Articles on this page are available in 2 other languages: Arabic (6), Spanish (1) (learn more)

Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Cultivated"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

"Maharashtra: Kolhapur Karnataka: Coorg, N. Kanara, Shimoga Kerala: Kollam, Kozhikode, Malapuram, Palakkad, Thrissur Tamil Nadu: All districts"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Found in dry evergreen belt of hills. Rare. Peninsular India.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Himalaya (Garhwal to Sikkim), India, Burma, Indo-China, cultivated.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

Solitary or in axillary fasicles; white. Flowering from March-April.

Fruit

An oblong or globose berry, fleshy; seeds many. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Petiole often winged. Branchlets armed with spines. Leaves gland dotted.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate-spiral

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Elliptic-oblong

Leaf Apex

Obtuse

Leaf Base

Acute

Leaf Margin

Crenulate

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Shrubs or small trees. Branches, leaf buds, and flower buds purplish when young. Branches with ca. 4 cm spines. Leaves simple or rarely 1-foliolate; petiole short, not winged; leaf blade elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 6-12 × 3-6 cm or larger, margin serrate, apex rounded, obtuse, or rarely mucronate. Inflorescences axillary, ca. 12-flowered or sometimes flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual or sometimes male by ± complete abortion of pistil. Petals 5, 1.5-2 cm. Stamens 30-50. Ovary cylindric; style long and thick; stigma clavate. Fruit pale yellow, elliptic to subglobose, to 2 kg, surface coarse; pericarp white to pale yellow and soft within, thicker than sarcocarp, removed with difficulty; sarcocarp with 10-15 segments, colorless, nearly pellucid to pale milky yellow, acidic to slightly sweet, fragrant. Seeds small; seed coat smooth; embryo(s) solitary to several; cotyledons milky white. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Oct-Nov. 2n = 18, 20.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Elevation Range

700-1200 m
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: A small evergreen tree, upto 8m."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonym

Aurantium medicum (Linnaeus) M. Gómez; Citreum vulgare Tournefort ex Miller; Citrus alata (Yu. Tanaka) Tanaka; C. aurantium Linnaeus subvar. amilbed Engler; C. aurantium subvar. chakotra Engler; C. cedra Link; C. cedrata Rafinesque; C. fragrans Salisbury; ?C. kwangsiensis Hu; C. limon (Linnaeus) Osbeck var. digitata Risso; C. medica var. alata Yu. Tanaka; C. medica var. digitata Risso; C. medica var. ethrog Engler; C. medica f. monstrosa Guillaumin; C. medica var. proper J. D. Hooker; C. medica var. sarcodactylis (Hoola van Nooten) Swingle; C. odorata Roussel; C. sarcodactylis Hoola van Nooten; C. tuberosa Miller; Sarcodactilis helicteroides C. F. Gaertner.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated and sometimes naturalized. Guangxi, SW Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan, E Xizang, Yunnan [native to NE India and possibly Myanmar].
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Citrus medica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Citrus medica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Folklore

The fruits are pickled.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

Leaves are externally used to relieve pain and inflamation. It is also used to treat skin disorders and itching.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Citron

For other uses, see Citron (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Citroën.

The citron is a fragrant citrus fruit, botanically classified as Citrus medica by both the Swingle and Tanaka botanical name systems. The designation medica given it by Linnaeus, apparently is derived from its ancient name, "Median or Persian apple",[1] that was reported by Theophrastus,[2] who believed it to be native to Persia or the land of the Medes.

The fruit's name derives ultimately from Latin, citrus, also the origin of the genus name, and as a result it has many similar names in many European languages, e.g. cederat, cédrat, cedro, etc. A source of confusion is that citron or similar words in French, Hungarian, Finnish, Latvian, the West Slavic languages, and all Germanic languages but English are false friends, as they refer to the lemon. Indeed, into the 16th century, the English name citron included the lemon and perhaps the lime as well.[3] Most other European languages, from Albanian and English to Spanish, use variants of the Arabic word laymun itself derived from middle Persian "leemun": "limon".

Uses[edit]

Main articles: Succade and Etrog
citron torte

Culinary[edit]

While the lemon or orange are peeled to consume their pulpy and juicy segments, the citron's pulp is dry, containing a small quantity of insipid juice, if any. The main content of a citron fruit is the thick white rind, which adheres to the segments, and cannot be separated from them easily.

Today the citron is used for the fragrance or zest of its flavedo, but the most important part is still the inner rind (known as pith or albedo), which is a fairly important article in international trade and is widely employed in the food industry as succade,[4] as it is known when it is candied in sugar. In Iran, the citron's thick white rind is used to make jam; in Pakistan the fruit is used to make jam as well as pickled; in South Indian cuisine, the citron is widely used in pickles and preserves.

Medicinal[edit]

Thus, from ancient through medieval times, the citron was used mainly for medical purposes: to combat seasickness, pulmonary troubles, intestinal ailments, and other disorders. The essential oil of the flavedo (the outermost, pigmented layer of rind) was also regarded as an antibiotic.[5] Citron juice with wine was considered an effective antidote to poison, as Theophrastus reported. In Ayurvedic system of medicine, the fruit juice is still used for treating conditions like nausea, vomiting, excessive thirst etc.

The fruit juice has a high content of Vitamin C and used medicinally as an anthelminthic, appetizer, tonic, in cough, rheumatism, vomiting, flatulence, haemorrhoids, skin diseases and weak eye sight.[6]

There is a rising market for the citron in the United States for the use of its soluble fiber found in its thick albedo.[7]

Religious[edit]

The citron is also used by Jews (the word for it in Hebrew is etrog) for a religious ritual during the Feast of Tabernacles; therefore is considered as a Jewish symbol, and is found on various Hebrew antiques and archeological findings.[8] Citrons used for ritual purposes cannot be grown by grafting branches.

Description and variation[edit]


Citron varieties


3 etrog.JPG


Acidic-pulp varieties:

Non-acidic varieties:

Pulpless varieties:

Related Articles:
CitrusSuccadeEtrogHybridGraftingChimeraSukkothFour Species

Fruit[edit]

The citron fruit is usually ovate or oblong, narrowing towards the stylar end. However, the citron's fruit shape is highly variable, due to the large quantity of albedo, which forms independently according to the fruits' position on the tree, twig orientation, and many other factors. The rind is leathery, furrowed, and adherent. The inner portion is thick, white and fleshy; the outer is uniformly thin and very fragrant. The pulp is usually acidic, but also can be sweet, and even pulpless varieties are found.

Most citron varieties contain a large number of monoembryonic seeds. They are white, with dark innercoats and red-purplish chalazal spots for the acidic varieties, and colorless for the sweet ones. Some citron varieties are also distinct, having persistent styles, that do not fall off after fecundation. Those are usually promoted for etrog use.

Some citrons have medium-sized oil bubbles at the outer surface, medially distant to each other. Some varieties are ribbed and faintly warted on the outer surface. There is also a fingered citron variety called Buddha's hand.

The color varies from green, when unripe, to a yellow-orange when overripe. The citron does not fall off the tree and can reach 8–10 pounds (4–5 kg) if not picked before fully mature.[9] However, they should be picked before the winter, as the branches might bend or break to the ground, and may cause numerous fungal diseases for the tree.

Plant[edit]

Citrus medica is a slow-growing shrub or small tree that reaches a height of about 8 to 15 ft (2 to 5 m). It has irregular straggling branches and stiff twigs and long spines at the leaf axils. The evergreen leaves are green and lemon-scented with slightly serrate edges, ovate-lanceolate or ovate elliptic 2.5 to 7.0 inches long. Petioles are usually wingless or with minor wings. The flowers are generally unisexual providing self-pollination, but some male individuals could be found due to pistil abortion. The clustered flowers of the acidic varieties are purplish tinted from outside, but the sweet ones are white-yellowish.

The acidic varieties include the Florentine and Diamante citron from Italy, the Greek citron and the Balady citron from Israel. The sweet varieties include the Corsican and Moroccan citrons. Between the pulpless are also some fingered varieties and the Yemenite citron.

The citron tree is very vigorous with almost no dormancy, blooming several times a year, and is therefore fragile and extremely sensitive to frost.[10]

Origin and distribution[edit]

Despite the variation among the cultivars, authorities agree the citron is an old and original species. There is molecular evidence that all other cultivated citrus species arose by hybridization among four ancestral types, which are the citron, pomelo, mandarin and papeda.

The citron is believed to be the purest of them all, since it is usually fertilized by self-pollination, and is therefore generally considered to be a male parent of any citrus hybrid rather than a female one.[11]

Today, authorities agree that all citrus species are native to Southeast Asia where they are found wild and in an uncultivated form. The story of how they spread to the Mediterranean has been reported by Francesco Calabrese,[12] Henri Chapot,[13] Samuel Tolkowsky,[14] Elizabetta Nicolisi,[15] and others.[16]

The citron could also be native to India where it borders on Burma, in valleys at the foot of the Himalayas, and in the Indian Western Ghats.[17][18] It is thought that by the time of Theophrastus, the citron was mostly cultivated in the Persian Gulf on its way to the Mediterranean basin, where it was cultivated during the later centuries in different areas as described by Erich Isaac.[19] Many mention the role of Alexander the Great and his armies as they attacked Persia and what is today Pakistan, as being responsible for the spread of the citron westward, reaching the European countries such as Macedonia and Italy.[20]

The citron is mentioned in the Torah as being required for ritual use during the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:40). According to this tradition, the Jews brought it back to Israel from their exile in Egypt, where the Egyptologist and archaeologist Victor Loret claimed to have identified it depicted on the walls of the botanical garden at the Karnak Temple, which dates back to the time of Thutmosis III, approximately 3,000 years ago.[21]

Antiquity[edit]

The citron has been cultivated since ancient times, predating the cultivation of other citrus species.[22]

Theophrastus[edit]

The following is from the writings of Theophrastus[23]

Pliny the Elder[edit]

About 400 years later it was also described by Pliny the Elder, who called it nata Assyria malus. The following is from his book Natural History.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cedrát - Citrus medica a Citrus limonimedica
  2. ^ Theophrastus, Enquiry into Plants, IV.4.2.
  3. ^ Citron at the Oxford English dictionary [1]
  4. ^ The Purdue University
  5. ^ Natural healing Website
  6. ^ National R&D Facility for Rasayana
  7. ^ Scholarly Document
  8. ^ See Etrog
  9. ^ Un curieux Cedrat marocain, Chapot 1950.
  10. ^ The citrus Industry, The Purdue University
  11. ^ Citrus phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers. 2000
  12. ^ Calabrese, La favolosa storia degli agrumi. L'EPOS, 1998, Palerno Italy. English translation in Citrus: the genus citrus
  13. ^ Capot, "The citrus plant", p.6-13. in: Citrus. Ciba-Geigy Agrochemicals Tech. Monogr.4. Ciba-Geigy Ltd., 1975, Basle, Switzerland.
  14. ^ Tolkowsky, Hesperides. A history of the culture and use of citrus fruits, p.371. John Bale, Sons and Curnow, 1938, London, England.
  15. ^ Nicolisi, Citrus Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology
  16. ^ The Citrus Industry ^The Purdue University ^Food in China: a cultural and historical inquiry By Frederick J. Simoons, Google Books ^The Search for the Authentic Citron: Historic and Genetic Analysis; HortScienc 40(7):1963–1968. 2005
  17. ^ Sir Joseph Hooker. Flora of British India, i. 514)
  18. ^ COUNTRY REPORT TO THE FAO INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE ON PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES (Leipzig, 1996); Prepared by: Nepal Agricultural Research Council; Kathmandu, June 1995; CHAPTER 2.2
  19. ^ Isaac, "The Citron in the Mediterranean: a study in religious influences", Economic Geography, Vol. 35 No. 1. (Jan. 1959) pp. 71–78
  20. ^ The Pordue University
  21. ^ Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society
  22. ^ THE INTRODUCTION OF CULTIVATED CITRUS TO EUROPE VIA NORTHERN AFRICA AND THE IBERIAN PENINSULA
  23. ^ Historia plantarum 4.4.2-3 (exc. Athenaeus Deipnosophistae 3.83.d-f); cf. Vergil Georgics 2.126-135; Pliny Naturalis historia 12.15,16.
  24. ^ Historia plantarum 1.13.4.
  25. ^ Natural History Chp. 31
  26. ^ Book XII CHAP. 7. (3.
  27. ^ Chp. 56

See also[edit]

Gallery of informative photos

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Bizzaria

The Bizzaria of Florence, which is probably the first plant chimera obtained, is a graft between the florentine citron and sour orange. It produces branches of regular Florentine Citron including such leaves, and from the other side branches of sour orange. The most interesting part of it is the middle shoot, which mixes characteristics of both. The fruit contains characteristics of both citron and orange.

This is not like a regular hybrid which is due to plant sexuality; its offspring is intermediate showing influences of both parents. But the Florentine Bizzaria, named after its origin, shows an unusual fruit which has both characteristics distinctly expressed in close proximity.

The Bizzaria was discovered in 1640 by Pietro Nati at the Villa named Torre degli Agli, which belonged to the wealthy Panciatichi banking family. The Bizzaria was thought to be lost when it was rediscovered in year 1970s by Paolo Galleotti, the head gardener of the Villa di Castello and of The Boboli Gardens in Florence.

Citrus aurantium bizzarria. Drawing; A.Poiteau 1811, watercolor; D.Del Pino 1821

The plant's name has a number of different spellings, e.g. Bizaria,[1] Bizzarria,[2] Bizarria,[3] and even Bizarre.[4]

References[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

This species is a parent with Citrus aurantium of C. limon and with ?C. hystrix of C. aurantiifolia.

The Buddha-hand Citron (佛手 fo shou), with separated segments ± surrounded by pericarp, is best treated as a cultivar, correctly Citrus medica ‘Fingered.’

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!