The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


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  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
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  • 2005. eFloras: Flora of China
  • Abraham, E.A.V. 1912. Materia Medica Guian. Britt. Timehri, ser. 3, 2: 179-196.
  • Anacardiaceae of North America Update
  • Asogwa, E.U., /mokwunge, I. U., Yahaya, L.E. & Ajao, A.A. (2007) Evalutation of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) as a Potential Natural Insecticide Against Termites (Soldiers and Worker Castes). Research Journal of Applied Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 9, 939-42.
  • Bailey, L.H., E.Z. Bailey, and the L.H. Bailey Hortatorium. 1976. Hortus Third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York: Macmillan.
  • Devez, G. 1932. Les Plantes Utiles et les Bois Industriels de la Guyane. 90 pp. Paris: Societe d'Editions Geographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales.
  • Duke, J.A. 1989. CRC Handbook of Nuts. 343 pp. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
  • Eichbaum, F.W., Koch-Wesser, D. & Leoo, A.T. (1950) Activity of cashew (anacardium occidentale) nutschell oil in human ancylostomiasis. American Journal of Digestive Diseases. vol 17. No. 11, 370-7.
  • Encyclopedia Brittanica. 1993. “Cashew.” Micropedia 2: 920. 15th ed.
  • Garg, S.C. and H.L. Kasera. 1984. Neuropharmacological studies of the essential oil of Anacardium occidentale. Fitoterapia 4: 131-134.
  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Heckel, E. 1897. Les Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques de la Guyane Francaise. 93 pp. Macon, France: Protat Freres.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • Honorato, Talita Lopez, Rabelo, Maria Cristiane, Gonclaves, Luciana Rocha Barros. (2007) Fermentation of cashew apple juice to produce high added value products. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology. vol 23, No. 10, 1409-15.
  • Konan, Nzi Andre, Bacchi, Elfriede Marrianne, et. al. (2007) Acute, subacute toxicity and genotoxicity effect of hydroethanolic extract of the Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. vol. 110, Issue 1. 30-38.
  • Lachman-White, D.A., Adams, C.D. and U.O. Trotz. 1987. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. 350 pp. London: Commonwealth Science Council.
  • Laurens, Alain, Frourneau, Christophe, Hocquemiller, Reynald, et. al. (1997) Antivectorial Activities of Cashew Nut Shell Extracts from Anacardium occidentale L. Phytotherpy Research. vol. 11, issue. 2, 145-146.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Morton, J. F. 1987. Cashew Apple. Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. pp. 239–240. Available online:
  • Mota, M.L.R., Thomas, G. and J.M. Barbosa Filho. Anti-inflammatory action of tannins isolated from the bark of Anacardium occidentale L. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 13(3): 289-300.
  • Mwalongo, Gerold C.J., Mkayula, Lupituko L., Mukofu, Egid B. & Mwingira, Bonaventura A. (1999) Preventing termite attack. Environmentally friendly chemical combinations of cashew nut shell liquid, sulfated wattle tannin and copper (II) chloride. Green Chemistry. issue 1, 13-16.
  • Nair, MK, Bhaskara Rao, EVV, Nambiar KKN, Nambiar MC. (1979) Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Monograph on Plantation Crops.
  • Nannenga, E.T. 1934. Anacardiaceae, pp. 132-145. In: Pulle, A., ed., Flora of Surinam. Vol. 2, Part 1. Amsterdam: J.H. De Bussy.
  • Oparaeka, A.M. & Bunmi, O.J.(2006) Insecticidal potential of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) for control of the beetle, Callosobruchus sobinnotatus (Pic.)(Bruchidae) on bambarra-groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea L.) Verde. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. vol. 39, issue 4.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Plotkin, M.J. 1986. Ethnobotany and Conservation of the Tropical Forest with Special Reference to the Indians of Southern Suriname. 402 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Tufts University.
  • Roth, W.E. 1922-1923. Richard Schomburgk's Travels in British Guiana 1840-1844. 2 vols. Georgetown, Guyana: Daily Chronicle.
  • Schultes, R.E. and R.F. Raffauf. 1990. The Healing Forest: Medicinal and Toxic Plants of the Northwest Amazonia. 484 pp. Portland, Oregon: Dioscorides Press.
  • Tiwari, S. 1999. Ethnomedicine of the Patamona Indians of Guyana. 560 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bronx, New York: City University of New York (Lehman College).
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2009) Screening-Level Hazard Characterization: Cashew, Nutshell Liquid (CASRN 8007-24-7). Hazard Characterization Document.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.
  • van Wyk, B.-E. Food Plants of the World: An Illustrated Guide. Portland, OR: Timber Press. P. 57.


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