial, and its flowers are used in Shiva worship on the Shivaratri. Mango blossoms are used in the worship of Goddess Saraswati.Mango leaves are used to decorate archways and doors in Indian houses and during weddings and celebrations like Ganesh Chaturthi. Mango motifs are widely used in different Indian embroidery styles and are found in Kashmiri shawls, Kanchipuram silk sarees etc. Poetry and Myth: Mangoes are mentioned in the works of many Indian poets. The flower is invoked in the 6th act of Sakuntala as one of the five arrows of Kamadeva. A grove of mangoes (Amravana) is mentioned in the travels of the Buddhist pilgrims, Fah-hian and Sung-yun (translated by Beal). This grove was presented by Amradarika to Buddha as a place that he could use for repose. In some accounts, Amradarika is described as the daughter of the mango tree. In the Indian story of Surya Bai, the daughter of the sun who is married to a King, assumes the form of a golden Lotus to escape an evil sorceress. Her husband, the King falls in love with the flower, which is then burnt by the sorceress. From the ashes of the burnt flower, grows a mango tree. The King falls in love first with its flower, and then with its only fruit. When ripe, the fruit falls to the ground and from it emerges the daughter of the sun (Surya Bai), who is recognized by the King to be his lost wife. Long accounts of the virtues of the mango in its ripe and unripe state (kéri) may be found in Hindu and Mahometan works on Materia Medica. One such detailed description of the mango and its uses can also be found in the writings of the Turkoman poet, Amir Khusru, who lived in Delhi in the time of Muhammad Tughlak Shah, who writes: """" The mango is the pride of the garden, the choicest fruit of Hindustan; other fruits we are content to eat when ripe, but the mango is good in all stages of its growth/' Medicine, Trade and other Records: According to the author of the Makhzan, the Hindus make a confection of the baked pulp of the unripe fruit mixed with sugar, which in time of plague or cholera they take internally and. rub all over the body ; it is also stated in the same work that the midribs of the leaves calcined are used to remove warts on the eyelids. Mangoes appear to have been known to the Arabs from an early date as a pickle. They were carried to Arabian ports by Indian mariners. Ibn Batuta, who visited India A.D. 1332, notices their use for this purpose. The medicinal properties of mangoes were first brought to the notice of European physicians by Dr. Linguist (Practitioner, 1882, 220), who recommends it for its extraordinary action in cases of haemorrhage from the uterus, lungs, or intestines."
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Uses

"Documented Properties & Actions: anti-asthmatic, antiseptic, antiviral, cardiotonic, emetic, expectorant, hypotensive, laxative. Plant Chemicals Include: 2-octene, alanine, alpha-phellandrene, alpha-pinene, ambolic-acid, ambonic-acid, arginine, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene beta-pinene, carotenoids, furfurol, gaba, gallic-acid, gallotannic-acid, geraniol, histidine, isoleucine, isomangiferolic-acid, kaempferol, limonene, linoleic-acid, mangiferic-acid, mangiferine, mangiferol, mangiferolic-acid, myristic-acid, neo-beta-carotene-b, neo-beta-carotene-u, neoxanthophyll, nerol, neryl-acetate, oleic-acid, oxalic-acid, p-coumaric-acid, palmitic-acid, palmitoleic-acid, pantothenic-acid, peroxidase, phenylalanine, phytin, proline, quercetin, xanthophyll Mangiferin (a pharmacologically active flavonoid, a natural xanthone C-glycoside) is extracted from Mango at high concentrations from the young leaves (172 g/kg), bark (107 g/kg), and from old leaves (94 g/kg).[5] Mangiferin shows an exceptionally strong antioxidant capacity. It has a number of pharmacological actions and possible health benefits. These include antidiabetic], antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobal, antiinflamatory, antiviral, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-allergic and anticancer activity. Along with Salacia it is being investigated for its possible anti-obesity action. In ayurveda, one of its uses is clearing digestion and acidity due to pitta (heat), sometimes with other mild sours and shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia). Plant Parts: Mango is cultivated for the fruit, which can be eaten in 3 distinct ways, depending largely on the cultivar: unripe (mature green, very popular in Thailand and the Philippines), ripe (the common way to enjoy mango throughout the world), and processed (at various stages of maturity, in the form of pickles or chutneys, dried slices, canned slices in syrup, juice and puree or paste). Unripe Fruit: Sensory quality: Sour and astringent, with a slight, resinous overtone. Main constituents: Citric acid and related compounds are responsible for the sour taste. Several terpenes (ocimene, myrcene, limonene), aldehydes and esters have been found in the dried unripe fruits. Further­more, unripe mangoes contain proteolytic enzymes. In ripe mangoes, volatile compounds (40 to 70 ppm) are ocimene, limonene, α-terpineol, 3-carene, β-selinene and myrcene. The yellow colour is due to about 30 ppm β-carotene. Uses: 1. Eaten raw with salt and red chilly powder. 2. To make a spice, aamchur powder, used extensively in North India. The stone removed, the fruit is cut in slices, dried and afterwards ground to a pale gray powder. This powder is used frequently instead of tamarind, the other important sour element in Indian cuisine; mango powder is, however, much weaker than tamarind and has a subtle, resin-like taste. It is mainly used when only a hint of tartness is desired or when the dark brown colour of tamarind is to be avoided. Mango powder is generally more popular with vegetables than with meat, but is frequently found in tikka mixtures for barbecued meat. Mango powder here serves not only as a tart and sour spice, but also as a meat tenderizer. 3. To make pickles, served all over India. The best varieties in North India are prepared using pungent Bengali mustard oil. Its South Indian sibling, avakaya from Andhra Pradesh, is dark red due to excessive amounts of chilly, and derives additional pungency from untoasted, ground mustard seeds. In Karnataka, a similar pickle is called mavina uppinakayi. 4. Green fruits are considered anticholeric (baked and mixed with sugar and taken internally and also rubbed over the body), antidysmenorrheic, antiscorbutic, astringent, and diaphoretic. 5. Roasted green fruits are dissolved in sugar water and taken internally to prevent sunstroke and they may be just rubbed on the body. Ripe fruit: Ripe mangos may be frozen whole or peeled, sliced and packed in sugar and quick-frozen in moisture-proof containers. The diced flesh of ripe mangos, bathed in sweetened or unsweetened lime juice, to prevent discoloration, can be quick-frozen, as can sweetened ripe or green mango puree. Immature mangos are often blown down by spring winds. Half-ripe or green mangos are peeled and sliced as filling for pie, used for jelly, or made into sauce which, with added milk and egg whites, can be converted into mango sherbet. A pickle similar to that in India, but made from ripe mangoes and much less oil is eaten in Iraq, where it is also processed into a coarse sauce that goes well with grilled meats. Due to Iraqi Jew immigrants, this has also become quite popular in Israel for chickpea balls falafel and broiled meat shawarmah. Mexicans sometimes use ripe mangoes or other tropical fruits for their fiery salsas (see long coriander). Ripe mangos are a popular fruit and may be used for stewed fruits, fruit jam, fruit cakes and many other standard fruit appli­cations; they can, however, even used for savoury dishes. Indonesian fruit salad (rujak) combines fresh fruits (not too ripe mango, pineapple, papaya, in Jawa frequently cucumber) with a pungent sauce of palm sugar (won from coconut or other palm trees), fresh red chiles and salt; on Bali, a hint of shrimp paste (trassi, see also Indonesian bay-leaf on Balinese cookery) is never omitted. Ripe fruits are considered diuretic, laxative, and unguent. Other Uses Seeds: Seeds are used to treat stubborn colds and coughs and obstinate diarrhoea. They are believed tp have anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, antimenorrhagic, antidysesnteric, and unguent properties. A gruel made of the seeds is taken internally for bleeding piles. Seed kernels: After soaking and drying to 10% moisture content, the kernels are fed to poultry and cattle. Without the removal of tannins, the feeding value is low. Cuban scientists declare that the mineral levels are so low mineral supplementation is needed if the kernel is used for cattle and poultry feed, for which purpose it is recommended mainly because it has little crude fiber. Seeds, removed from the woody husk, may be boiled with potherbs eaten roasted, or ground to form a flour, which tends to induce constipation. In times of food scarcity in India, the kernels are roasted or boiled and eaten. After soaking to dispel the astringency (tannins), the kernels are dried and ground to flour which is mixed with wheat or rice flour to make bread and it is also used in puddings. Seed fat: The fat extracted from the kernel is white, solid like cocoa butter and tallow, edible, and has been proposed as a substitute for cocoa butter in chocolate. Having high stearic acid content, the fat is desirable for soap-making. The seed residue after fat extraction is usable for cattle feed and soil enrichment. Bark, Twigs: The bark possesses 16% to 20% tannin and has been employed for tanning hides. It yields a yellow dye, or, with turmeric and lime, a bright rose-pink. Twigs are used to clean teeth, while the bark is said to be useful for toothaches. The astringent stomachic bark is also used for internal hemorrhages, bronchitis , and catarrh. Fuel: With a calorific value of 4200 kcal/kg, the wood makes excellent charcoal and firewood. Timber: Heartwood is pale yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, darkening on exposure, not clearly demarcated from the pale yellowish-brown sapwood. Grain somewhat wavy, texture moderately coarse; freshly cut wood is scentless. The wood is used for many purposes, including indoor construction, meat-chopping blocks, furniture, carpentry, flooring, boxes, crates and boat building (canoes and dugouts). Gum: A somewhat resinous, red-brown gum from the trunk is used for mending crockery in tropical Africa. In India, it is sold as a substitute for gum arabic. Also, used to treat scabies, cracked feet, ringworm and other fungi, syphilis, and to induce sweating. Medicinal Uses: Dried mango flowers, containing 15% tannin, serve as astringents in cases of diarrhea, chronic dysentery, catarrh of the bladder and chronic urethritis resulting from gonorrhea. The bark contains mangiferine and is astringent and employed against rheumatism and diphtheria in India. The resinous gum from the trunk is applied on cracks in the skin of the feet and on scabies, and is believed helpful in cases of syphilis. Mango kernel decoction and powder (not tannin-free) are used as vermifuges and as astringents in diarrhea, hemorrhages and bleeding hemorrhoids. The fat is administered in cases of stomatitis. Extracts of unripe fruits and of bark, stems and leaves have shown antibiotic activity. In some of the islands of the Caribbean, the leaf decoction is taken as a remedy for diarrhea, fever, chest complaints, diabetes, hypertension and other ills. A combined decoction of mango and other leaves is taken after childbirth."""" Leaves: Mango leaves are occasionally fed to cattle, but large quantities can cause death. Smoke from the burning leaves is believed to cure various throat disorders, from asthma to hiccups. Charred and pulverized leaves make a plaster to remove warts and also act as a styptic. Immature mango leaves are cooked and eaten in Indonesia and the Philippines. Flowers: Dried flowers are used to treat gleet. Fruit peel: The peel constitutes 20% to 25% of the total weight of the fruit. Researchers in India have shown that the peel can be utilized as a source of pectin. Average yield on a dry-weight basis is 13%. Apiculture M. indica is an important honey plant, secreting large quantities of nectar. Services Shade or shelter: Its umbrella-shaped crown makes the mango tree a suitable shade for people and their livestock; it also acts as a firebreak. Soil improver: Mango leaves improve soil fertility when used as mulch for crops. Intercropping: Young mango is often interplanted with other fruits and vegetables, and the tree is a valued component of the traditional homegarden agroforestry system."
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Folklore

The leaves are used in religious rituals. Good firewood species.

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Uses

Wood moderately hard and used for making furniture and boats. Fruits are edible. Pickles are prepared from the immature fruits.

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Uses

Mango fruits are an excellent source of vitamin C and carotenoids and Oliveira et al. (2010) found that the nutrient content of mangos was quite stable during fruit processing in a commercial restaurant.

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Uses

Human Food: The fruit is used in jams, preserves, pies, chutney, ice cream, jellies, canned fruits, and in frozen or dried fruits. However, fresh consumption is the most important and widest use of the fruit. The fruit is a good source of vitamins A and C.

Green mangoes are often cooked and eaten like vegetables or made into a delicious chutney or dried and ground into a powder called "amchoor" and used to impart a sour flavor to food.

The kernels can be boiled and eaten with greens or ground and eaten roasted, dried, or pickled; but are generally eaten in times of famine or by the poorest.

Livestock Food: Mango leaves are occasionally fed to cattle, but large quantities can cause death.

The fruits are relished by both cattle and pigs; however, the kernels are fairly rich in tannins, which progressively lead to reduced growth rates and less efficient feed utilization when included as a major component in diets for pigs and poultry.

Mangoes that are not fully mature are sliced and ensiled in pits 1.5 m3 dug in the ground and lined with large leaves. One percent salt should be added. The pits are tightly covered with leaves and soil. This silage can be used for off-season pig feeding.

Ethnobotanic: Dried mango flowers, containing 15% tannin, serve as astringents in cases of diarrhea, chronic dysentery, catarrh of the bladder and chronic urethritis. The bark was used against rheumatism and diphtheria. The resinous gum from the trunk was applied to cracks in the skin of the feet and on scabies. Mango kernel decoction and powder were used as vermifuges and as astringents in treatment for diarrhea, hemorrhages and bleeding hemorrhoids. Leaf decoction was taken as a remedy for fever, chest pains, diarrhea, diabetes, and hypertension. Extracts of bark, leaves, stems, and unripe fruits were used as antibiotics for many ills.

When mango trees are in bloom, it is not uncommon for people to suffer itching around the eyes, facial swelling and respiratory difficulty, even though there is no airborne pollen. The few pollen grains are large and they tend to adhere to each other even in dry weather. The stigma is small and not designed to catch windborne pollen. The irritant is probably the vaporized essential oil of the flowers which contains the sesquiterpene alcohol, mangiferol, and the ketone, mangiferone.

The twigs and leaves, used to clean the teeth, are said to be beneficial to the gums, while the bark is said to be useful for toothaches. The astringent stomachic bark is also used for internal hemorrhages, bronchitis, and catarrh. The resin is used for cracked feet, ringworm, and other fungi, syphilis, and to induce sweating. Smoke from the burning leaves is believed to cure various throat disorders, from asthma to hiccups. Dried mango flowers, containing 15% tannin, serve as astringents in cases of diarrhea, chronic dysentery, catarrh of the bladder and chronic urethritis resulting from gonorrhea.

Green fruits are considered anticholeric (baked and mixed with sugar and taken internally and also rubbed over the body), antidysmenorrheic, antiscorbutic, astringent, and diaphoretic. Roasted green fruits are dissolved in sugar water and taken internally to prevent sunstroke. Ripe fruits are considered diuretic, laxative, and unguent. A gruel made of the seeds is taken internally for bleeding piles. The wood is favored for making shovels.

The bark contains mangiferine and is astringent and employed against rheumatism and diphtheria in India. The resinous gum from the trunk is applied on cracks in the skin of the feet and on scabies, and is believed helpful in cases of syphilis.

Mango kernel decoction and powder (not tannin-free) are used as vermifuges and as astringents in diarrhea, hemorrhages and bleeding hemorrhoids. The fat is administered in cases of stomatitis. Extracts of unripe fruits and of bark, stems and leaves have shown antibiotic activity. In some of the islands of the Caribbean, the leaf decoction is taken as a remedy for diarrhea, fever, chest complaints, diabetes, hypertension and other ills. A combined decoction of mango and other leaves is taken after childbirth.

Seed fat: Having high stearic acid content, the fat is desirable for soap-making. The seed residue after fat extraction is usable for cattle feed and soil enrichment.

Bark: The bark possesses 16% to 20% tannin and has been employed for tanning hides. It yields a yellow dye, or, with turmeric and lime, a bright rose-pink.

Wood: Kiln-dried and preservative treatment wood is used to make window frames, rafters, joists, plywood, shoe heels, boxes, boats, and canoes.

Wildlife: Mango fruit and leaves are eaten by deer.

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Risks

Risk Statement

"Invasiveness: Not an aggressively invasive species. Toxicity: Sap - Exuded from the trunk, branches, stalk and skin of the unripe fruit, contains mangiferen, resinous acid, mangiferic acid, and the resinol, mangiferol. This is a potent skin irritant, capable of blistering the skin of a normal individual. Tyoically, like poison ivy, this gives a delayed reaction. Hypersensitive persons may react with considerable swelling of the eyelids, the face, and other parts of the body. They may not be able to handle, peel, or eat mangoes or any food containing mango flesh or juice. Leaves - Contain the glucoside, mangiferine. In India, cows were formerly fed mango leaves to obtain euxanthic acid from their urine. This is a rich yellow in colour and has been used as a dye. The practice has been outlawed because continuous intake of leaves may be fatal. Flowers and Pollen - When mango trees are in bloom, it is not uncommon for people to suffer itching around the eyes, facial swelling and respiratory difficulty, even though there is no airborne pollen. Pollen grains are large, and, they tend to adhere to each other even in dry weather. The stigma is small and not designed to catch wind-borne pollen. The irritant is probably the vaporized essential oil of the flowers which contains the sesquiterpene alcohol, mangiferol, and the ketone, mangiferone. Mango trunk and branches - Mango wood should never be used in fireplaces or for cooking fuel, as its smoke is highly irritant."
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Risk Statement

Although mango fruits are economically and culturally important across much of the world, like many other members of the Anacardiaceae, they contain toxic phenols that can cause serious contact dermatitis and other (occasionally very serious) allergic reactions in some people (Aguilar-Ortigoza et al. 2003). Prior exposure to poison ivy (Toxicodendron, also in the Anacardiaceae) appears to make an allergic reaction to mango more likely (Hershko et al. 2005).

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Caution

The mango skin and sap can be allergic to some people and should be eaten with caution as they can produce the same type of allergic reactions as poison ivy/oak/sumac, including skin lesions or the more serious swollen lips and tongue.

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Wikipedia

Mangifera indica

Mangifera indica is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. It is found in the wild in India and cultivated varieties have been introduced to other warm regions of the world. It is the largest fruit-tree in the world, capable of a height of one-hundred feet and an average circumference of twelve to fourteen feet, sometimes reaching twenty.[1]

The species appears to have been domesticated about 4,000 years ago.[citation needed] The species was brought to East Asia around 400-500 BCE from India; next, in the 15th century to the Philippines; and then, in the 16th century to Africa and Brazil by the Portuguese.[2] The species was described for science by Linnaeus in 1753.[3]

Creole mangos from Oaxaca, México

Mango is the national fruit of India, Pakistan and the Philippines. It finds mention in the songs of 4th century CE Sanskrit poet Kalidasa. Prior to that, it is believed to have been tasted by Alexander (3rd century BCE) and Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang (7th century CE). Later in 16th century Mughal Emperor, Akbar planted 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, Bihar at a place now known as Lakhi Bagh.[4]

Chemical constituents[edit]

Mango, moist Brazilian tropics

Mangiferin (a pharmacologically active flavonoid, a natural xanthone C-glycoside) is extracted from Mango at high concentrations from the young leaves (172 g/kg), bark (107 g/kg), and from old leaves (94 g/kg).[5] Allergenic urushiols are present in the fruit peel and can trigger contact dermatitis in sensitised individuals. This reaction is more likely to occur in people who have been exposed to other plants from the Anacardiaceae family, such as poison oak and poison ivy, which are widespread in the United States.[6]

Traditional medicine[edit]

In ayurveda, it is used in a Rasayana formula (q.v.), clearing digestion and acidity due to pitta (heat), sometimes with other mild sours and shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia). In this oriental system of traditional medicines, varied medicinal properties are attributed to different parts of the mango tree, both as food and medicine. It is anti-diuretic, anti-diarrheal, anti-emetic and cardiac herb.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (1846). The Missionary guide-book, p.180. Seeley, Burnside, and Seeley.
  2. ^ Gepts, P. (n.d.). "PLB143: Crop of the Day: Mango, Mangifera indica". The evolution of crop plants. Dept. of Plant Sciences, Sect. of Crop & Ecosystem Sciences, University of California, Davis. Retrieved October 8, 2009. 
  3. ^ GRIN (May 5, 1997). "Mangifera indica information from ARS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved October 8, 2009. 
  4. ^ "National Fruit". Govt. of India Official website. 
  5. ^ Barreto J.C., Trevisan M.T.S., Hull W.E., Erben G., De Brito E.S., Pfundstein B., Würtele G., Spiegelhalder B., Owen R.W. (2008). "Characterization and quantitation of polyphenolic compounds in bark, kernel, leaves, and peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (14): 5599–5610. doi:10.1021/jf800738r. PMID 18558692. 
  6. ^ Urushiol CASRN: 53237-59-5 TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network) NLM (NIH). Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  7. ^ National R&D Facility For Rasayana

Further reading[edit]

  • Litz, Richard E. (ed. 2009). The Mango: Botany, Production and Uses (2nd edition). CABI. ISBN 978-1-84593-489-7
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Mango

Apple mango and cross section edit1.jpg

The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to South Asia, from where it has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most cultivated fruits in the tropics. While other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, M. foetida) are also grown on a more localized basis, Mangifera indica – the 'common mango' or 'Indian mango' – is the only mango tree commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions. It is the national fruit of India and the Philippines.

In several cultures, its fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public celebrations and religious ceremonies.

Etymology[edit]

Green Mangoes

The English word "mango" (plural "mangoes" or "mangos") originated from the Tamil word māṅgai or mankay or Malayalam māṅga from the Dravidian root word for the same via Portuguese (also manga).[1][2][3][4] The word's first recorded attestation in a European language was a text by Ludovico di Varthema in Italian in 1510, as manga; the first recorded occurrences in languages such as French and post-classical Latin appear to be translations from this Italian text. The origin of the "-o" ending in English is unclear.[5]

When mangoes were first imported to the American colonies in the 17th century, they had to be pickled due to lack of refrigeration. Other fruits were also pickled and came to be called "mangoes", especially bell peppers, and by the 18th century, the word "mango" became a verb meaning "to pickle".[6]

Description[edit]

A mango tree in full bloom in Kerala, India

Mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) grow up to 35–40 m (115–130 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). The trees are long-lived, as some specimens still fruit after 300 years. In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m (20 ft), with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots; the tree also sends down many anchor roots, which penetrate several feet of soil. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15–35 cm (5.9–14 in) long and 6–16 cm (2.4–6.3 in) broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark, glossy red, then dark green as they mature. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm (3.9–16 in) long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long, with a mild, sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley. The fruit takes three to six months to ripen.

The ripe fruit varies in size and color. Cultivars are variously yellow, orange, red or green, and carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, and which does not separate easily from the pulp. Ripe, unpeeled mangoes give off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 cm (1.6–2.8 in) long. The seed contains the plant embryo.

Cultivation[edit]

Photo of mango trees with clear sky in background
Mango orchard in Multan, Pakistan

Mangoes have been cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years[7] and reached East Asia between the fifth and fourth centuries BC. By the 10th century AD, cultivation had begun in East Africa.[7] The 14th century Moroccan traveler, Ibn Battuta, reported it at Mogadishu.[8] Cultivation came later to Brazil, the West Indies and Mexico, where an appropriate climate allows its growth.[7]

The mango is now cultivated in most frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates; almost half of the world's mangoes are cultivated in India alone, with the second-largest source being China.[9][10][11] Mangoes are also grown in Andalusia, Spain (mainly in Málaga province), as its coastal subtropical climate is one of the few places in mainland Europe that allows the growth of tropical plants and fruit trees. The Canary Islands are another notable Spanish producer of the fruit. Other cultivators include North America (in South Florida and California's Coachella Valley), South and Central America, the Caribbean, Hawai'i, south, west and central Africa, Australia, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Southeast Asia. Though India is the largest producer of mangoes, it accounts for less than one percent of the international mango trade; India consumes most of its own production.[12]

Many commercial cultivars are grafted on to the cold-hardy rootstock of Gomera-1 mango cultivar, originally from Cuba. Its root system is well adapted to coastal Mediterranean climate.[13] Many of the 1,000+ mango cultivars are easily cultivated using grafted saplings, ranging from the "turpentine mango" (named for its strong taste of turpentine[14]) to the huevos de toro.[citation needed] Dwarf or semi-dwarf varieties serve as ornamental plants and can be grown in containers. A wide variety of diseases can afflict mangoes; see List of mango diseases.

Food[edit]

Mangoes are generally sweet, although the taste and texture of the flesh varies across cultivars, some having a soft, pulpy texture similar to an overripe plum, while others firmer, like a cantaloupe or avocado and some may have a fibrous texture. For consumption of unripe, pickled or cooked fruit, its skin can be consumed but has potential to cause contact dermatitis of the lips, gingiva or tongue in susceptible people. Under-ripe mangoes can be ripened by refrigeration for 4–5 days.[15]

Cuisine[edit]

Mangoes are widely used in cuisine. Sour, unripe mangoes are used in chutneys, athanu, pickles,[16] side dishes, or may be eaten raw with salt, chili, or soy sauce. A summer drink called Aam panna comes from mangoes. Mango pulp made into jelly or cooked with red gram dhal and green chillies may be served with cooked rice. Mango lassi, is popular throughout South Asia,[17] prepared by mixing ripe mangoes or mango pulp with buttermilk and sugar. Ripe mangoes are also used to make curries. Aamras is a popular thick juice made of mangoes with sugar or milk, and is consumed with bread, rice or pooris. The pulp from ripe mangoes is also used to make jam called mangada. Andhra Aavakaaya is a pickle made from raw, unripe, pulpy and sour mango, mixed with chilli powder, fenugreek seeds, mustard powder, salt and groundnut oil. Mango is also used in Andhra to make Dal preparations. Gujaratis use mango to make chunda (a grated mango delicacy)

A halved, inside-out mango is cut in a grid pattern, still attached to the peel. The mango is inside-out, causing the resulting rectangles of fruit to splay out in a pattern similar to the tentacles of a sea urchin.
The "hedgehog" style is a form of mango preparation.

Mangoes are used in preserves such as moramba, amchur (dried and powdered unripe mango) and pickles, including a spicy mustard-oil pickle and alcohol. Ripe mangoes are often cut into thin layers, desiccated, folded, and then cut. These bars are similar to dried guava fruit bars available in some countries. The fruit is also added to cereal products such as muesli and oat granola.

Unripe mango may be eaten with bagoong (especially in the Philippines), fish sauce or with dash of salt. Dried strips of sweet, ripe mango (sometimes combined with seedless tamarind to form mangorind) are also popular. Mangoes may be used to make juices, mango nectar, and as a flavoring and major ingredient in ice cream and sorbetes.

Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular on a stick dipped in hot chili powder and salt or as a main ingredient in fresh fruit combinations. In Central America, mango is either eaten green mixed with salt, vinegar, black pepper and hot sauce, or ripe in various forms. Toasted and ground pumpkin seed (called pepita) with lime and salt are the norm when eating green mangoes. Some people also add soy sauce or chili sauce.

Pieces of mango can be mashed and used as a topping on ice cream or blended with milk and ice as milkshakes. Sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut, then served with sliced mango as a dessert. In other parts of Southeast Asia, mangoes are pickled with fish sauce and rice vinegar. Green mangoes can be used in mango salad with fish sauce and dried shrimp. Mango with condensed milk may be used as a topping for shaved ice.

Nutrients and phytochemicals[edit]

Saigon mangoes on display at the 15th Annual International Mango Festival at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Florida, United States
Mango
 A mango shown whole
and in cross section
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy250 kJ (60 kcal)
Carbohydrates15 g
- Sugars13.7
- Dietary fiber1.6 g
Fat0.38 g
Protein0.82 g
Vitamin A equiv.54 μg (7%)
- beta-carotene640 μg (6%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin23 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.028 mg (2%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.038 mg (3%)
Niacin (vit. B3)0.669 mg (4%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.197 mg (4%)
Vitamin B60.119 mg (9%)
Folate (vit. B9)43 μg (11%)
Choline7.6 mg (2%)
Vitamin C36.4 mg (44%)
Vitamin E0.9 mg (6%)
Vitamin K4.2 μg (4%)
Calcium11 mg (1%)
Iron0.16 mg (1%)
Magnesium10 mg (3%)
Manganese0.063 mg (3%)
Phosphorus14 mg (2%)
Potassium168 mg (4%)
Sodium1 mg (0%)
Zinc0.09 mg (1%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) is 250 kJ (60 kcal), and that of the apple mango is slightly higher (79 kcal per 100g). Mango contains a variety of phytochemicals[18] and nutrients.[19]

Mango peel and pulp contain other compounds, such as pigment carotenoids and polyphenols, and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.[20]

Although not confirmed scientifically, mango peel pigments may have biological effects,[18][21] including carotenoids, such as the provitamin A compound, beta-carotene, lutein and alpha-carotene,[22] polyphenols[23][24] such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and the unique mango xanthonoid, mangiferin,[25] which are under preliminary research for their potential to counteract various disease processes.[26][27] Phytochemical and nutrient content appears to vary across mango species.[28] Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest of which was beta-carotene, which accounts for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango species.[29] Peel and leaves also have significant polyphenol content, including xanthonoids, mangiferin and gallic acid.[30] Work presented at the Australian Health and Medical Research Congress at Melbourne, showed that certain compounds in the mango skin help fight diseases such as diabetes, control cholesterol levels and prevent some forms of cancer.[31]

The mango triterpene, lupeol,[32] is an effective inhibitor in laboratory models of prostate and skin cancers.[33][34][35] An extract of mango branch bark called Vimang, isolated by Cuban scientists, contains numerous polyphenols with antioxidant properties in vitro[36] and on blood parameters of elderly humans.[37]

The pigment euxanthin, known as Indian yellow, is often thought to be produced from the urine of cattle fed mango leaves; the practice is described as having been outlawed in 1908 due to malnutrition of the cows and possible urushiol poisoning.[38] This supposed origin of euxanthin appears to rely on a single, anecdotal source, and Indian legal records do not outlaw such a practice.[39]

Potential for contact dermatitis[edit]

Contact with oils in mango leaves, stems, sap, and skin can cause dermatitis and anaphylaxis in susceptible individuals.[40] It contains mangiferen, resinous acid, mangiferic acid, and the resinol called mangiferol. Those with a history of poison ivy or poison oak contact dermatitis may be most at risk for mango contact dermatitis.[41] Cross-reactions between mango allergens and urushiol, a chemical in poison ivy and poison sumac that can cause dermatitis, have been observed.[42] Urushiol is also present in mango leaves and stems. During its primary ripening season, it is the most common cause of plant dermatitis in Hawaii.[43] After contacting it, reactions may not be immediate. Eyelids, face, or other parts of the body may even swell because of this. It irritates the skin and may even blister the skin. Also, burning of the mango wood, leaves, etc. should be avoided because fumes could be dangerous.[citation needed]

Cultural significance[edit]

An image of Ambika under a mango tree in Cave 34 of the Ellora Caves

The mango is the national fruit of India[44] and the Philippines. It is also the national tree of Bangladesh.[45] In India, harvest and sale of mangoes is during March–May and this is annually covered by news agencies. "Frooti" is an Indian mango drink and the Coca-Cola company started their own drink, called "Maaza", in order to compete with it.[46]

The Mughal emperor Akbar (1556-1605 AD) is said to have planted a mango orchard having 100,000 trees in Darbhanga, eastern India.[47] The Jain goddess Ambika is traditionally represented as sitting under a mango tree.[48] In Hinduism, the perfectly ripe mango is often held by Lord Ganesha as a symbol of attainment, regarding the devotees potential perfection. Mango blossoms are also used in the worship of the goddess Saraswati. No Telugu/Kannada New Year's Day called Ugadi passes without eating ugadi pachadi made with mango pieces as one of the ingredients. In Tamil Brahmin homes mango is an ingredient in making vadai paruppu on Sri Rama Navami day (Lord Ram's Birth Day) and also in preparation of pachadi on Tamil New Year's Day.

Dried mango skin and its seeds are also used in Ayurvedic medicine.[16] Mango leaves are used to decorate archways and doors in Indian houses and during weddings and celebrations like Ganesh Chaturthi. Mango motifs and paisleys are widely used in different Indian embroidery styles, and are found in Kashmiri shawls, Kanchipuram silk sarees, etc. Paisleys are also common to Iranian art, because of its pre-Islamic Zoroastrian past.

In Tamil Nadu, the mango is considered,[by whom?] along with banana and jackfruit, as one of the three royal fruits (Mukkani-முக்கனி) occupying first place in terms of sweetness and flavor. Ma-pala-vazhai (மா-பலா-வாழை).[clarification needed]

Famous Urdu poet Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib was very fond of mangoes. There are many anecdotes concerning his love for mangoes.[49] Rabindranath Tagore was fond of mangoes and has written poems about its flowers- aamer monjori. Poet Sa'd Bin Ard has written some poems about mangoes.

In the West Indies, the expression "to go mango walk" means to steal another person's mango fruits. This is celebrated in the famous song, The Mango Walk.

In Australia, the first tray of mangoes of the season is traditionally sold at an auction for charity.[50]

The Classical Sanskrit poet Kālidāsa sang the praises of mangoes.[51] Historical records mention Mughal emperor Akbar ordering the planting of 100,000 mango trees.[52]

Many tales of mangoes are found in the historically significant books of India, suggesting that the existence of this fruit in Indian sub-continent before anywhere else can be traced on globe.[53][54]

Production and consumption[edit]

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates worldwide production at nearly 35,000,000 tonnes (39,000,000 short tons) in 2009 (table below). The aggregate production of the top 10 countries is responsible for roughly 80% of worldwide production. India is the biggest producer of mangoes.

 
A basket of ripe mangoes
from Bangladesh
 
Ripe Sindhri mangoes
from Sindh, Pakistan
 
Banganpalli mangoes being sold
in Vijayawada, India
 
Ripe mangoes being sold in a market in the Philippines
Top producers of mangoes, mangosteens, guavas, 2010–11
Country/StateProduction in millions of tons
 India
~ 16.34
 People's Republic of China
~ 4.35
 Thailand
~ 2.55
 Pakistan
~ 1.78
 Mexico
~ 1.63
 Indonesia
~ 1.31
 Brazil
~ 1.19
 Bangladesh
~ 1.05
 World total
~ 38.6
Source: UN FAOSTAT [55]


Cultivars[edit]

Alphonso mangoes in a box surrounded by straw.
Close-up of a twig of the Alphonso mango tree carrying flowers and immature fruit, Deogad (or Devgad), Maharashtra, Valsad-Gujarat, India
Close-up of the inflorescence and immature fruits of an Alphonso mango tree

Many hundreds of named mango cultivars exist. In mango orchards, several cultivars are often crossed to improve pollination. Many desired cultivars are monoembryonic and must be propagated by grafting or they do not breed true. A common mono-embryonic cultivar is Alphonso, an important export product, considered as "the king of mangoes".[46]

Cultivars that excel in one climate may fail elsewhere. For example, Indian cultivars such as Julie, a prolific cultivar in Jamaica, require annual fungicide treatment to escape a lethal fungal disease known as anthracnose in Florida. Asian mangoes are resistant to anthracnose.

The current world market is dominated by the cultivar Tommy Atkins, a seedling of Haden that first fruited in 1940 in southern Florida, U.S. It was initially rejected commercially by Florida researchers.[56] For example, 80% of mangoes in UK supermarkets are Tommy Atkins. Despite its fibrous flesh and only fair taste,[citation needed] growers worldwide have embraced the cultivar for its exceptional productivity and disease resistance, shelf life, transportability, size and appealing color.

Alphonso, Benishaan and Kesar mango varieties are popular varieties in India's southern states, while the Chaunsa variety, among others, is popular in the northern states and Pakistan.

Generally, ripe mangoes have an orange-yellow or reddish peel and are juicy for eating, while exported fruit are often picked while underripe with green peels. Although producing ethylene while ripening, unripened exported mangoes do not have the same juiciness or flavor as fresh fruit.

Like other drupaceous fruits, mangoes come in both freestone and clingstone varieties.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Walter William Skeat, Notes on English etymology
  2. ^ Mango at Encyclopaedia Britannica
  3. ^ Mango Merriam Webster Dictionary.
    "Origin of mango: Portuguese manga, probably from Malayalam māṅga. First Known Use: 1582"
  4. ^ "Definition for mango - Oxford Dictionaries Online (World English)". Oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 2012-06-17. 
  5. ^ OED Online entry mango, n. 1. (Draft revision Sept. 2010, retrieved 13/10/2010)
  6. ^ Creed, Richard (2010-09-05). "Relative Obscurity: Variations of antigodlin grow". Winston-Salem Journal. Retrieved 2010-09-06. [dead link]
  7. ^ a b c Ensminger 1994: 1373
  8. ^ Watson, Andrew J. (1983). Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world: the diffusion of crops and farming techniques, 700–1100. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 72–3. ISBN 0-521-24711-X. 
  9. ^ Jedele, S.; Hau, A.M.; von Oppen, M. "An analysis of the world market for mangoes and its importance for developing countries. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, 2003" (PDF). 
  10. ^ "India world's largest producer of mangoes, Rediff India Abroad, April 21, 2004". Rediff.com. 2004-12-31. Retrieved 2013-01-31. 
  11. ^ "Mad About mangoes: As exports to the U.S. resume, a juicy business opportunity ripens, India Knowledge@Wharton Network, June 14, 2007". Knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu. 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2013-01-31. 
  12. ^ USAID helps Indian mango farmers access new markets, USAID-India, May 3, 2006[dead link]
  13. ^ "actahort.org". actahort.org. Retrieved 2013-01-31. 
  14. ^ According to the 'Oxford Companion to Food'
  15. ^ "Ingredients - Mangoes". DrGourmet.com. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  16. ^ a b D.Devika Bal (8 May 1995). "Mango's wide influence in Indian culture". New Strait Times. Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  17. ^ "Vah Chef talking about Mango Lassi's popularity and showing how to make the drink". Vahrehvah.com. 
  18. ^ a b Ajila CM, Prasada Rao UJ (2008). "Protection against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes by Mangifera indica L. peel extract". Food Chem Toxicol 46 (1): 303–9. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.08.024. PMID 17919803. 
  19. ^ "Nutrient profile for mango from USDA SR-21". Nutritiondata.com. Retrieved 2013-01-31. 
  20. ^ "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, SR-23, Fruit Reports-09, Mango, raw (page 449), 2010". USDA. 
  21. ^ Berardini N, Fezer R, Conrad J, Beifuss U, Carle R, Schieber A (2005). "Screening of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars for their contents of flavonol O – and xanthone C-glycosides, anthocyanins, and pectin". J Agric Food Chem 53 (5): 1563–70. doi:10.1021/jf0484069. PMID 15740041. 
  22. ^ Gouado I, Schweigert FJ, Ejoh RA, Tchouanguep MF, Camp JV (2007). "Systemic levels of carotenoids from mangoes and papaya consumed in three forms (juice, fresh and dry slice)". Eur J Clin Nutr 61 (10): 1180–8. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602841. PMID 17637601. 
  23. ^ Mahattanatawee K, Manthey JA, Luzio G, Talcott ST, Goodner K, Baldwin EA (2006). "Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits". J Agric Food Chem 54 (19): 7355–63. doi:10.1021/jf060566s. PMID 16968105. 
  24. ^ Singh UP, Singh DP, Singh M, et al. (2004). "Characterization of phenolic compounds in some Indian mango cultivars". Int J Food Sci Nutr 55 (2): 163–9. doi:10.1080/09637480410001666441. PMID 14985189. 
  25. ^ Andreu GL, Delgado R, Velho JA, Curti C, Vercesi AE (2005). "Mangiferin, a natural occurring glucosyl xanthone, increases susceptibility of rat liver mitochondria to calcium-induced permeability transition". Arch Biochem Biophys 439 (2): 184–93. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2005.05.015. PMID 15979560. 
  26. ^ Percival SS, Talcott ST, Chin ST, Mallak AC, Lounds-Singleton A, Pettit-Moore J (2006). "Neoplastic transformation of BALB/3T3 cells and cell cycle of HL-60 cells are inhibited by mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice and mango juice extracts". J Nutr 136 (5): 1300–4. PMID 16614420. 
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  29. ^ Chen JP, Tai CY, Chen BH (2004). "Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.)". J Chromatogr A 1054 (1–2): 261–8. PMID 15553152. 
  30. ^ Barreto JC, Trevisan MT, Hull WE, et al. (2008). "Characterization and quantitation of polyphenolic compounds in bark, kernel, leaves, and peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.)". J Agric Food Chem 56 (14): 5599–610. doi:10.1021/jf800738r. PMID 18558692. 
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  33. ^ Prasad S, Kalra N, Singh M, Shukla Y (2008). "Protective effects of lupeol and mango extract against androgen induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice" (PDF). Asian J Androl 10 (2): 313–8. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7262.2008.00313.x. PMID 18097535. 
  34. ^ Nigam N, Prasad S, Shukla Y (2007). "Preventive effects of lupeol on DMBA induced DNA alkylation damage in mouse skin". Food Chem Toxicol 45 (11): 2331–5. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.06.002. PMID 17637493. 
  35. ^ Saleem M, Afaq F, Adhami VM, Mukhtar H (2004). "Lupeol modulates NF-kappaB and PI3K/Akt pathways and inhibits skin cancer in CD-1 mice". Oncogene 23 (30): 5203–14. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207641. PMID 15122342. 
  36. ^ Rodeiro I, Cancino L, González JE, et al. (2006). "Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang), a new natural product with antioxidant activity". Food Chem Toxicol 44 (10): 1707–13. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2006.05.009. PMID 16857303. 
  37. ^ Pardo-Andreu GL, Philip SJ, Riaño A, et al. (2006). "Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) protection against serum oxidative stress in elderly humans". Arch Med Res 37 (1): 158–64. doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2005.04.017. PMID 16314203. 
  38. ^ Source: Kühn. "History of Indian yellow, Pigments Through the Ages". Webexhibits.org. Retrieved 2013-01-31. 
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  56. ^ Susser, Allen (2001). The Great Mango Book. New York: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 1-58008-204-1. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Ensminger, Audrey H.; et al. (1995). The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods & Nutrition. CRC Press. p. 651. ISBN 0-8493-4455-7. 
  • Litz, Richard E. (editor, 2009). The Mango: Botany, Production and Uses. 2nd edition. CABI. ISBN 978-1-84593-489-7
  • Susser, Allen (2001). The Great Mango Book: A Guide with Recipes. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-1-58008-204-4
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This species is a popular tropical fruit tree with more than a hundred cultivars.
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The ‘mango’ is a native of Burma, Sikkim, Khasia and the W. Ghats (India). Widely cultivated in the Punjab and Sind for its edible and tasty grafted varieties.
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