The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bresslau, E., 1933. Turbellaria. Kükenthal-Krumbach Handbuch der Zoologie, Bd. 2.
  • Costello, D. P., 1937. The early cleavage of Polychoerus carmelensis. Anat. Rec., 70: Suppl.1, 108-109.
  • Costello, D. P., 1946. The giant cleavage spindle of the egg of Polychoerus carmelensis Anat. Rec., 96: 561.
  • Costello, D. P., 1948. Spiral cleavage. Biol. Bull., 95: 265. (See, also, Erratum, Biol. Bull., 95: 361.).
  • Costello, D. P., and H. M. Costello, 1938. A new species of Polychoerus from the Pacific Coast. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 11, 1: 148-155.
  • Costello, H. M., and D. P. Costello, 1938. Copulation in the acoelous turbellarian Polychoerus carmelensis. Biol. Bull., 75: 85-98.
  • Costello, H. M., and D. P. Costello, 1939. Egg laying in the acoelous turbellarian Polychoerus carmelensis. Biol. Bull., 76: 80-89.
  • Gardiner, E. G., 1895. Early development of Polychoerus caudatus, Mark. J. Morph., 11: 155-176.
  • Gardiner, E. G., 1898. The growth of the ovum, formation of the polar bodies, and the fertilization in Polychoerus caudatus. J. Morph., 15: 73-110.
  • Land J. van der (ed) (†) (2015). URMO: UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (version Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Löhner L., 1910. Untersuchungen über Polychoerus caudatus Mark. Zeikchr. f. w1ss. Zool., 95: 451-506.
  • Mark, E. L., 1892. Polychoerus caudatus, nov. gen. et nov. spec. Festschr. z. 70. Geburtstage R. Leuckarts. Leipzig. S. 298-309.


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