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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: Europe, NW. Africa, Caucasia, N. Iran and Pakistan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Deciduous tree. Leaves 3-8 cm across, 5-lobed; lobes sometimes lobulate, obtuse or rounded, rarely acute; lobules obtuse, sinuses acute; base subcordate. Inflorescence corymbose. Samaras horizontal, often sigmoid along the back.
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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / gall
Aceria eriobia causes gall of leaf of Acer campestre

Foodplant / gall
larva of Acericecis campestre causes gall of live leaf of Acer campestre

Foodplant / gall
Aculops acericola causes gall of live leaf of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 4-

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Allophylaria crystallifera is saprobic on decorticate wood of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 2

Plant / associate
Anisoxya fuscula is associated with Acer campestre

Plant / associate
Anthocoris simulans is associated with Acer campestre
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, hypophyllous pseudothecium of Apioplagiostoma aceriferum is saprobic on rotting leaf of Acer campestre

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, immersed pycnidium of Aposphaeria coelomycetous anamorph of Aposphaeria inophila is saprobic on wood of plank of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 11

Foodplant / parasite
Asteroma coelomycetous anamorph of Asteroma aceris parasitises live Acer campestre
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Aureobasidium dematiaceous anamorph of Aureobasidium apocryptum causes spots on live leaf of Acer campestre
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Auricularia auricula-judae is saprobic on wood of Acer campestre
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Auricularia mesenterica is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Acer campestre

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Bolbitius reticulatus is saprobic on decayed wood of Acer campestre

Fungus / saprobe
subepidermal, raising and eventually rupturing the epidermis pycnidium of Camarosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Camarosporium ambiens is saprobic on dead, fallen branch (small) of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 1-7

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Cerrena unicolor is saprobic on deadfallen, dead trunk of Acer campestre
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mobile cased feeder
larva of Cryptocephalus coryli grazes in mobile case on fallen leaf of Acer campestre
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, long concealed by epidermis pycnidium of Phomopsis anamorph of Cryptodiaporthe lebiseyi is saprobic on branch of Acer campestre

Foodplant / pathogen
subcortical colony of Cryptostroma dematiaceous anamorph of Cryptostroma corticale infects and damages subcortex of standing tree of Acer campestre

Foodplant / saprobe
bracket of Daedalea quercina is saprobic on hard, barely decayed wood of Acer campestre
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
bracket of Daedaleopsis confragosa is saprobic on dead wood of Acer campestre
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Dendrothele acerina is associated with living bark (trunk) of Acer campestre
Other: major host/prey

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Dendrothele amygdalispora grows on live bark of Acer campestre

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Diaporthe varians is saprobic on branch of Acer campestre

Foodplant / saprobe
resupinate fruitbody of Eichleriella deglubens is saprobic on fallen branch of Acer campestre

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Episphaeria fraxinicola grows on living bark of Acer campestre

Foodplant / saprobe
stroma of Eutypella acericola is saprobic on dead branch of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 2-3
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidia plana is saprobic on dead, fallen wood of Acer campestre
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hapalopilus nidulans is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Acer campestre
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mobile cased feeder
full-grown larva of Heterarthrus wuestneii grazes in mobile case on leaf of Acer campestre

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Hyalopeziza ciliata is saprobic on old, fallen, dead leaf of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 10-1

Plant / associate
shortly stipitate apothecium of Hymenoscyphus subpallescens is associated with bark of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 11

Foodplant / saprobe
Geniculosporium anamorph of Hypoxylon howeanum is saprobic on dead branch of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 1-4
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, single or in small group pseudothecium of Massaria inquinans is saprobic on dead branch of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena clavicularis is saprobic on wet, living bark of Acer campestre

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Mycocentrospora anamorph of Mycocentrospora acerina causes spots on live leaf of Acer campestre

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous, usually clustered acervulus of Phloeospora coelomycetous anamorph of Mycosphaerella latebrosa causes spots on living leaf of seedling especially of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 7+

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Ossicaulis lignatilis is saprobic on dead, decayed, fallen wood of Acer campestre
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Oudemansiella mucida is saprobic on dead branch of Acer campestre
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Oxyporus populinus parasitises live wood of Acer campestre

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora lycii is saprobic on dead, fallen stick of Acer campestre
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
clustered, erumpent through cracks in bark, often short-stalked apothecium of Pezicula acericola is saprobic on branch of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 10-3

Foodplant / saprobe
densely swarming apothecium of Phialina lachnobrachya is saprobic on decaying leaf of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 9-11
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked, clustered basidiocarp of Phleogena faginea is saprobic on dead, fallen trunk of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 10-2

Foodplant / spot causer
usually epiphyllous, clustered pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta aceris causes spots on live leaf of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 7-9

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous, scattered pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta campestris causes spots on live leaf of seedling of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 10

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pristiphora subbifida grazes on leaf of Acer campestre

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Psallus assimilis sucks sap of Acer campestre

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Rhodotus palmatus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Acer campestre
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous stroma of Melasmia coelomycetous spermatial anamorph of Rhytisma acerinum causes spots on live leaf of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: (7)8-9
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
superficial, mostly hypophyllous cleistothecium of Sawadaea bicornis parasitises living leaf of Acer campestre
Remarks: season: 10

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Terana caerulea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Acer campestre
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / hemiparasite
haustorium of Viscum album is hemiparasitic on branch of Acer campestre

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Vuilleminia coryli is saprobic on dead, decorticate, attached branch of Acer campestre
Other: unusual host/prey

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Acer campestre

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Acer campestre

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 13
Specimens with Barcodes: 56
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Acer campestre

Acer campestre, common name field maple,[2] is a maple native to much of Europe, north to southern Scotland (where it is the only native maple), Denmark, Poland and Belarus, and also southwest Asia from Turkey to the Caucasus, and north Africa in the Atlas Mountains.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] In North America it is known as hedge maple[10][11] and in Australia, it is sometimes called common maple.[12]

Description[edit]

It is a deciduous tree reaching 15–25 metres (49–82 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) in diameter, with finely fissured, often somewhat corky bark. The shoots are brown, with dark brown winter buds. The leaves are in opposite pairs, 5–16 centimetres (2.0–6.3 in) long (including the 3–9 centimetres (1.2–3.5 in) petiole) and 5–10 centimetres (2.0–3.9 in) broad, with five blunt, rounded lobes with a smooth margin. Usually monoecious, the flowers are produced in spring at the same time as the leaves open, yellow-green, in erect clusters 4–6 centimetres (1.6–2.4 in) across, and are insect-pollinated. The fruit is a samara with two winged achenes aligned at 180°, each achene is 8–10 millimetres (0.31–0.39 in) wide, flat, with a 2 centimetres (0.79 in) wing.[6][7]

The two varieties, not accepted as distinct by all authorities, are:[4][6]

  • A. campestre var. campestre - downy fruit
  • A. campestre var. leiocarpum (Opiz) Wallr. (syn. A. campestre subsp. leiocarpum) - hairless fruit

The closely related Acer miyabei replaces it in eastern Asia.[6]

Ecology[edit]

Field maple is an intermediate species in the ecological succession of disturbed areas; it typically is not among the first trees to colonise a freshly disturbed area, but instead seeds in under the existing vegetation. It is very shade-tolerant during the initial stages of its life, but it has higher light requirements during its seed-bearing years. It exhibits rapid growth initially, but is eventually overtaken and replaced by other trees as the forest matures. It is most commonly found on neutral to alkaline soils, but more rarely on acidic soil.[9]

Diseases include a leaf spot fungus Didymosporina aceris, a mildew Uncinula bicornis, a canker Nectria galligena, and verticillium wilt Verticillium alboatrum. The leaves are also sometimes damaged by gall mites in the genus Aceria, and the aphid Periphyllus villosus.[13]

Cultivation[edit]

The field maple is widely grown as an ornamental tree in parks and large gardens. The wood is white, hard and strong, and used for furniture, flooring, wood turning and musical instruments,[14] though the small size of the tree and its relatively slow growth make it an unimportant wood.[6]

It is locally naturalised in parts of the United States[10] and more rarely in New Zealand.[15] The hybrid maple Acer × zoeschense has A. campestre as one of its parents.[7]

The tree has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[16]

Cultivars[edit]

Over 30 cultivars of Acer campestre are known, selected for their foliage or habit, or occasionally both; several have been lost to cultivation.[17]

Bonsai[edit]

A. campestre (and the similar A. monspessulanum) are popular among bonsai enthusiasts. The dwarf cultivar 'Microphyllum' is especially useful in this regard. A. campestre bonsai have an appearance distinct from those selected from some other maples such as A. palmatum with more frilly, translucent, leaves. The shrubby habit and smallish leaves of A. campestre respond well to techniques encouraging ramification and leaf reduction.[18][19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website Version 9, June 2008 [and more or less continuously updated since].
  2. ^ L., Leinemann; Bendixen, Kathrin (1999). "Inheritance of isozyme variants in field maple (Acer campestre L.).". Forest Genetics 6: 73–77. 
  3. ^ "Acer campestre". Flora Europaea. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  4. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Acer campestre
  5. ^ Flora of NW Europe: Acer campestre
  6. ^ a b c d e Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  7. ^ a b c Mitchell, A. F. (1974). A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-212035-6
  8. ^ Den virtuella floran: Acer campestre distribution map
  9. ^ a b Nagy, L. & Ducci, F. (2004). EUFORGEN Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use. Field maple Acer campestre. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. Rome, Italy. Available online (pdf file).
  10. ^ a b "Acer campestre". USDA Plants Profile. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  11. ^ "Acer campestre". Ohio State University. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  12. ^ Department of Agriculture, Western Australia: Pests and Diseases Image Library
  13. ^ Field maple images and diseases
  14. ^ "Field maple_Woodland Trust". 
  15. ^ Trans. and Proc. Roy. Soc. New Zealand 36: 203-225 Plants naturalised in the County of Ashburton
  16. ^ RHS Plant Selector Acer campestre AGM / RHS Gardening
  17. ^ van Gelderen, C.J. & van Gelderen, D.M. (1999). Maples for Gardens: A Color Encyclopedia. 
  18. ^ "A. campestre". Bonsai Club International. Retrieved November 26, 2006. 
  19. ^ D'Cruz, Mark. "Ma-Ke Bonsai Care Guide for Acer campestre". Ma-Ke Bonsai. Retrieved April 15, 2011. 
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Notes

Comments

This species has been found only under cultivation in Pakistan. The horizontal samaras help in the identification of this species.
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