Overview

Distribution

Range covers both subprovinces of Acadian and Virginian.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Woods Hole,Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: between May and Aug 1907
Comments: numerous in the Ulven (Ulva) of Little Harbor, and the sea grass on the hotel breakwater.

Center (Centre, Hog) Island, New York, USA
Collection date: between May and Aug 1907
Comments: underside of mussel shells and smooth rocks.

Cold Spring Harbor, New York, USA
Collection date: between May and Aug 1907
Comments: underside of mussel shells and smooth rocks.

Woods Hole,Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: 1965 or earlier
Comments: common in the Woods Hole region and regulary taken both in dredgings and on Ulva from piling and rocks. Bush notes in 1965 that it had not been reported recently.

inside Lockwoods Folly Inlet, Oak Island, North Carolina, USA
Collection date: Oct 2002
Depth: shallow subtidal
Substrate: medium grained sand

"Gutter" between Buzzards (Buzzard's) Bay and Hadley Harbor, near Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA
Collection date: summer 1889
Kind: default type
Comments: collected "Gutter" which connects Buzzard's Bay with Hadley Harbor.
  • Bush LF. 1964.   . Phylum Platyhelminthes--class Turbellaria. In: Keys to Marine Intertebrates of the Woods Hole Region. RI Smith ed. MBL, Woods Hole, pp 30-39.
  • Graff Lvon. 1911. index card avail.
     . Acoela, Rhabdocoela und Alloeocoela des Ostens der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. Z Wiss Zool 99:321-428 [or 1-108].
  • Hooge MD, Smith JPS. 2004.  abstract/note. New acoels (Acoela, Acoelomorpha) from North Carolina. Zootaxa 442: 1-24.
  • Mark EL. 1892. index card avail.
     . Polychoerus caudatus, nov. gen. et nov. spec. In: Festschrift zum 70. Geburtstage Rudolf Leuckarts. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, pp 298-310.
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© National Science Foundation - Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

Source: Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

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Ecology

Habitat

coastal, also on algae
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Depth range based on 3 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Mark EL 1892 (citation)- original description. p 298-309., pl 31, fig 1-22. describes genus   and species. Long description with beautiful illustrations.    Buchanan F 1892- Zoological Record 29:72. Zoological Record chapter misspells Polychoerus   as Polychaerus referring to Mark EL 1892 (citation) citation. Buchanan is chapter editor.    Verrill AE 1893 (citation)- "Caudal cirri one to five. In adult examples there are generally   1-3 slender, pale, translucent caudal cirri--sometimes, in large specimens, another   samller pair is developed external to the latteer, on the posterior lobes" etc. etc.   extended description and figures. Plate 41, 11 and 11a and plate 43, 6-10.     Length 3-4 mm, breadth 1.5 to 2 mm.   Common from Great Egg Harbor, NJ to Casco Bay, ME- taken in New Haven Harbor; Noank, Conn;   Newport, RI; Woods Hole, MA; and Quahog Bay, ME. Note eggs on shells and stones, etc.   possibly "eggs escape from mouth"?    Gardiner EG 1895 (citation)- anatomy, egg and p 155-174 plates 10 & 11 on embryology.  Bohmig L 1895 (citation)- mentions p 35 and lists p 44.  Gardiner EG 1898 (citation)-  Graff L v 1904 (citation)- "better diagnosis" of th genus - (he says).  Graff L v 1904-08 (citation)- in Bronn- p 1984 - def of genus. Depicts Polychoerus caudatus   plate I.15 and its embryology Plate IV, 20-31.    Stevens NM, Boring AM 1905 (citation)- on regeneration in.  Child CM 1907 (citation)- experiments on form regeneration.  Graff L v 1910 (citation)- notes from U.S.  Graff L v 1911 (citation)- says collected on ulven in Little Harbor and Hotel Breakwater.  Lohner L 1911 (citation)- looked for excretory canals in.  Luther A 1912 (citation)- brief mention of.  Lohner L 1913 (citation)- Compares with species of Amphiscolops  Wilhelmi J 1913 (citation)- outline with muscles p 23, anatomy with muscles p 85, also 24, 103, 113.  Allee WC 1923 (citation)- lists it as collected at Woods Hole.  Keil EM 1929 (citation)- used this in regeneration experiments at Woods Hole.  Bresslau E 1933 (citation)- p 55 gig 24.4- exterior view- from Nachon Island, Woods Hole.   length to 4 mm x 1.4mm- flattened- color red orange through yellow and purple pigment   granules, etc. p 204 fig 202- regeneration and ? in.    An der Lan H 1936 (citation)- mentions.  Westblad E 1946 (citation)- notes nozzles on bursa.  Westblad E 1948 (citation)- p 30 on presense of a germvitellarien in- not a real germvitellarien   but more like that of Hallangia - abortive eggs add to others to nourish them etc.    Hyman LH 1951 (citation) -vol 2, p 175 notes study of embryology of this by Gardner EG 1895 (citation)-   Discusses acoel embryology.    Ax P 1963 (citation)-discusses presence of tails in this non sand form, may be sensory.  Hadzi J 1963 (citation)- p 212- on embryology of - comment. p 222- on symbionts in.  Steinbock O 1963 (citation)- p 49 mentions work on cleavage of.    [Bush note: Collected by dredging at Woods Hole, Mass 6/23/64]  [Bush note: Collected from shelly sandy mud by Bob Smith from Sewage Beach, Virginia Key, Miami   Oct 1964; drawings and sectioned. is this caudatus?- did not have orange color of those   I saw in Woods Hole.]  [Bush note: collected from sand at ? November 1965.]  [Bush note: many specimens finally found July 1969 on Nantucket in Great Bay not far from   Wauwinet- near Swopes House- under scale of shells in intertidal zone.]    Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- lists.  Ax P, Doerjes J 1966 (citation)- note "brain" surrounds the statocyst.  Kato K 1968 (citation)- on development of purple eggs in.  Apelt G 1969 (citation)- p 268 notes Gardiner's observation of copulation in- is first for   acoels Gardiner EG 1898 (citation)-    Henley C 1974 (citation)- p 296- notes Mark EL 1892 (citation)- observations on sperm in bursa.   p 299 - on ultrastructure of sperm.  

 October 2003  MDH collected several specimens of what apppeared to be P. caudatus from subtidal sand at Oak Island, NC.  Sexually mature specimens were smaller than MA specimens (those described by Verill) - approx. 1.3 - 2.4 mm  long and 600 µm wide (MA specimens are approx. twice that size). NC specimens only had 2 bursal nozzles,  while MA specimens have many (up to 50). Histological sections of NC specimens revealed a cop organ that  could not be distinguished from MA specimens.
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Source: Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

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