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Overview

Brief Summary

Citrus aurantium, the sour orange (also known as bitter or Seville orange) is a thorny tree up to 10 m tall in the Rutaceae (citrus family) that originated in southeastern China and Myanmar, and is now commercially cultivated primarily in Spain, southern France, China, and Japan for its use in marmalade and candied peels and as an ornamental. The closely related bergamot, which is variously classified as a subspecies (C. aurantium subsp. bergamia) or a separate species (C. bergamia), is thornless and not as tall (to 5 m). Citrus species hybridize readily, and classifications of them vary considerably; in some classifications, this species is considered C. X aurantium, a hybrid between C. maxima and C. reticulata. The original species is now considered critically endangered in its native range, where it is found only in isolated populations in the regions of Hsinchu and Taitung, in China.

The sour orange tree has alternate, evergreen, minutely toothed oval to oblong leaves up to 13.75 cm (5 in) long, with broadly winged petioles (leaf stems). Leaves are aromatic and covered with small oil glands. Flowers, which are about 3.75 cm wide (1.5 in) are fragrant, with 5 slender white petals and 24 yellow stamens, and may occur singly or in small clusters. The fruit is round to somewhat flattened, up to 8 cm (3.12 in) wide, and ripens to orange or reddish orange. The fruit rind or peel is thick and aromatic, with a rough surface dimpled with tiny oil glands. The flesh or pulp is separated into 10 to 12 segments, with few to many hard seeds, and is often hollow in the middle. In addition to being cultivated for its fruit, sour orange is also used as a hardy rootstock for many other citrus varieties.

Sour oranges are sour from high acidity, as well as bitter, are not considered edible fresh; they are primarily processed into marmalade. The juice may be used as a flavoring or similar to vinegar in some regional cuisines. “Bitter orange oil,” extracted from the peels, is used to flavor candy, chewing gum, baked goods, soft drinks, and liqueurs, including Curaçao, Cointreau, and Grand Marnier, as well as in the bitter orange French “sauce bigarande” to accompany roast duck. The popular Italian beverage, chinotto, comes from the sour orange variety, Citrus uranium var. myrtifolia.

Bergamot, which is likely of hybrid origin, is prized primarily for its highly aromatic oil, which was an ingredient in eau de cologne, the perfume originally developed in Cologne, Germany during the 17th century. It is also used to flavor Earl Grey tea. Bergamot is produced mostly in the Calabrian region of Italy.

(Bailey et al. 1976, Morton 1987, van Wyk 2005, Wikipedia 2012.)

  • Bailey, L.H., E.Z. Bailey, and the L.H. Bailey Hortatorium. 1976. Hortus Third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York: Macmillan. Pp. 275–276.
  • Morton, J. 1987. Sour Orange. p. 130–133. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. Available online: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/sour_orange.html.
  • Wikipedia. 2012. Citrus myrtifolia. Accessed March11, 2012, 18:09 GMT from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citrus_myrtifolia.
  • van Wyk, B.-E. 2005. “Citrus aurantium.Food Plants of the World: An Illustrated Guide. Portland, OR: Timber Press. p. 138.
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Distribution

Range Description

Confined to a few isolated populations in the region of Hsinchu and Taitung.
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Himalaya (Garhwal to Sikkim), Khasia, Assam, China, Indo-China, Burma. Cultivated.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Tree, 7-8 m tall, spines axillary and sharp. Leaves 50-115 x 30-55 mm, elliptic; petiole winged, wings obovate. Flowers bisexual, 1-few, in axillary cymes. Petals fleshy and glandular. Stamens 20-24. Fruit globose, 7 x 7.5 cm, flattened at the base and apex; rind when ripe, glandular and rough. Axis hollow. Pulp bitter-acidic.
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Elevation Range

1000 m
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Description

Small trees. Branches with spines up to ca. 8 cm. Petiole obovate, 1-3 × 0.6-1.5 cm, base narrow; leaf blades dark green, thick. Inflorescences racemes, with few flowers or flowers solitary. Flowers perfect or male by ± complete abortion of pistil; buds ellipsoid to subglobose. Calyx lobes 4 or 5. Petals 2-3.5 mm in diam. Stamens 20-25, usually basally connate into bundles. Fruit orange to reddish, globose to oblate, surface coarse; pericarp thick, sometimes difficult to remove; sarcocarp with 10-13 segments, acidic and sweet or sometimes bitter. Seeds numerous, large, with ridges; embryo(s) solitary to numerous; cotyledons milky white. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Sep-Dec. 2n = 18.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Aurantium ×acre Miller; A. ×corniculatum Miller; A. ×distortum Miller; A. ×humile Miller; A. ×myrtifolium Descourtilz; A. ×sinense Miller; A. ×vulgare (Risso) M. Gómez; Citrus ×amara Link; C. ×aurantium subsp. amara Engler; C. ×aurantium var. bigaradia (Loiseleur) Brandis; C. ×aurantium var. crassa Risso; C. aurantium var. daidai Makino; C. ×aurantium var. dulcis Hayne; C. aurantium var. fetifera Risso; C. ×aurantium var. lusitanica Risso; C. ×aurantium var. myrtifolia Ker Gawler; C. ×aurantium subf. nobilis (Loureiro) Hiroe; C. ×aurantium var. sanguinea Engler; C. aurantium subf. sinensis (Linnaeus) Hiroe; C. aurantium subsp. sinensis (Linnaeus) Engler; C. aurantium var. sinensis Linnaeus; C. ×aurantium subsp. suntara Engler; C. ×aurantium var. vulgaris (Risso) Risso & Poiteau; C. ×aurata Risso; C. ×bigaradia Loiseleur; C. ×changshan-huyou Y. B. Chang; C. ×communis Poiteau & Turpin; C. decumana (Linnaeus) Linnaeus var. paradisi (Macfadyen) H. H. A. Nicholls; C. ×dulcis Persoon; C. ×florida Salisbury; C. ×humilis (Miller) Poiret; C. maxima (Burman) Merrill var. uvacarpa Merrill; C. myrtifolia (Ker Gawler) Rafinesque; C. paradisi Macfadyen; C. sinensis (Linnaeus) Osbeck; C. sinensis var. brassiliensis Tanaka; C. ×sinensis subsp. crassa (Risso) Rivera et al.; C. sinensis subsp. fetifera (Risso) Rivera et al.; C. ×sinensis subsp. lusitanica (Risso) Rivera et al.; C. ×sinensis var. sanguinea (En gler) Engler; C. ×sinensis var. sekkan Hayata; C. ×sinensis subsp. suntara (Engler) Engler; C. taiwanica Tanaka & Shimada; C. tangelo Ingram & H. E. Moore; C. vulgaris Risso.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Lowland forest.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated and sometimes naturalized in most of China S of the Qin Ling.
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Associations

Insects whose larvae eat this plant species

Papilio demodocus demodocus (Citrus swallowtail) Papilio ophidicephalus chirinda (Emperor swallowtail) Papilio dardanus cenea (Mocker swallowtail)
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: March-April. Fr. Per.: Oct.-Nov.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Citrus aurantium

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Citrus aurantium

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Citrus aurantium L.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1+2ab, C2a

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1998
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
Pan, F.J.

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s

History
  • 1997
    Rare
    (Walter and Gillett 1998)
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Population

Population
Once widely scattered, the species has become scarce.
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Threats

Major Threats
The future prospects of its survival are poor as regeneration is severely hampered by the use of the tree as a rootstock in citrus plantations and by the extensive loss of habitat.
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Wikipedia

Daidai

In fruit

The daidai (Japanese: , ; Chinese: ; Korean: 광귤, gwanggyul), is an Asian variety of bitter orange. The name daidai, originally meaning several generations, originates from the fruit staying on the tree for several years if not picked. The colour of the fruit returns to green in the spring.

The daidai originated in the Himalayas. It spread to the Yangtze valley region and later to Japan.

The native Japanese word for the color orange, daidai-iro, is derived from the name of this fruit. It is used as a decoration in Japanese New Year celebrations. A daidai is placed on top of a stack of round mochi cakes, called kagami mochi. This use is believed to date from the Edo period. [1]

The fruit is very bitter, and not usually eaten, but its dried peel is used in Kampo (the Japanese adaptation of Chinese medicine), in which it is called kijitsu (). It is used as an expectorant and a digestive tonic.

References

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Bergamot orange

Citrus bergamia, the Bergamot orange (pronounced standard English: /ˈbɜːɡəˌmɒt/ or GenAm /ˈbɝɡəˌmɑt/), is a fragrant fruit the size of an orange, with a yellow color similar to a lemon. Genetic research into the ancestral origins of extant citrus cultivars found bergamot orange to be a likely hybrid of Citrus limetta and Citrus aurantium.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The word bergamot is etymologically derived from bergomotta in Italian, originating from Bergamo, a town in Italy;[citation needed][original research?] earlier (1610) references exist indicating derivation from Turkish beg-armudi "prince's pear" or "prince of pears."[3]

Description[edit]

Citrus bergamot is commercially grown in southern Calabria (province of Reggio), southern Italy, where more than 80% are produced. It is also grown in southern France[4] and in Côte d'Ivoire for the essential oil and in Antalya in southern Turkey for its marmalade.[5] The fruit is not grown for juice consumption.[6] However, in Mauritius where it is grown on small scale basis, it is largely used for juice consumption by the locals.

Citrus bergamia is a small tree that blossoms during the winter. The juice tastes less sour than lemon, but more bitter than grapefruit. The distinctive aroma of bergamot is most commonly known for its use in Earl Grey tea.[7] The juice of the fruit has also been used in Calabrian indigenous medicine to treat malaria,[8] and its essential oil is popular in aromatherapy applications.

In terms of food and drink, Bergamot orange is used to make dessert items such as Turkish Delight in the Americas and the Middle East especially, adding flavour.[9]

Taxonomy[edit]

The bergamot orange is unrelated to the herbs known as bergamot or wild bergamot, Monarda didyma and Monarda fistulosa, which are in the mint family, and are named for their similar aroma. The active ingredients in bergamot juice are neoeriocitrin, naringin, neohesperidin, ponceritin, melitidin, and brutieridin. Melitidin and brutieridin, only recently discovered, exist only in citrus bergamot, and exhibit statin-like properties.[10] Synephrine is not present in citrus bergamot.

Citrus bergamia has also been classified as Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia (i.e. a subspecies of bitter orange).[11]

Citrus bergamia is sometimes confused with (but is not the same as)

Production[edit]

A bergamot orange from Calabria, Italy

Production mostly is limited to the Ionian Sea coastal areas of the province of Reggio di Calabria in Italy, to such an extent that it is a symbol of the entire city. Most of the bergamot comes from a short stretch of land there where the temperature is favourable. It is also cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire, but the quality of the obtained essence is not comparable with the essence produced from the bergamots of Reggio due to the argillite, limestone and alluvial deposits found there.[citation needed]

Bergamot orange tree in Maricopa County, Arizona

Adulteration with cheaper products such as oil of rosewood and bergamot mint has been a problem for consumers. To protect the reputation of their produce, the Italian government introduced tight controls, including testing and certificates of purity. The Stazione Sperimentale per le Industrie delle Essenze e dei Derivati dagli Agrumi (Experimental Station for Essential Oil and Citrus By-Products) located in Reggio di Calabria, was the Quality Control Body for the essential oil Bergamotto di Reggio Calabria DOP.[12] During World War II, Italy was unable to export to countries such as the Allied powers. Rival products from Brazil and Mexico came on to the market as a substitute, but these were produced from other citrus fruits such as sweet lime.[13]

Uses[edit]

Food & drink[edit]

A jar labelled "Diced bergamot" containing dark brown dried fruits
Bergamot marmalade

An essence extracted from the aromatic skin of this sour fruit is used to flavour Earl Grey and Lady Grey teas, and confectionery including Turkish delight. It is often used to make marmalade, particularly in Italy. In Sweden and Norway, bergamot is a very common flavourant in snus, a smokeless tobacco product.[14] Likewise in dry nasal snuff it is also a common aroma in traditional blends.[citation needed] Carpentierbe, a company based in San Giorgio Morgeto, near Reggio Calabria, makes a digestive liqueur derived from bergamot marketed under the name Liquore al Bergamotto.

The actual fruit of the bergamot orange itself is not known to be edible.[6]

Fragrance[edit]

Bergamot peel is used in perfumery for its ability to combine with an array of scents to form a bouquet of aromas which complement each other. Approximately one third of all men's and about half of women’s perfumes contain bergamot essential oil.[citation needed] Bergamot is a major component of the original Eau de Cologne composed by Farina at the beginning of 18th century Germany. The first record of bergamot oil as fragrance ingredient is 1714, to be found in the Farina Archive in Cologne. One hundred bergamot oranges will yield about three ounces (85 grams) of bergamot oil.[15]

Companion plant[edit]

Citrus bergamia has aromatic roots that are thought to mask other nearby plants from pests that attack their roots, and so are sometimes grown as a companion in vegetable gardens.

Toxicology[edit]

In several patch test studies, application of some sources of bergamot oil directly to the skin was shown to have a concentration-dependent phototoxic effect of increasing redness after exposure to ultraviolet light (due to the chemical bergapten, and possibly also citropten, bergamottin, geranial, and neral).[16][17] This is a property shared by many other citrus fruits. Bergapten has also been implicated as a potassium channel blocker; in one case study, a patient who consumed four liters of Earl Grey tea per day suffered muscle cramps.[18]

Bergamot contains extremely large amounts of polyphenols, as compared to other citrus species. Two of these, brutieridin and melitidin, directly inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis in a similar way to statins and they are not found in any other citrus derivatives.[19]

Bergamot is also a source of bergamottin which, along with the chemically related compound 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, is believed to be responsible for the grapefruit juice effect in which the consumption of the juice affects the metabolism of a variety of pharmaceutical drugs.[20]

Skin care[edit]

Bergamot Orange

Bergamot is used in many skin care creams.[citation needed]

In the past, psoralen extracted from bergamot oil has been used in tanning accelerators and sunscreens. These substances were known to be photocarcinogenic since 1959,[21] but they were only banned from sunscreens in 1995.[22] These photocarcinogenic substances were banned years after they had caused many cases of malignant melanoma and deaths.[23]

Psoralen is now used only in the treatment of certain skin disorders, as part of PUVA therapy.[medical citation needed]

Medicinal properties[edit]

There is insufficient evidence bergamot oil is of medical benefit for a variety of claimed uses.[24] Use on the skin can be unsafe, particularly for children and pregnant women.[24] Potential side effects of drinking large amounts of bergamot oil can include convulsions and death in children.[24]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Citrus bergamia – Risso
  2. ^ RFLP Analysis of the Origin of Citrus Bergamia, Citrus Jambhiri, and Citrus Limonia
  3. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=bergamot&searchmode=none
  4. ^ Bergamot Orange – Citrus aurantium ssp bergamia
  5. ^ Aktas, Ali (26 October 2004). "Reçellerin gözdesi, Bergamut(The most prominent marmalade: Bergamot)". ZAMAN. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  6. ^ a b The Oxford Companion to Food (2006): "The bergamot orange is not edible and is grown only for its fragrant oil, although its peel is sometimes candied."
  7. ^ "Citrus bergamia Risso & Poit.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. 
  8. ^ Krippner, Stanley; Ashwin Budden; Michael Bova; Roberto Galante (September 2004). "The Indigenous Healing Tradition in Calabria, Italy". Proceedings of the Annual Conference for the Study of Shamanism and Alternative Modes of Healing (San Francisco: Chair for Consciousness Studies at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center). Retrieved 10 February 2009. 
  9. ^ http://articles.latimes.com/2011/jan/06/food/la-fo-artisan-turkish-delight-20110106
  10. ^ Di Donna, Leonardo; De Luca, Giuseppina; Mazzotti, Fabio; Napoli, Anna; Salerno, Raffaele; Taverna, Domenico; Sindona, Giovanni (2009). "Statin-like Principles of Bergamot Fruit: Isolation of 3-Hydroxymethylglutaryl Flavonoid Glycosides". Journal of Natural Products 72 (7): 1352–1354. doi:10.1021/np900096w. PMID 19572741. 
  11. ^ "USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network entry for Citrus bergamia". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-09-07. 
  12. ^ "Decreto 15 novembre 2005 – Designazione della Stazione sperimentale per le industrie delle essenze e dei derivati degli agrumi quale autorità pubblica, incaricata di effettuare i controlli sulla denominazione di origine protetta "Bergamotto di Reggio Calabria", registrata in ambito Unione europea, ai sensi del regolamento (CEE) n. 2081/92". ISMEA. 
  13. ^ Niir Board. "Oil of Bergamot". The complete technology book of essential oils. p. 75. ISBN 978-81-7833-066-2{{inconsistent citations}} 
  14. ^ http://www.general.se
  15. ^ Brannt, William Theodore; Schaedler, Karl. A Practical Treatise on Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils
  16. ^ Girard J, Unkovic J, Delahayes J, Lafille C (1979). "Phototoxicity of Bergamot oil. Comparison between humans and guinea pigs". Dermatologica (in French) 158 (4): 229–43. doi:10.1159/000250763. PMID 428611. 
  17. ^ Kejlova K, Jirova D, Bendova H, Kandarova H, Weidenhoffer Z, Kolarova H, Liebsch M (2007). "Phototoxicity of bergamot oil assessed by in vitro techniques in combination with human patch tests". Toxicology in Vitro 21 (7): 1298–1303. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2007.05.016. PMID 17669618. 
  18. ^ Finsterer, J (2002). "Earl Grey tea intoxication". Lancet 359 (9316): 1484. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08436-2. PMID 11988248. 
  19. ^ http://wakeup-world.com/2012/03/13/the-fruit-extract-that-fights-cancer-aging/
  20. ^ Bailey, David G.; Malcolm, J.; Arnold, O.; Spence, J. David (1998). "Grapefruit juice–drug interactions". Br J Clin Pharmacol 46 (2): 101–110. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.1998.00764.x. PMC 1873672. PMID 9723817. 
  21. ^ Urbach, F (1959). "Modification of ultraviolet carcinogenesis by photoactive agents". J Invest Dermatol 32 (2, Part 2): 373–378. doi:10.1038/jid.1959.63. PMID 13641813. 
  22. ^ Autier P; Dore J F; Schifflers E; et al. (1995). "Melanoma and use of sunscreens: An EORTC case control study in Germany, Belgium and France". Int. J. Cancer 61 (6): 749–755. doi:10.1002/ijc.2910610602. PMID 7790106. 
  23. ^ Autier, P.; Dore, J.-F.; Cesarini, J.-P.; Boyle, P. (1997). "Should subjects who used psoralen suntan activators be screened for melanoma?". Annals of oncology 8 (5): 435–437. doi:10.1023/A:1008205513771. ISSN 0923-7534. PMID 9233521. [dead link]
  24. ^ a b c "BERGAMOT OIL: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings". WebMD. Retrieved April 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Dugo, Giovanni; Bonaccorsi, Ivana (2013). Citrus bergamia: Bergamot and its Derivatives. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles (Book 51). CRC Press. ISBN 978-1439862278. 
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Notes

Comments

Oranges and grapefruit are Citrus maxima × C. reticulata and the backcrosses with the parental species. Many of these hybrids arose in China, although others were synthesized, especially in the U.S.A., and introduced in China. The cultivars can be arranged in groups: Sour Orange Group (the sour or bitter orange most like the original cross), Sweet Orange Group (the commercially most important being backcrosses with C. reticulata ), and Grapefruit Group (representing backcrosses with C. maxima and first being made in the Caribbean).

Sweet Orange Group
Petiole long and narrow; leaf blade ovate, ovate-elliptic, or rarely lanceolate, 6-10 × 3-5 cm or larger. Calyx lobes 3-5. Petals white or rarely purplish, 1.2-1.5 cm. Style stout; stigma large. Fruit orangish yellow to orangish red, globose, depressed globose, or ellipsoid; sarcocarp with 9-12 segments, yellow, orange, or purplish, sweet or slightly acidic. Seeds few or absent; seed coat slightly ridged; embryos numerous; cotyledons milky white. Fl. Mar-Jun, fr. Oct-Dec but some cultivars Feb-Apr. 2n = 18, 27, 36, 45.

Below 1500 m. Cultivated S of the Qin Ling, as far NW as SE Gansu and as far SW as SE Xizang.

Grapefruit Group
Branches glabrous. Leaves similar to those of Citrus maxima but leaf blade smaller and narrower, midvein ciliate. Flowers smaller than those of C. maxima. Calyx lobes glabrous. Fruit yellow, depressed globose to globose, smaller than those of C. maxima; pericarp thin; sarcocarp with 12-15 segments, yellowish white or pink, tender, juicy, slightly fragrant and acidic. Seeds few or absent; embryos numerous. Fr. Oct-Nov. 2n = 18, 20, 27, 36.

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Comments

The bitter or Seville Orange is seldom cultivated in Pakistan. Mostly used as a rootstock in grafting other citrus species; the fruit may be used for marmalades.
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