Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This low deciduous shrub is 1-3' tall, branching occasionally. Young stems are yellowish green to reddish brown, pubescent or hairless, while older stems are light gray to nearly black. The wood of the stems is relatively brittle and weak. The blades of alternate leaves are 1-2¼" long and ½-1" across; they are oblong-ovate, obovate, or narrowly oval and smooth along their margins. The upper surface of the blades is yellowish green and slightly shiny, while the lower surface is dull yellowish green and more or less covered with fine resinous dots that are yellow (more visible with a 10x hand lens). The petiole is short and slender. Short fine hairs are often present on the lower blade surface and petioles. The flowers develop in raceme-like clusters from the axils of the leaves. Individual flowers are up to 1/3" long and a little less across, consisting of a short yellowish green calyx with 5 broad lobes and a tubular corolla with 5 tiny lobes along its rim that are strongly recurved. The red corolla (rarely white) is slightly constricted toward its throat, forming an urn-like shape. Each flower also has 10 inserted stamens and a pistil with a single style. The pedicels and calyces of the flowers are covered with short fine hairs and/or yellow resinous dots. The blooming period occurs from late spring to early summer, lasting about 3 weeks. Later, the flowers are replaced by globoid berries up to 1/3" across. These berries are initially green, but they become blue-black at maturity. The interior of each berry is fleshy and sweet; it contains 10 seeds, which are individually up to 2 mm. long. The woody root system is shallow and branching; it can develop clonal offsets from underground runners. Colonies of plants are often produced. The leaves turn red during the autumn before falling to the ground. Cultivation
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Black Huckleberry is a native shrub that is found primarily in northern and southern Illinois (see Distribution Map), where it is occasional in sandy or rocky areas. Elsewhere in the state, it is rare or absent. Habitats consist of upland rocky woodlands, wooded slopes, sandy savannas, openings in sandy woodlands, sandy shrub prairies, rocky bluffs and sandstone cliffs, sandy or rocky thickets, and stabilized sand dunes. Outside of Illinois, this shrub is sometimes found in bogs. Because it is able to resprout from underground runners, this shrub adapts to fire-prone habitats. In sandy shrub prairies, it is occasionally the dominant plant. Faunal Associations
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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States or Provinces

(key to state/province abbreviations)
UNITED STATES
AL AR CT DE GA IL IN IA
KY ME MD MA MI MN MS MO
NH NJ NM NY NC OH OK PA
RI SC TN VT VA WV WI

CANADA
MB NB NF NS ON PE PQ SK

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [8]:

None
  • 8. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

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Black huckleberry is found from Newfoundland to Saskatchewan south to Mississippi and Georgia [14,61]. Distribution is limited in the southeastern and central states of Arkansas, Missouri, and Iowa [66,71,93]. Plants Database provides a distributional map of black huckleberry.
  • 14. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914]
  • 61. Healy, William M.; Robinette, Sadie L. 1974. Huckleberries. In: Gill, John D.; Healy, William M. Shrubs and vines for northeastern wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-9. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 89-92. [51815]
  • 66. Hunter, Carl G. 1989. Trees, shrubs, and vines of Arkansas. Little Rock, AR: The Ozark Society Foundation. 207 p. [21266]
  • 71. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]
  • 93. Missouri Department of Conservation. 2005. Missouri species and communities of conservation concern, [Online]. In: Endangered species. Columbia, MO: Missouri Department of Conservation (Producer). Available: http://www.mdc.mo.gov/documents/nathis/endangered/checklist.pdf [2005, July 25]. [53847]

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: rhizome, shrub, shrubs

This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g. [14,22,54,76,110,117,121,125,131,140]).

Aboveground description: Black huckleberry is a low-growing, freely branched, deciduous shrub. It is rigid and erect, generally growing to 3 feet (1 m) tall. Shrubs are often found in clumps due to dense clonal spread [22,34,54,110,117,121,125,131]. Site conditions can affect the growth form. Black huckleberry shrubs grown in the shade are typically taller and more open, while those in open conditions are often shorter and more compact [112].

New branches are minutely hairy, and older wood often has peeling bark [125]. Leaves are simple, alternate, and measure 0.9 to 2.2 inches (2-5.5 cm) long by 0.4 to 1 inch (1-2.5 cm) wide. The firm, shiny, hairless leaves have resinous dots [22,34,54,110,121,125,131].

Flowers are small, cylindrical to bell shaped, and arranged in one-sided racemes [22,125]. Black huckleberry produces berrylike drupe fruits that are generally 0.25 inch (0.63 cm) in diameter. Ten seeds approximately 2 mm long are produced per drupe [12,22,34,76,105,131]. In a review, an average of 22,100 clean seeds weighed an ounce and 780 weighed a gram [12]. One hundred "plump" seeds collected from Maryland weighed 136 mg [30].

Belowground description: Black huckleberry is shallowly rooted below slender scaly rhizomes. It lacks a taproot [15,112]. In the New Jersey pine barrens, complete underground structures of 5 black huckleberry shrubs were exposed by careful hand digging. The researcher found that rhizomes were predominantly in the A0 and A1 soil horizons. In soils without these layers, rhizomes are normally concentrated in the top 2 to 3 inches (5-8 cm) of mineral soil. Long rhizomes, while typically confined to the upper soil horizons, may reach as deep as 8 inches (20 cm). Black huckleberry roots and rhizomes often reach the water table in lowland areas but rarely reach the water table in upland sites. Rhizome diameters were generally 0.25 to 0.75 inch (0.6-2 cm) but on occasion were as large as 2 inches (5 cm). Short roots were present along all rhizomes. Longer roots, sometimes as long as 2 feet (0.6 m), arose at rhizome forks or stem bases [79].

  • 76. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376]
  • 117. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 54. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 131. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 12. Bonner, F. T.; Halls, Lowell K. 1974. Gaylussacia baccata (Wangh.) K. Koch--black huckleberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 427-428. [7672]
  • 14. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914]
  • 15. Brayton, R. D.; Woodwell, G. M. 1966. Effects of ionizing radiation and fire on Gaylussacia baccata and Vaccinium vacillans. American Journal of Botany. 53(8): 816-820. [9074]
  • 22. Chapman, William K.; Bessette, Alan E. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 131 p. [12766]
  • 30. Darrow, George M. 1940. Seed size in blueberry and related species. American Society for Horticultural Science. 38: 438-440. [9110]
  • 34. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
  • 79. Laycock, William A. 1967. Distribution of roots and rhizomes in different soil types in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Geological Survey Professional Paper 563-C. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. 29 p. [22934]
  • 105. Palser, Barbara F. 1961. Studies of floral morphology in the Ericales. V. Organography and vascular anatomy in several United States species of the Vacciniaceae. Botanical Gazette. 123(2): 79-111. [9032]
  • 110. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 112. Reiners, W. A. 1965. Ecology of a heath-shrub synusia in the pine barrens of Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 92(6): 448-464. [22835]
  • 121. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 125. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publications. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907]
  • 140. Voss, Edward G. 1996. Michigan flora. Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae--Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 61/University of Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan. 622 p. [30401]

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Black Huckleberry is a native shrub that is found primarily in northern and southern Illinois (see Distribution Map), where it is occasional in sandy or rocky areas. Elsewhere in the state, it is rare or absent. Habitats consist of upland rocky woodlands, wooded slopes, sandy savannas, openings in sandy woodlands, sandy shrub prairies, rocky bluffs and sandstone cliffs, sandy or rocky thickets, and stabilized sand dunes. Outside of Illinois, this shrub is sometimes found in bogs. Because it is able to resprout from underground runners, this shrub adapts to fire-prone habitats. In sandy shrub prairies, it is occasionally the dominant plant. Faunal Associations
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Habitat characteristics

More info for the term: xeric

Commonly black huckleberry occupies well-drained, open sites. Black huckleberry habitats and site preferences by region are summarized below:

United States:
AR: Ouachita Mountain region dry rocky sites, bluffs, ridges, and steep slopes [66]
Carolinas, mountains xeric woods or bogs [110]
IL rocky woods and cliffs [94]
MI open dunes and plains with oak, pine, and birch trees to wet bogs with tamarack and leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne spp.) [140]
NY: Adirondacks rocky woods, thickets, and bogs [22]
       Adirondack uplands well-drained, semi-open pine stands (red pine commonly) [76]
OH: Allegheny Plateau and Lakes area dry slopes, sandy soils, and bogs [14]
WV: mountains dry, sandy, rocky soils [131]
Atlantic and Gulf coasts dry wooded sites, open thickets, and stable dunes [34]
Blue Ridge Province xeric woods [149]
New England dry open woods and thickets [121]
Canada:
NS rocky pastures, barrens, and mature bogs [117]
ON: southern sandy rocky woods, clearings, and bogs [125]

Black huckleberry is sensitive to salt spray in areas with low water availability and is likely restricted from extreme coastal locations [57].

Climate: Maritime and moist continental climates are common in black huckleberry habitats. The Atlantic coast of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, where black huckleberry is common, has a maritime climate. Evenly distributed annual precipitation ranges from 30 to 59.8 inches (760-1,520 mm) [53]. On Long Island, New York, the climate is mild because of coastal influences. The minimum January and maximum July temperatures based on a 12-year record were 28 °F (-2.2 °C) and 82 °F (28 °C), respectively. Long Island receives an average of 48.7 inches of precipitation (1,240 mm) per year, but from June to September the average is just 3.3 to 5.3 inches (83.3-135 mm)/month [112]. In central Vermont, black huckleberry occurs in a humid continental climate where the minimum and maximum January temperatures are -0.4 °F (-18 °C) and 30 °F (-1 °C), respectively. In July the typical minimum temperature is 57 °F (14 °C) and the maximum temperature is 63 °F (17 °C). The average annual precipitation for this area is 42.1 inches (1,070 mm) [124].

In more western portions of black huckleberry's range, precipitation is slightly lower and the temperature range greater. In the lower Great Lakes region, the climate is continental and the average precipitation is typically 27 to 41.7 inches (680 to 1,060 mm)/year, and annual distribution is relatively even. In northern lower Michigan between 1941 and 1970, the average temperature was 17 °F (-8.6 °C) in January and 65.1 °F (18.4 °C) in July. Mean annual precipitation was 31.3 inches (794 mm) and was evenly distributed [116].

In eastern Kentucky's southern Appalachians, the climate is temperate continental. Spring and fall are mild and are often the fire seasons. Growing seasons typically last 180 to 190 days. Temperatures in January and July average 32°F (0 °C) and 75 °F (24 °C), respectively. Average annual precipitation is 44.5 inches (1,130 mm), and lightning storms are possible in the spring and summer [85].

Elevation: Few areas report elevational tolerances for black huckleberry. In the Adirondack uplands of New York, black huckleberry occurs from 200 to 2,040 feet (60-620 m) [76]. In the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee, black huckleberry occupies elevations of 2,200 to over 4,000 feet (670 to >1,200 m)[144].

Soils: Black huckleberry is most typical of course-textured, acidic, nutrient-poor soils throughout its range [14,54,76,112]. In southeastern Michigan, black huckleberry occurs in open black oak stands with infertile, very dry to moist, and moderate to highly acidic (4.5-6.0) soils [2]. In Indiana barrens vegetation with chestnut oak, black jack oak, and Virginia pine occurs on shaley siltstone substrates with sandstone and shale fragments. The soils are acidic with very little fertility [65].

In a survey of pitch pine barrens vegetation in New Jersey, black huckleberry was common or abundant on well-drained and imperfectly drained soils but was absent from poorly drained sites [79].

  • 76. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376]
  • 117. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 54. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 131. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 2. Archambault, Louis; Barnes, Burton V.; Witter, John A. 1989. Ecological species groups of oak ecosystems of southeastern Michigan. Forest Science. 35(4): 1058-1074. [9768]
  • 14. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914]
  • 22. Chapman, William K.; Bessette, Alan E. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 131 p. [12766]
  • 34. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
  • 53. Glaser, Paul H. 1992. Raised bogs in eastern North America--regional controls for species richness and floristic assemblages. Journal of Ecology. 80(3): 535-554. [18425]
  • 57. Griffiths, Megan E.; Orians, Colin M. 2003. Responses of common and successional heathland species to manipulated salt spray and water availability. American Journal of Botany. 90(12): 1720-1728. [60949]
  • 65. Homoya, Michael A. 1994. Indiana barrens: classification and description. Castanea. 59(3): 204-213. [26826]
  • 66. Hunter, Carl G. 1989. Trees, shrubs, and vines of Arkansas. Little Rock, AR: The Ozark Society Foundation. 207 p. [21266]
  • 79. Laycock, William A. 1967. Distribution of roots and rhizomes in different soil types in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Geological Survey Professional Paper 563-C. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. 29 p. [22934]
  • 85. Martin, William H. 1990. The role and history of fire in the Daniel Boone National Forest. Final Report. Winchester, KY: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest. 131 p. [43630]
  • 110. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 112. Reiners, W. A. 1965. Ecology of a heath-shrub synusia in the pine barrens of Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 92(6): 448-464. [22835]
  • 116. Roberts, Mark R.; Christensen, Norman L. 1988. Vegetation variation among mesic successional forest stands in northern Lower Michigan. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66(6): 1080-1090. [14479]
  • 121. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 124. Smith, Marie-Louise. 1995. Community and edaphic analysis of upland northern hardwood communities, central Vermont, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 72: 235-249. [27233]
  • 125. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publications. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907]
  • 140. Voss, Edward G. 1996. Michigan flora. Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae--Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 61/University of Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan. 622 p. [30401]
  • 144. Whittaker, R. H. 1956. Vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecological Monographs. 26(1): 1-79. [11108]
  • 149. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]
  • 94. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: bog, heath, mesic, shrub

Black huckleberry is recognized as a dominant species in the
following vegetation classifications:

UNITED STATES

Connecticut: mountain-laurel (Kalmia latifolia)-black huckleberry-pink azalea
(Rhododendron periclymenoides) thickets in the Colebrook Forest [101]
Kentucky: mountain summit and southeastern slope
communities with pine-oak (Pinus-Quercus spp.) and oak overstories [13]
chestnut oak (Q. prinus) woodlands near Kentucky Lake in Kentucky and Tennessee [48]
Maine: black huckleberry dwarf
shrub heath community with eastern white pine (P. strobus) on the driest
inland bog sites in the Bay of Fundy region [27]
Massachusetts: huckleberry-bear oak (Gaylussacia
spp.-Q. ilicifolia) heathland communities and mixed maritime shrublands
with low sweet blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) on Nantucket, Cape Cod,
and Martha's Vineyard [39]
pine-oak/huckleberry community with pitch pine (P. rigida), white oak
(Q. alba), and black oak (Q. velutina) on Cape Cod [40]


oak-pine community with black oak, white oak, scarlet oak (Q. coccinea), pitch
pine, and eastern white pine, pitch pine-scrub oak, and bearberry (Arctostaphylos
spp.)-scrub oak vegetation types on Cape Cod [97]
dwarf tree/shrub communities with stunted tamarack (Larix laricina) and scattered black
spruce (Picea mariana) on Acadia bogs in central Massachusetts [96]


dry acidic oak-conifer forests with chestnut oak, black
oak, white oak, pitch pine, and eastern white pine, pitch pine/scrub oak barrens,
and southern acidic rocky summit communities with
pitch pine, stunted paper birch (Betula papyrifera), northern red oak
(Q. rubra), and red maple (Acer rubrum) in Berkshire County [142]
Michigan: open black oak stands in the southeast [2]
New Hampshire: huckleberry-highbush blueberry (V.
corymbosum) vegetation type in the Mud Pond Bog [35]
New Jersey: plains vegetation type dominated by
stunted pitch pine with post oak (Q. stellata) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum)
as subdominants and pitch pine barrens dominated by shortleaf pine (Pinus
echinata), Virginia pine (P. virginiana), and white, chestnut,
scarlet, and black oak possible [83]
New York: ericaceous dry mesic communities
dominated by pitch pine in the northeast [7]
sedge/bryophyte meadow community in Adirondack Park's Panther Bog [26]


oak/mixed heath shrub forests in West Hills Park, Suffolk County with scarlet
oak, white oak, and black oak [56]
dwarf shrub bogs, highbush blueberry bogs, maritime heathlands, dwarf pine
plains, pitch pine-scrub oak barrens, pitch pine-oak/heath woodlands, pitch
pine/heath barrens, maritime oak/holly (Ilex spp.) forests, Allegheny oak
forests, chestnut oak forests, and Appalachian oak-pine forests [114]
North Carolina: Pitch pine-oak vegetation
dominated by chestnut oak in the Wine Spring Creek watershed [92]
North Carolina and Tennessee: pitch pine/heath, Table
Mountain pine (P. pungens)/heath, and heath bald communities of the Great
Smoky Mountains [20,144]
Vermont: beech (Fagus spp.)-oak/blueberry
(Vaccinium spp.) vegetation in the Green Mountain National Forest [124]
Virginia: longleaf pine-loblolly pine-turkey oak
(P. palustris-P. taeda-Q. laevis) barrens in the southeast [109]
Wisconsin: eastern white
pine/blueberry-huckleberry forests in the southern and central portions of the
state [73]
Blue Ridge Province: mountain uplands with black
oak and scarlet oak [91]
Northeastern U.S.: black huckleberry/sphagnum (Sphagnum fuscum) vegetation type [29]
raised bogs [53]
Southern Appalachians: Table Mountain pine-pitch
pine forests [146]
Upper Midwest: dry sand savannahs with northern
pin oak (Q. ellipsoidalis) and black oak [145]
CANADA

New Brunswick: black huckleberry dwarf shrub heath community with eastern white
pine (P. strobus) on the driest inland bog sites in the Bay of Fundy region [27]
Nova Scotia: black huckleberry barrens in western portion of the province [129,130]


black huckleberry heaths and black huckleberry hummocks in the Western Head Bog of the southern Atlantic seashore [28]
Ontario: eastern white pine/black huckleberry habitat type in the Chalk River region [18]
  • 7. Bernard, John M.; Seischab, Franz K. 1995. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) communities in northeastern New York State. The American Midland Naturalist. 134(2): 294-306. [25966]
  • 39. Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Zaremba, Robert E.; Harper, Karen A. 1996. A classification of coastal heathlands and sandplain grasslands in Massachusetts. Rhodora. 98(894): 117-145. [34890]
  • 2. Archambault, Louis; Barnes, Burton V.; Witter, John A. 1989. Ecological species groups of oak ecosystems of southeastern Michigan. Forest Science. 35(4): 1058-1074. [9768]
  • 13. Braun, E. Lucy. 1935. The vegetation of Pine Mountain, Kentucky: an analysis of the influence of soils and slope exposure as determined by geological structure. The American Midland Naturalist. 16(4): 517-565. [54879]
  • 18. Burgess, Darwin M.; Methven, Ian R. 1977. The historical interaction of fire, logging and pine: a case study at Chalk River, Ontario. Information Report PS-X-66. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forest Service. 10 p. [45789]
  • 20. Cain, Stanley A. 1930. An ecological study of the heath balds of the Great Smoky Mountains. Butler University Botanical Studies: Paper No. 13. Indianapolis, IN: Butler University. 1: 77-208. [22935]
  • 26. Cronan, Christopher S.; DesMeules, Marc R. 1985. A comparison of vegetative cover and tree community structure in three forested Adirondack watersheds. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 15: 881-889. [7296]
  • 27. Damman, A. W. H. 1977. Geographical changes in the vegetation pattern of raised bogs in the Bay of Fundy region of Maine and New Brunswick. Vegetatio. 35(3): 137-151. [10158]
  • 28. Damman, Antoni W. H.; Dowhan, Joseph J. 1981. Vegetation and habitat conditions in Western Head Bog, a southern Nova Scotian plateau bog. Canadian Journal of Botany. 59(7): 1343-1359. [60951]
  • 29. Damman, Antoni W. H.; French, Thomas W. 1987. The ecology of peat bogs of the glaciated northeastern United States: a community profile. Biological Report 85(7.16). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Research and Development, National Wetlands Research Center. 100 p. [9238]
  • 35. Dunlop, D. A. 1987. Community classification of the vascular vegetation of a New Hampshire peatland. Rhodora. 89(860): 415-440. [20275]
  • 40. Eberhardt, Robert W.; Foster, David E.; Motzkin, Glenn; Hall, Brian. 2003. Conservation of changing landscapes: vegetation and land-use history of Cape Cod National Seashore. Ecological Applications. 13(1): 68-84. [44244]
  • 48. Fralish, James S.; Franklin, Scott B.; Close, David D. 1999. Open woodland communities of southern Illinois, western Kentucky, and middle Tennessee. In: Anderson, Roger; Fralish, James S.; Baskin, Jerry M., eds. Savannas, barrens, and rock outcrop plant communities of North America. Boston, MA: Cambridge University Press: 171-189. [51448]
  • 53. Glaser, Paul H. 1992. Raised bogs in eastern North America--regional controls for species richness and floristic assemblages. Journal of Ecology. 80(3): 535-554. [18425]
  • 56. Greller, Andrew M.; Clemants, Steven E. 2001. Flora of West Hills Park, Suffolk County, New York, with considerations of provenance of some long-distance disjuncts. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 128(1): 76-89. [55625]
  • 73. Kotar, John; Burger, Timothy L. 1996. A guide to forest communities and habitat types of central and southern Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, The Department of Forestry. 378 p. [29126]
  • 83. Lutz, Harold J. 1934. Ecological relations in the pitch pine plains of southern New Jersey. Bulletin No. 38. New Haven, CT: Yale University, School of Forestry. 80 p. [36163]
  • 91. McNab, W. Henry. 1991. Land classification in the Blue Ridge province: state-of-the-science report. In: Mengel, Dennis L.; Tew, D. Thompson, eds. Ecological land classification: applications to identify the productive potential of southern forests: Proceedings of a symposium; 1991 January 7-9; Charlotte, NC. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-68. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 37-47. [15708]
  • 92. McNab, W. Henry; Browing, Sara A. 1993. Preliminary ecological classification of arborescent communities on the Wine Spring Creek watershed, Nantahala National Forest. In: Brissette, John C., ed. Proceedings, 7th biennial southern silvicultural research conference; 1992 November 17-19; Mobile, AL. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-93. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 213-221. [23266]
  • 96. Motzkin, Glenn H.; Patterson, William A., III. 1991. Vegetation patterns and basin morphometry of a New England moat bog. Rhodora. 93(876): 307-321. [17360]
  • 97. Motzkin, Glenn; Eberhardt, Robert; Hall, Brian; Foster, David R.; Harrod, Jonathan; MacDonald, Dana. 2002. Vegetation variation across Cape Cod, Massachusetts: environmental and historical determinants. Journal of Biogeography. 29: 1439-1454. [46039]
  • 101. Nichols, George E. 1913. The vegetation of Connecticut. II. Virgin forests. Torreya. 13(9): 199-215. [14069]
  • 109. Plocher, Allen E. 1999. Plant population dynamics in response to fire in longleaf pine - turkey oak barrens and adjacent wetter communities in southeast Virginia. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 126(3): 213-225. [30894]
  • 114. Reschke, Carol. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. Latham, NY: New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Natural Heritage Program. 96 p. [21441]
  • 124. Smith, Marie-Louise. 1995. Community and edaphic analysis of upland northern hardwood communities, central Vermont, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 72: 235-249. [27233]
  • 129. Strang, R. M. 1971. The ecology of the rocky heathlands of western Nova Scotia. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1970 August 20-21; Fredericton, NB. No. 10. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 287-292. [5466]
  • 130. Strang, R. M. 1972. Ecology and land use of the barrens of western Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 2: 276-290. [21381]
  • 142. Weatherbee, Pamela B.; Crow, Garrett E. 1992. Natural plant communities of Berkshire County, Massachusetts. Rhodora. 94(878): 171-209. [19726]
  • 144. Whittaker, R. H. 1956. Vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecological Monographs. 26(1): 1-79. [11108]
  • 145. Will-Wolfe, Susan; Stearns, Forest. 1998. Characterization of dry site oak savanna in the Upper Midwest. Transactions, Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. 86: 223-234. [39626]
  • 146. Williams, Charles E. 1998. History and status of Table Mountain pine-pitch pine forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains (USA). Natural Areas Journal. 18(1): 81-90. [27900]

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Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the term: bog

KUCHLER [74] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:

K093 Great Lakes spruce-fir forest

K094 Conifer bog

K095 Great Lakes pine forest

K096 Northeastern spruce-fir forest

K100 Oak-hickory forest

K104 Appalachian oak forest

K106 Northern hardwoods

K108 Northern hardwoods-spruce forest

K109 Transition between K104 and K106

K110 Northeastern oak-pine forest

K111 Oak-hickory-pine
K112 Southern mixed forest
  • 74. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. [3455]

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Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

ECOSYSTEMS [51]:

FRES10 White-red-jack pine

FRES11 Spruce-fir

FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine

FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine

FRES14 Oak-pine

FRES15 Oak-hickory

FRES18 Maple-beech-birch

FRES19 Aspen-birch
  • 51. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Black Huckleberry in Illinois

Gaylussacia baccata (Black Huckleberry)
(insect activity is largely unspecified, however in general bees suck nectar or collect pollen, flies suck nectar or feed on pollen, while the butterfly sucks nectar; one observation is from Grundel & Pavlovic, otherwise observations are from Small)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera (Sm); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus impatiens (Sm), Bombus sandersoni sn fq (Sm), Bombus ternarius fq (Sm), Bombus terricola fq (Sm)

Bees (short-tongued)
Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena bradleyi (Sm), Andrena carolina (Sm), Andrena regularis fq (Sm), Andrena vicina fq (Sm)

Flies
Syrphidae: Eristalis dimidiatus fq (Sm), Helophilus fasciatus (Sm), Helophilus latifrons (Sm), Sericomyia transversa fq (Sm); Tabanidae: Hybomitra typhus (Sm)

Butterflies
Lycaenidae: Lycaeides melissa samuelis sn (GP)

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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the term: stand-replacing fire

Some report that black huckleberry berry production increases with burning. In a review, Healy and Robinette [61] report that burning at intervals of 5 years or more favors berry production. Following an April stand-replacing fire in pitch pine-chestnut oak forests of western North Carolina's Nantahala National Forest, berry production increased [41]. Increased berry production through burning may affect wildlife management decisions.

The heat content of black huckleberry foliage was measured and found to vary only slightly in different-aged regenerating jack pine stands in Clinton County, New York [127].

High heat (kJ/kg) Ash-free high heat (kJ/kg)
21-year-old stand 21,193 22,123
29-year-old stand 21,052 22,070
46-year-old stand 21,071 22,003
67-year-old stand 21,232 22,206
  • 61. Healy, William M.; Robinette, Sadie L. 1974. Huckleberries. In: Gill, John D.; Healy, William M. Shrubs and vines for northeastern wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-9. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 89-92. [51815]
  • 127. Stergas, R. L.; Adams, K. B. 1989. Jack pine barrens in northeastern New York: postfire macronutrient concentrations, heat content, and understory biomass. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 19: 904-910. [8629]
  • 41. Elliott, Katherine J.; Hendrick, Ronald L.; Major, Amy E.; [and others]. 1999. Vegetation dynamics after a prescribed fire in the southern Appalachians. Forest Ecology and Management. 114(2-3): 199-213. [30079]

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Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: backfire, basal area, cover, density, duff, fire frequency, fire severity, frequency, litter, prescribed burn, prescribed fire, presence, rhizome, severity, shrub, shrubs, surface fire, tree, wildfire

Depth of burn likely
controls postfire sprouting, as black huckleberry rhizomes often occur at shallow depths.
Black huckleberry rhizomes typically occur in the duff layer [70] and/or A0
and A1 horizons when these layers are present. In soils lacking
these horizons, the rhizome is normally in the top 2 to 3 inches (5-8 cm) of mineral
soil. On occasion, rhizomes may reach as deep as 8 inches (20 cm). The shallow rhizomes
are susceptible to damage or death when fires consume the upper
soil levels [79]. On "heavily" burned oak-pitch pine sites on Long Island, New York,
black huckleberry sprouting was restricted to buried rhizomes; on
"lightly" burned sites some sprouts came from damaged stem bases at the soil surface. Heavily
burned sites were those near tree bases with increased litter [15].
Damage to underground growing structures is more common during severe growing-season
fires than dormant-season fires. Growing-season fires have an increased
likelihood of burning into the duff layer where black huckleberry rhizomes are
often concentrated [70].

Multivariate analysis of burned areas in New Jersey's pine plains
indicates that black huckleberry may suffer high mortality and may be the slowest dominant
species to recover following severe fires that remove humus layers. Following
less severe fires, black huckleberry coverage is typically decreased for the 1st few postfire years, but
black huckleberry regains dominance 5 to 7 years following fire. Recovery of black huckleberry is slower on
severely burned sites [148]. Cape Cod's pine-oak forests
were burned under prescription at 1- to 4-year intervals during both dormant and growing seasons. Frequent fires
(exact rotation not provided) that burned when sites were damp and vegetation was
dormant encouraged sprouting but decreased black huckleberry biomass. However, a single
severe fire during the growing season "destroyed" the black
huckleberry root and rhizome system [106].
Fire effects related to seasonality/severity:
Typically dormant-season and/or low-severity fires are better tolerated by black
huckleberry than growing-season and/or high-severity fires. Black huckleberry regrowth was evident by early
summer following an early March low-severity surface fire in pine barren pine-oak vegetation
dominated by white, chestnut, black, and scarlet oak with lesser amounts of
pitch and shortleaf pine in southern New Jersey. The fire killed all aboveground
black huckleberries, and no seedlings occurred on either the burned or unburned sites. Fewer new
stems were produced in the 2nd postfire year than in the 1st [88].
In rocky barrens of western Nova Scotia, a "cool" night fire burned the
vegetation, and within 2 years black huckleberry and other shrubs had
recovered such that burned and unburned sites were undistinguishable [129]. Black huckleberry frequency was exactly the same in
10- to 26-month-old spring-burned and unburned oak
woodlands of south-central New York [133].
Black huckleberry coverage was much greater on burned than unburned sites and tended to
increase with increased time since fire in the westernmost portion of Great
Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. Permanent plots were burned in several different fires from 1976 to 1977. Fires
were set in summer, fall, and winter, and postfire litter depths ranged from 0.04 to 1
inch (0.1-3.0 cm). Postfire coverage of black huckleberry was recorded periodically between 0
and 19 years following the fires. Data are summarized below [60]:
 Unburned
(since 1940)
Burned
(1976-1977)
Sampling year1977-781995197719781979198019841995
Cover (%)0.80.094.485.686.275.627.987.13

Black huckleberry showed a short-lived increase in cover, increased density,
and decreased frequency and basal area following a spring
fire in mixed oak woodlands of western North Carolina's Nantahala National
Forest. The April fire was stand replacing. The
prefire coverage of black huckleberry was 1.03%, coverage at postfire month 3 was
1.88%, and 0.96% at postfire month 15. Researchers reported that
burning increased berry production and that density increased
due to prolific sprouting [41].
For further information on fire responses of black huckleberry and
other plants in this community, see the Fire Research Project Summary
Early postfire effects of a prescribed fire in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina
.
Density increased but frequency and basal area
of black huckleberry decreased in the 1st postfire year in mixed oak
woodlands in the Nantahala National Forest.
The prescription fire burned in April in an
overstory of red maple, chestnut oak, red oak, yellow-poplar (Liriodendron
tulipifera), and hickory (Carya spp.). A combination of backing and
strip fires burned when air temperatures were 46 to 65 °F (8-18 °C),
and relative humidity was 30% to 40%. Flame lengths were 10 to 20 inches
(30-60 cm), and fire temperature averaged 370 °F
(188 °C). Litter was reduced by 92%, fermentation and humus layers by 48%, and
small wood (<3 inches (7.5 cm) diameter) by 36%. Black huckleberry was not
detected on burned sites sampled at postfire month 3. Findings are summarized
below [42].
Time since firePrefire ~3 months postfire1 year postfire
Frequency (%)2707
Density (stems/ha)1,78702,560
Basal area (m²/ha)0.01900.006

Black huckleberry was more productive on sites burned
in spring wildfires than in spring prescription fires in
the pitch pine-oak barrens of New Jersey. One- to three-year-old burned sites
were compared to unburned sites, and black huckleberry biomass was lower on all burned sites. Control and wildfire sites had not burned for
51 years prior to the recent fires, and prescription sites burned 14 years previous
to these fires [10]. Wildfires were considered more severe than
prescription fires, and calcium, magnesium, and potassium in
vegetation biomass and in the litter were lower on wildfire than prescription
sites. Possibly black huckleberry, a low-nutrient adapted species, was affected more by
nutrient levels than burn severity [11]. Aboveground black huckleberry biomass on burned and control sites is
summarized below [10]:
Fire typeControlWildfirePrescription
Years since prior fires (past)515114
Postfire year (recent)NA2313
Biomass (kg/ha)961802755574478

In the Red River Gorge Geological Area of eastern Kentucky, black huckleberry
presence after fire may have been related to fire severity. The prefire
vegetation was dominated by scarlet and chestnut oak in the
4-inch (10 cm) or greater dbh size class and
red maple and eastern white pine
in the 0.8- to 4-inch (2-10 cm) dbh class size. Fires burned on 2 similar ridge sites.
Presence was evaluated for 3 postfire growing seasons. The
Pinch-Em-Tight Ridge burned when temperatures averaged 68 °F
(20 °C), mean relative
humidity was 29%, and winds were between 0 and 1.1 miles/hour (0-1.7 km/h).
Black huckleberry was present on unburned reference sites but was absent from
burned sites. The Klaber Ridge site burned when the mean
temperature was slightly lower, 63 °F (17 °C), relative humidity was greater, 46%, and
winds were stronger, 0.99 to 2 miles/hour (1.6-3.2 km/h). Black huckleberry was present on both burned and
unburned Klaber Ridge sites [75].
Black huckleberry coverage decreased considerably in the New Jersey pine barrens
burned in July 1955. Fire behavior and/or conditions were not described. Prefire
black huckleberry coverage
was 38.2%, 3 months after fire was 4.8%, over 1 year following fire was 11.7%, and over
2 years after fire was 7.7%. The mortality rate was several times that of
Blue Ridge huckleberry (Vaccinium pallidum), a typical associate species with deeper
perennating buds [79].
Effects of repeated fire:
The number of studies reporting decreased black huckleberry coverage, frequency, and density with
repeated fire is nearly equal to those that found increased black huckleberry abundance
after several fires. Differences in black huckleberry survival and recovery from multiple
fires may be a result of fire season, severity, and/or vegetation type burned.
Black huckleberry coverage was often lower on sites burned in multiple
fires when compared to preburn coverage in grasslands and coastal
heathlands of southeastern Massachusetts. Typically black huckleberry was top-killed in all
fires (spring and fall), but sprouted soon after. Black huckleberry was present
even on sites burned 6 times in 15 years, and pre- and postfire coverages were only slightly different [38].
See the Research Project Summary
Vegetation change in grasslands and heathlands following multiple spring,
summer, and fall prescription fires in Massachusetts
for further details. On the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge of central Wisconsin, prairie
and savannah vegetation was burned under prescription every 1 to 5 years.
On unburned marshes black huckleberry frequency was 9%, and frequency on burned marshes was 16% [9].
In red and white pine-dominated stands in northwestern Wisconsin, black
huckleberry frequency was 7.8% less on sites burned an
average of 3.5 times usually with spring fires than on unburned sites.
Twenty burned sites were sampled the summer following the last spring burn, and
8 others were sampled 1 year following fire [139].
Black huckleberry
coverage decreased with increasing fire frequency and decreasing time since fire
on prescribed burn sites in oak-dominated forests with a "liberal
scattering" of nonreproducing pines (species not identified) in New Jersey's
Lebanon State Forest. Prescription fires were typically low severity and
occurred in the winter annually, biennially, and on 3-year, 4-year, 5-year, 10-year,
and 15-year rotations. Black huckleberry coverage was 40% on
control sites and just slightly less on sites burned
on 15-year rotations with 14 year recovery time. On 10-year-old burn sites with
4 years recovery time, black huckleberry coverage was about 30%. On sites burned in 2-, 3-,
and 4-year rotations, black huckleberry coverage was approximately 10% in the 2nd postfire
year. On annually burned sites, black huckleberry coverage was nearly 3% in the 1st
postfire growing season [17].
Multiple prescribed fires in black oak sand savannahs of
Indiana's Hoosier Prairie decreased black huckleberry density. One site burned in 1 fall
and 3 spring prescribed fires in 8 years, another other
plot burned in 3 spring and 2 fall fires in 8 years. No other fire information was
provided [5,6].
Black huckleberry survived single fires with very little change in coverage but had not
recovered by the 2nd postfire year following 2 fires in 3 years in the Daniel
Boone National Forest of eastern Kentucky. Prescribed fires burned in 1993 and
1995 in scarlet, chestnut, and white oak-shortleaf, Virginia, and pitch pine
forests. Both fires were in March and burned under similar prescription
conditions that included wind speeds below 18 mph (29 km/hr), relative humidities
greater than 25%, and air temperatures below 75 °F (24 °C). Flame lengths for
the 1993 fire were 1 to 3 feet (0.3-1 m) and due to a head wind in 1995 flame
lengths were longer, 4.3 to 5.2 feet (1.3-1.6 m). The 1995 fires were "hotter."
Below are the coverage and frequency of black huckleberry on control,
once-burned, and twice-burned sites as measured in August 1997 [4]:
 ControlOnce burned
(1993)
Once burned
(1995)
Twice burned (1993 and 1995)
Approximate time since fireNA4 1/2 years2 1/2 years2 1/2 years
Frequency (%)73100
Cover (%)0.40.30.50

Coverage and frequency of black huckleberry increased on annually and biennially
burned sites in Connecticut's eastern uplands. Most fires burned in
April from 1968 to 1985. Flame lengths were several meters in shrub thickets, but no
other fire information was reported. Site 1 was burned annually from 1968 to 1976 and again in 1978, 1980, and
1983. Site 2 was burned in 1968 and 1969 and then biennially until 1980. Both
sites had woody and herbaceous vegetation. Typical woody species included black
huckleberry, winged sumac (Rhus copallinum), black cherry (Prunus serotina),
and black oak, and the dominant herb was
little bluestem. Prior to burning all trees greater than 3 feet (1 m) tall were cut, and
stumps were treated with herbicide. Changes in black huckleberry coverage and frequency
before and after fire are
provided below [103].
 

Site 1
(mostly annual fires)

Site 2
(mostly biennial fires)

Sampling date19671985196719761982
Years since firePrefire2 Prefire22
Cover (%)<1282129
Frequency (%)212------------

Black huckleberry coverage was reduced from prefire
values on spring biennial burned sites, relatively unchanged on summer biennial burned plots, but
increased with time on control plots
in little bluestem grasslands of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts.
Spring sites burned in April, and postfire vegetation measurements were made in
postfire year 1. The 2nd April fire burned
when wind speeds were 10 to 13 mph (16-21 km/hr), the average temperature was 40 °F (7°C),
and relative humidity was 66%. Backfire flame
lengths were 1 to 10 feet (0.3-4 m), and most litter was consumed.
The 2 August fires were not described, and postfire vegetation
was measured in postfire year 2. Changes in black huckleberry
frequency and cover are provided below [36].
 ControlSpring fireSummer fire
Years since last fireNANAPre1Pre2
Cover (%)152118111615
Frequency (%)303343503737

Density and frequency of black huckleberry were greater than prefire measurements on twice-
and once-burned sites in longleaf pine-loblolly pine-turkey oak barrens of
southeast Virginia. The twice burned site burned once in February
1986 when conditions were warm (>60 °F (20 °C)) and
fueled flame heights of 20 feet (6 m). The second fire burned in July 1987.
The July fire burned at night when temperatures were lower,
and humidity levels were higher. The single burn site burned in February 1988 under conditions similar
to the other February fire. Increases in black huckleberry density and frequency were
greater on the twice-burned area. Study results are summarized below [109]:
 Prefire (1985) 198619881989
 density (stems/m²)frequency (%)density frequency density frequency density frequency
Twice burned67528.98032.89025.580
Once burned3.860NANA136711.567


Fire in conjunction with other disturbances:

Multiple stresses may decrease black huckleberry coverage. Coverage was lowest on burned
sites located closest to a zinc smelter near Palmerton, Pennsylvania. Burned and unburned chestnut oak woodland
sites located at various distances from the smelter were evaluated. Fifteen-year-old
burned and unburned sites located approximately 1 mile (2 km) from Lehigh Gap's zinc smelter had
reduced black huckleberry coverage. Black huckleberry coverage on unburned and burned sites at Lehigh
gap was 1.5% and 0.6%, respectively. Black huckleberry coverage on sites located between
9.9 and 21 miles (16-33 km) from the smelter was 18.5% on 14 year old burned sites and 6.6%
on unburned sites [68].
  • 4. Arthur, M. A.; Paratley, R. D.; Blankenship, B. A. 1998. Single and repeated fires affect survival and regeneration of woody and herbaceous species in an oak-pine forest. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 125(3): 225-236. [33080]
  • 5. Bacone, John A.; Post, Thomas W. 1986. Effects of prescribed burning on woody and herbaceous vegetation in black oak sand savannas at Hoosier Prairie Nature Preserve, Lake Co., Indiana. In: Koonce, Andrea L., ed. Prescribed burning in the Midwest: state-of-the-art: Proceedings of a symposium; 1986 March 3-6; Stevens Point, WI. Stevens Point, WI: University of Wisconsin, College of Natural Resources, Fire Science Center: 86-90. [16273]
  • 6. Bacone, John A.; Post, Thomas W. 1987. Effects of prescribed burning on woody and herbaceous vegetation in black oak sand savannas at Hoosier Prairie Nature Preserve, Lake Co., Indiana. Proceedings, Indiana Academy of Science. 96: 205-208. [15588]
  • 9. Blewett, Thomas. 1978. Prairie and savanna restoration in the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge. In: Glenn-Lewin, David C.; Landers, Roger Q., Jr., eds. Proceedings, 5th Midwest prairie conference; 1976 August 22-24; Ames, IA. Ames, IA: Iowa State University: 154-157. [3370]
  • 10. Boerner, Ralph E. J. 1981. Forest structure dynamics following wildfire and prescribed burning in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. The American Midland Naturalist. 105(2): 321-333. [8649]
  • 11. Boerner, Ralph E. J. 1983. Nutrient dynamics of vegetation and detritus following two intensities of fire in the New Jersey pine barrens. Oecologia. 59: 129-134. [8648]
  • 15. Brayton, R. D.; Woodwell, G. M. 1966. Effects of ionizing radiation and fire on Gaylussacia baccata and Vaccinium vacillans. American Journal of Botany. 53(8): 816-820. [9074]
  • 17. Buell, Murray F.; Cantlon, John E. 1953. Effects of prescribed burning on ground cover in the New Jersey pine region. Ecology. 34: 520-528. [9262]
  • 36. Dunwiddie, Peter W. 1991. Comparisons of aboveground arthropods in burned, mowed and untreated sites in sandplain grasslands on Nantucket Island. The American Midland Naturalist. 125(2): 206-212. [15673]
  • 38. Dunwiddie, Peter W. 1998. Ecological management of sandplain grasslands and coastal heathlands in southeastern Massachusetts. In: Pruden, Teresa L.; Brennan, Leonard A., eds. Fire in ecosystem management: shifting the paradigm from suppression to prescription: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1996 May 7-10; Boise, ID. No. 20. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 83-93. [35607]
  • 42. Elliott, Katherine J.; Vose, James M.; Clinton, Barton D.; Knoepp, Jennifer D. 2004. Effects of understory burning in a mesic mixed-oak forest of the southern Appalachians. In: Engstrom, R. Todd; Galley, Krista E. M.; de Groot, William J., eds. Fire in temperate, boreal, and montane ecosystems: Proceedings of the 22nd Tall Timbers fire ecology conference: an international symposium; 2001 October 15-18; Kananaskis Village, AB. No. 22. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research, Inc: 272-283. [52335]
  • 60. Harrod, J. C.; Harmon, M. E.; White, P. S. 2000. Post-fire succession and 20th century reduction in fire frequency on xeric southern Appalachian sites. Journal of Vegetation Science. 11(4): 465-472. [38753]
  • 68. Jordan, Marilyn J. 1975. Effects of zinc smelter emissions and fire on a chestnut-oak woodland. Ecology. 56: 78-91. [3461]
  • 70. Jordan, Marilyn J.; Patterson, William A., III; Windisch, Andrew G. 2003. Conceptual ecological models for the Long Island pitch pine barrens: implications for managing rare plant communities. Forest Ecology and Management. 182(1-2): 151-168. [42026]
  • 75. Kuddes-Fischer, Linda M.; Arthur, Mary A. 2002. Response of understory vegetation and tree regeneration to a single prescribed fire in oak-pine forests. Natural Areas Journal. 22(1): 43-52. [42276]
  • 79. Laycock, William A. 1967. Distribution of roots and rhizomes in different soil types in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Geological Survey Professional Paper 563-C. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. 29 p. [22934]
  • 88. Matlack, Glenn R.; Gibson, David J.; Good, Ralph E. 1993. Regeneration of the shrub Gaylussacia baccata and associated species after low-intensity fire in an Atlantic coastal plain. American Journal of Botany. 80(2): 119-126. [20726]
  • 103. Niering, William A.; Dreyer, Glenn D. 1989. Effects of prescribed burning on Andropogon scoparius in postagricultural grasslands in Connecticut. The American Midland Naturalist. 122: 88-102. [8768]
  • 109. Plocher, Allen E. 1999. Plant population dynamics in response to fire in longleaf pine - turkey oak barrens and adjacent wetter communities in southeast Virginia. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 126(3): 213-225. [30894]
  • 129. Strang, R. M. 1971. The ecology of the rocky heathlands of western Nova Scotia. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1970 August 20-21; Fredericton, NB. No. 10. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 287-292. [5466]
  • 133. Swan, Frederick Robbins, Jr. 1966. The effects of fire on plant communities of south-central New York State. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. 169 p. Dissertation. [37434]
  • 139. Vogl, Richard John. 1961. The effects of fire on some upland vegetation types. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin. 154 p. Dissertation. [52282]
  • 148. Windisch, Andrew G. 1999. Fire ecology of the New Jersey pine plains and vicinity. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. 327 p. Dissertation. [53348]
  • 41. Elliott, Katherine J.; Hendrick, Ronald L.; Major, Amy E.; [and others]. 1999. Vegetation dynamics after a prescribed fire in the southern Appalachians. Forest Ecology and Management. 114(2-3): 199-213. [30079]
  • 106. Patterson, W. A., III. 1993. Experimental manipulation of flammable shrub understories at Cape Cod National Seashore. In: Abstracts of the 13th annual meeting of the Society of Wetland Scientists. In: Restoration and Management Notes. 11(1): 65. [Abstract]. [60958]

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Plant Response to Fire

More info for the term: root crown

Prolific sprouting from surviving rhizomes makes black huckleberry an important species in early postfire communities [41,102]. Following "light" burning, black huckleberry can sprout from the root crown [15]. Seed dispersal and seedling establishment onto burned sites is unlikely. A heavy reliance on asexual regeneration is suggested by many researchers [86,98,112].
  • 15. Brayton, R. D.; Woodwell, G. M. 1966. Effects of ionizing radiation and fire on Gaylussacia baccata and Vaccinium vacillans. American Journal of Botany. 53(8): 816-820. [9074]
  • 86. Matlack, G. R.; Gibson, D. J.; Good, R. E. 1993. Clonal propagation, local disturbance, and the structure of vegetation: Ericaceous shrubs in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Biological Conservation. 63: 1-8. [20098]
  • 112. Reiners, W. A. 1965. Ecology of a heath-shrub synusia in the pine barrens of Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 92(6): 448-464. [22835]
  • 102. Niering, William A. 1981. The role of fire management in altering ecosystems. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Lotan, J. E.; Reiners, W. A., technical coordinators. FIRE REGIMES and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 489-510. [5084]
  • 41. Elliott, Katherine J.; Hendrick, Ronald L.; Major, Amy E.; [and others]. 1999. Vegetation dynamics after a prescribed fire in the southern Appalachians. Forest Ecology and Management. 114(2-3): 199-213. [30079]
  • 98. Motzkin, Glenn; Foster, David; Allen, Arthur; [and others]. 1996. Controlling site to evaluate history: vegetation patterns of a New England sand plain. Ecological Monographs. 66(3): 345-365. [28579]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Black huckleberry is normally only top-killed by fire [38]. However, severe fires with increased depth of burn may completely kill black huckleberry by heating shallow rhizomes to lethal temperatures [70].
  • 38. Dunwiddie, Peter W. 1998. Ecological management of sandplain grasslands and coastal heathlands in southeastern Massachusetts. In: Pruden, Teresa L.; Brennan, Leonard A., eds. Fire in ecosystem management: shifting the paradigm from suppression to prescription: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1996 May 7-10; Boise, ID. No. 20. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 83-93. [35607]
  • 70. Jordan, Marilyn J.; Patterson, William A., III; Windisch, Andrew G. 2003. Conceptual ecological models for the Long Island pitch pine barrens: implications for managing rare plant communities. Forest Ecology and Management. 182(1-2): 151-168. [42026]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: adventitious, ground residual colonizer, rhizome, shrub

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [128]:
Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Small shrub, adventitious bud/root crown
  • 128. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. FEIS postfire regeneration workshop--April 12: Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. 10 p. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20090]

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: duff, fire exclusion, fire frequency, fire suppression, frequency, hardwood, heath, litter, root crown, tree

Fire adaptations: Black huckleberry survives most fires by sprouting from rhizomes [15,38,102], but root crown sprouting is possible following "light" burning [15]. However, shallow black huckleberry rhizomes are susceptible to damage or death from fires that consume the upper soil levels [79]. Seed dispersal and seedling establishment onto burned sites are unlikely [86].

FIRE REGIMES: Black huckleberry occupies dry, open woodland sites that burn frequently. The pitch pine barrens and plains of southern New Jersey have long growing seasons, hot summer temperatures, strong winds that dry fuels, and level to rolling terrain that easily spread fires [83]. However, in coastal fir (Abies spp.) forests of northeastern North America, conditions are humid and vegetation rarely burns. Fires occur only during periods of extreme or prolonged drought or following disturbances that allow sunlight to penetrate and dry fuels. When fires kill fir trees, black huckleberry-dominated shrublands may persist for several decades following fire [50].

Fire history and return intervals: The coniferous, deciduous, and mixed overstories of black huckleberry habitats burned frequently in presettlement times. In most black huckleberry habitats, an anthropogenic influence on fire frequencies is evident.

Red pine forests: On Pictured Rocks National Seashore in Upper Michigan, data from living tree wedges, stump cross sections, and increment bores suggest that fires in the red, white, and jack pine forests occurred on average once every 21.8 years in presettlement times, but fire occurred just once since the early 1900s. The author indicated that Native people likely contributed to the frequent presettlement fires [82].

In red pine stands of northern Vermont, fire scar data from trees on Resin Ridge were used to reconstruct the fire history. Researchers estimated that from 17 to more than 20 fires occurred in the study area between 1815 and 1987; however, none occurred after 1921. Most were surface fires, indicated by the many red pine trees that survived their 1st fire when under 4 inch (10 cm) dbh. The calculated fire return interval for the area was 37+ years, which likely represents a minimum estimate as it includes the unburned time period of 1921 to 1987. Red pine "recruitment" fires, those that were stand replacing and exposed mineral soil, occurred at 50- to over 100-year intervals. European settlement of the area in all likelihood affected the fire frequency in all years. Likely anthropogenic fires were common in the late 1800s, when some stands burned at 3- to 5-year intervals, and fire suppression efforts were responsible for the fire-free period of 1922 to 1987 [43].

Pitch pine forests and barrens: Pitch pine vegetation types in which black huckleberry is common burn at 10- to 30-year intervals [70,90]. The New Jersey pine plains, pitch pine-shrub oak barrens, and pitch pine-post oak-shrub oak woodlands burn often. The pine plains vegetation dominated by dwarf pitch pine, blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica), and scrub oak burn at 5- to 15-year intervals in a mixture of crown and surface fires. Pitch pine/scrub oak barrens dominated by tree-sized pitch pines burn at 15- to 25-year intervals, and crown fires are more typical than surface fires. Pitch pine-post oak/scrub oak woodlands burn at 25- to 30-year intervals in what are normally crown fires [148].

Much of the research in pitch pine forests indicates a change in composition since the fire exclusion era. Pollen records, historical maps, and historical accounts of central Suffolk County, New York, indicate that settlement of the area increased the fire frequency and likely the coverage of pine barrens vegetation from the 17th to early in the 20th century. Following 20th century fire suppression practices, however, much of the pitch pine-oak/heath woodlands and pitch pine-scrub oak barrens have changed to oak-hardwood dominated forests [77]. In a review, Williams [146] reports that southern Appalachian Table Mountain pine-pitch pine forests burned every 10 to 12 years from the mid-1800s to approximately 1940 in low-severity surface fires. After about 1940, suppression of fires decreased the fire frequency allowing forests to burn only rarely. Decreased fire frequency is linked to decreased pine reproduction, and forests are becoming oak and hardwood dominated [146].

The species composition of pine barrens vegetation has changed since the exclusion of fire in central Suffolk County. Using aerial photographs, researchers found that from 1938 to present, fire size has significantly (p=0.001) decreased, and average area burned per year has generally decreased. From 1938 to 1996, approximately 55% of the study area was unburned. Barrens communities including dwarf pine plains, pitch pine-scrub oak, heath, pitch pine-heath, and scrub oak shrublands vegetation made up 87% of study area in 1938 but just 36% in 1994. Loss of the vegetation was to development or to conversion into pitch pine-oak forests. Fire return intervals of more than 30 years allow oaks to establish and persist. Black huckleberry generally remains in oak forests; however, growth and berry production are less in oak forests than in barren communities [70].

For 177 fires that occurred between 1938 and 1995 in Suffolk County, spring fires occurring prior to plant leaf out were most common. These "high-intensity, top-killing" fires burned when winds were high, humidity was low, and litter and fine fuels were readily combustible. However, deep duff was normally moist, so deep-penetrating fires were unlikely. Researchers suggest that mimicking this type of fire today is difficult because of fragmentation and proximity to wildland urban interfaces [70]. Pitch pine-dominated stands in the Connecticut Valley lowlands of Massachusetts are also highly fragmented, often less than 20 acres (10 ha) in size, and cannot support an occurrence or intensity of fires that likely occurred prior to European settlement of the area [95].

Mixed pine/hardwood woodlands and shrublands: Like the above forests, the fire frequency in mixed woodlands has been highly influenced by settlement and fire suppression. Historical records, photos, and ground surveys revealed that fires on the Cape Cod National Seashore were concentrated in pine-oak woodlands where black huckleberry is a typical understory species. Between 1896 and 1963 there were 31 fires, many of which were greater than 70 acres (30 ha) in size; however, since 1961 there have been no large fires [40]. In what are now oak-dominated woodlands in the central uplands of north-central Massachusetts, researchers used sediment core and dendrological methods to reveal that "infrequent or occasional" fire was important from 1500 to 1900. Since the early 1900s, however, no fire has occurred in the study area [47].

In a fire history review of Pennsylvania's Pocono Plateau, Latham and others [78] indicated that berry pickers set large fires frequently in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This practice, made illegal by the state in 1897, did not deter berry pickers. In 1942 the state designated the area as unprotected in an attempt to encourage local land owners to stop the burning practice. Based on a single pitch pine tree cut down in 1946, the fire frequency was 1 in 23 years for the vicinity of this tree from the 1820s to 1918 and increased to 1 in 4.5 years from 1919 to 1946 [78].

In the coastal forests of Acadia National Park, Maine, black huckleberry is common, and forest canopies are a mixture of red spruce-Atlantic white-cedar (Picea rubens-Chamaecyparis thyoides), mixed pine, paper birch-mixed aspen, red oak, and northern hardwood stands. From a 24-year period with complete fire records, an average of 9 fires and 371 acres (50 ha) burned, and the fire return interval was an estimated 94 years. When researchers excluded a single year in which a large fire occurred, an average of 7 acres (3 ha) burned per year, and the fire return interval was an estimated 5,000 years. Researchers predicted that the fire return interval for the Park is 100 to 150 years. Park visitors caused over 50% of the fires, and from 1937 to 1979 only 5 of 204 fires were lightning ignited [107].

The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where black huckleberry is important. For further information, see the FEIS review of the dominant species listed below.

Community or ecosystem Dominant species Fire return interval range (years)
birch Betula spp. 80-230 [132]
Atlantic white-cedar Chamaecyparis thyoides 35 to >200 [141]
tamarack Larix laricina 35-200 [108]
Great Lakes spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35 to >200
northeastern spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35-200 [32]
southeastern spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35 to >200 [141]
black spruce Picea mariana 35-200
conifer bog* Picea mariana-Larix laricina 35-200 [32]
blue spruce* Picea pungens 35-200 [3]
red spruce* Picea rubens 35-200 [32]
jack pine Pinus banksiana 25,32]
shortleaf pine Pinus echinata 2-15
shortleaf pine-oak Pinus echinata-Quercus spp. <10 [141]
longleaf-slash pine Pinus palustris-P. elliottii 1-4 [99,141]
longleaf pine-scrub oak Pinus palustris-Quercus spp. 6-10
Table Mountain pine Pinus pungens <35 to 200 [141]
red pine (Great Lakes region) Pinus resinosa 3-18 (x=3-10) [24,49]
red-white pine* (Great Lakes region) Pinus resinosa-P. strobus 3-200 [25,62,82]
pitch pine Pinus rigida 6-25 [16,64]
eastern white pine Pinus strobus 35-200 [132,141]
eastern white pine-eastern hemlock Pinus strobus-Tsuga canadensis 35-200
eastern white pine-northern red oak-red maple Pinus strobus-Quercus rubra-Acer rubrum 35-200
loblolly pine Pinus taeda 3-8
loblolly-shortleaf pine Pinus taeda-P. echinata 10 to <35
Virginia pine Pinus virginiana 10 to <35
Virginia pine-oak Pinus virginiana-Quercus spp. 10 to <35 [141]
quaking aspen-paper birch Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera 35-200 [32,141]
oak-hickory Quercus-Carya spp. <35
northeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. 10 to <35
southeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. <10
white oak-black oak-northern red oak Quercus alba-Q. velutina-Q. rubra <35
northern pin oak Quercus ellipsoidalis <35
bear oak Quercus ilicifolia <35
chestnut oak Quercus prinus 3-8
northern red oak Quercus rubra 10 to <35
post oak-blackjack oak Quercus stellata-Q. marilandica <10
black oak Quercus velutina <35
live oak Quercus virginiana 10 to<100 [141]
eastern hemlock-white pine Tsuga canadensis-Pinus strobus x=47 [25]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species review
  • 62. Heinselman, Miron L. 1970. The natural role of fire in northern conifer forests. In: The role of fire in the Intermountain West: Symposium proceedings; 1970 October 27-29; Missoula, MT. Missoula, MT: Intermountain Fire Research Council: 30-41. In cooperation with: University of Montana, School of Forestry. [15735]
  • 3. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. [36984]
  • 32. Duchesne, Luc C.; Hawkes, Brad C. 2000. Fire in northern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 35-51. [36982]
  • 15. Brayton, R. D.; Woodwell, G. M. 1966. Effects of ionizing radiation and fire on Gaylussacia baccata and Vaccinium vacillans. American Journal of Botany. 53(8): 816-820. [9074]
  • 16. Buchholz, Kenneth; Good, Ralph E. 1982. Density, age structure, biomass and net annual aboveground productivity of dwarfed Pinus rigida Moll. from the New Jersey Pine Barren Plains. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 109(1): 24-34. [8639]
  • 24. Clark, James S. 1990. Fire and climate change during the last 750 yr in northwestern Minnesota. Ecological Monographs. 60(2): 135-159. [11650]
  • 38. Dunwiddie, Peter W. 1998. Ecological management of sandplain grasslands and coastal heathlands in southeastern Massachusetts. In: Pruden, Teresa L.; Brennan, Leonard A., eds. Fire in ecosystem management: shifting the paradigm from suppression to prescription: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1996 May 7-10; Boise, ID. No. 20. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 83-93. [35607]
  • 40. Eberhardt, Robert W.; Foster, David E.; Motzkin, Glenn; Hall, Brian. 2003. Conservation of changing landscapes: vegetation and land-use history of Cape Cod National Seashore. Ecological Applications. 13(1): 68-84. [44244]
  • 43. Engstrom, F. Brett; Mann, Daniel H. 1991. Fire ecology of red pine (Pinus resinosa) in northern Vermont, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 882-889. [14997]
  • 47. Foster, David R.; Clayden, Susan; Orwig, David A.; Hall, Brian; Barry, Sylvia. 2002. Oak, chestnut and fire: climatic and cultural controls of long-term forest dynamics in New England, USA. Journal of Biogeography. 29(10/11): 1359-1379. [45915]
  • 49. Frissell, Sidney S., Jr. 1968. A fire chronology for Itasca State Park, Minnesota. Minnesota Forestry Research Notes No. 196. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota. 2 p. [34527]
  • 50. Furyaev, V. V.; Wein, Ross W.; MacLean, David A. 1983. Fire influences in Abies-dominated forests. In: Wein, Ross W.; MacLean, David A., eds. The role of fire in northern circumpolar ecosystems. Scope 18. Chichester; New York: John Wiley & Sons: 221-234. [14610]
  • 70. Jordan, Marilyn J.; Patterson, William A., III; Windisch, Andrew G. 2003. Conceptual ecological models for the Long Island pitch pine barrens: implications for managing rare plant communities. Forest Ecology and Management. 182(1-2): 151-168. [42026]
  • 77. Kurczewski, Frank E.; Boyle, Hugh F. 2000. Historical changes in the pine barrens of central Suffolk County, New York. Northeastern Naturalist. 7(2): 95-112. [41670]
  • 78. Latham, Roger Earl; Thompson, John E.; Riley, Sarah A.; Wibiralske, Anne W. 1996. The Pocono till barrens: shrub savanna persisting on soils favoring forest. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 123(4): 330-349. [55129]
  • 79. Laycock, William A. 1967. Distribution of roots and rhizomes in different soil types in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Geological Survey Professional Paper 563-C. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. 29 p. [22934]
  • 82. Loope, Walter L. 1991. Interrelationships of fire history, land use history, and landscape pattern within Pictured Rocks National Seashore, Michigan. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 105(1): 18-28. [5950]
  • 83. Lutz, Harold J. 1934. Ecological relations in the pitch pine plains of southern New Jersey. Bulletin No. 38. New Haven, CT: Yale University, School of Forestry. 80 p. [36163]
  • 86. Matlack, G. R.; Gibson, D. J.; Good, R. E. 1993. Clonal propagation, local disturbance, and the structure of vegetation: Ericaceous shrubs in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Biological Conservation. 63: 1-8. [20098]
  • 90. McCormick, Jack. 1998. The vegetation of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. In: Forman, Richard T. T., ed. Pine Barrens: ecosystem and landscape. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press: 229-243. [50774]
  • 95. Motzkin, G.; Patterson, W. A., III; Foster, D. R. 1999. A historical perspective on pitch pine - scrub oak communities in the Connecticut Valley of Massachusetts. Ecosystems. 2(3): 255-273. [60894]
  • 99. Myers, Ronald L. 2000. Fire in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 161-173. [36985]
  • 132. Swain, Albert M. 1978. Environmental changes during the past 2000 years in north-central Wisconsin: analysis of pollen, charcoal, and seeds from varved lake sediments. Quaternary Research. 10: 55-68. [6968]
  • 146. Williams, Charles E. 1998. History and status of Table Mountain pine-pitch pine forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains (USA). Natural Areas Journal. 18(1): 81-90. [27900]
  • 148. Windisch, Andrew G. 1999. Fire ecology of the New Jersey pine plains and vicinity. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. 327 p. Dissertation. [53348]
  • 25. Cleland, David T.; Crow, Thomas R.; Saunders, Sari C.; Dickmann, Donald I.; Maclean, Ann L.; Jordan, James K.; Watson, Richard L.; Sloan, Alyssa M.; Brosofske, Kimberley D. 2004. Characterizing historical and modern FIRE REGIMES in Michigan (USA): a landscape ecosystem approach. Landscape Ecology. 19: 311-325. [54326]
  • 102. Niering, William A. 1981. The role of fire management in altering ecosystems. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Lotan, J. E.; Reiners, W. A., technical coordinators. FIRE REGIMES and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 489-510. [5084]
  • 107. Patterson, William A., III; Saunders, Karen E.; Horton, L. J. 1983. FIRE REGIMES of the coastal Maine forests of Acadia National Park. OSS 83-3. Boston, MA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, Office of Scientific Studies. 259 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, State and Private Forestry, Broomall, PA. [21108]
  • 64. Hendrickson, William H. 1972. Perspective on fire and ecosystems in the United States. In: Fire in the environment: Symposium proceedings; 1972 May 1-5; Denver, CO. FS-276. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 29-33. In cooperation with: Fire Services of Canada, Mexico, and the United States; Members of the Fire Management Study Group; North American Forestry Commission; FAO. [17276]
  • 108. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
  • 141. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. [36983]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: backfire, climax, cover, fire frequency, formation, frequency, litter, shrub, succession

Black huckleberry is typically present in late seral communities that result from primary succession. However, following disturbances in areas where black huckleberry is established, it rapidly recolonizes the site.

General: Late seral and climax communities are typical black huckleberry habitat. Black huckleberry was common in the heath-dominated shrub layer of climax oak-hickory forests at historic Mount Vernon, Virginia [143]. In northern lower Michigan, black huckleberry was more characteristic of mature 2nd-growth stands between 54 and 83 years old dominated by northern red oak, red pine, and red maple when compared to disturbed young stands between 2 and 13 years old on similar sites [115].

On the Cape Cod peninsula of Massachusetts, black huckleberry was much more common on sites that had not been disturbed by plowing or farming in the past than on old-field sites [97]. Similarly on the Montague Plain of central Massachusetts black huckleberry occurred on 80% of sites that had not been plowed in the past and just 21% of old-field sites. Researchers suspected that black huckleberry's poor recolonization of abandoned agricultural sites was due to poor dispersal and/or establishment. Land once cleared for agriculture was still, 50 to 100 years later, compositionally different from relatively undisturbed areas [98].

Shade relationships: Black huckleberry tolerates some shade and likely prefers diffuse lighting over full sun conditions. Kudish [76] considered black huckleberry slightly shade tolerant, and Martin [85] indicated an intermediate shade tolerance. In oak-hickory forests of Pennsylvania, black huckleberry "persisted" under dense shade but failed to produce flowers or fruits [122].

Comparisons of black oak woodlands along the southern shores of Lake Michigan in northwestern Indiana revealed greater black huckleberry coverage in forests with reduced canopy cover. Black huckleberry coverage was 0.11%, and frequency was 4%, in black oak woodlands with 77% canopy cover. Coverage was 1.4%, and frequency was 28%, in woodlands with 33% canopy cover. Researchers noted that fire frequency was higher in woodlands with greater canopy cover and may have influenced black huckleberry coverage and frequency [63].

Black huckleberry biomass was much greater in open than dense coniferous forests in western Nova Scotia. Coniferous forests were a mixture of red spruce, black spruce, balsam fir, white pine, and eastern hemlock. Black huckleberry biomass was 4 kg/ha in dense forests with an average canopy cover of 75% and 348 kg/ha in open forests where the average canopy coverage was 44%. In mixed wood forests dominated by red maple, bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata), and red oak, however, black huckleberry biomass was 15 kg/ha where the average canopy coverage was 73% but was absent from mixed wood forests with 61% canopy cover [135].

In the Appalachian Plateau and ridge provinces of Pennsylvania, black huckleberry frequency and cover were reduced by harvesting (clearcuts and shelterwoods). Black huckleberry coverage 1 year before harvest and 1 year after harvest were 8% and 3%, respectively. Preharvest frequency was 26%, and frequency was 21% one year after harvest [45].

Primary succession: Black huckleberry is absent from the early stages of primary succession. Black huckleberry is not typically present on sand dunes until 6 to 10 centuries following their formation in eastern Gary, Indiana's, Marquette Park [104]. In the Wilderness State Park of northern Lower Michigan, black huckleberry occurred on dune ridges that were greater than 440 years old. Dune ridge ages were 25 to 2,375 years [80].

Secondary succession: Many disturbances are tolerated by black huckleberry, and postdisturbance recovery is normally quick. Black huckleberry coverage was reduced but frequency increased on spring-burned sites, and coverage and frequency were unchanged on summer burned and mowed plots. In grasslands of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, sites were burned twice in April over a 2-year period. Vegetation was measured at postfire year 1. The 2nd April fire burned when wind speeds were 10 to 13 miles/hour (16-21 km/h), temperatures were 40 °F (7 °C), and relative humidity was 66%. Backfire flame lengths were 1 to 10 feet (0.3-4 m), and most litter was consumed. Another site burned in an August fire, but fire conditions were not described. Vegetation was measured 2 years following fire. Other sites were mowed biennially in August. Mowing removed vegetation to 2 inches (5 cm) above ground, and posttreatment vegetation changes were measured the 2nd posttreatment year. Changes in black huckleberry frequency and cover are provided below [36].

Treatment Control Spring fire Summer fire Summer mowing
Years since treatment NA NA Prefire 1 Prefire 2 Prefire 2
Cover (%) 15 21 18 11 16 15 18 18
Frequency (%) 30 33 43 50 37 37 62 62

For information on black huckleberry burned and polluted sites see the discussion in Fire in conjunction with other disturbances.

Grazing: There was almost no difference in black huckleberry frequency and coverage on sites grazed 44 years prior and sites ungrazed for approximately 100 years prior to the study of coastal grasslands on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. On grazed sites black huckleberry coverage and frequency were 33.3% and 50.5%, respectively. On ungrazed sites, black huckleberry coverage and frequency were 33.6% and 54.8%, respectively. The author noted that domestic sheep only "lightly" browsed black huckleberry [37].

In mixed pine-oak vegetation in southern New Jersey, black huckleberry was clipped in successive years. Sprout "vigor" diminished after the 2nd year of clipping. This finding suggests that black huckleberry may not be tolerant of continued browsing [88].

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  • 135. Telfer, E. S. 1972. Understory biomass in five forest types in southwestern Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Botany. 50: 1263-1267. [13933]
  • 143. Wells, Elizabeth Fortson; Brown, Rebecca Louise. 2000. An annotated checklist of the vascular plants in the forest at historic Mount Vernon, Virginia: a legacy from the past. Castanea. 65(4): 242-257. [47363]
  • 45. Fei, Songlin; Steiner, Kim C.; Finley, James C.; McDill, Marc E.; Gould, Peter J. 2004. Composition and development of non-tree vegetation and its relationship with tree regeneration in mixed-oak forest stands. In: Yaussy, Daniel; Hix, David M.; Goebel, P. Charles; Long, Robert P., eds. Proceedings, 14th central hardwood forest conference; 2004 March 16-19; Wooster, OH. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-316. Newton Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station: 297-303. [CD]. [49733]
  • 98. Motzkin, Glenn; Foster, David; Allen, Arthur; [and others]. 1996. Controlling site to evaluate history: vegetation patterns of a New England sand plain. Ecological Monographs. 66(3): 345-365. [28579]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: density, litter, perfect, ramet, rhizome, root crown, shrub, shrubs

Black huckleberry produces seed, but regeneration is predominantly though clonal growth [21,86]. In an extensive study of heath-shrub communities in pitch pine barrens of Long Island, New York, Reiners [112] searched but found no seedlings and suggested that black huckleberry was largely dependent on asexual regeneration.

Pollination: Pollination is chiefly insect mediated. Flowers are self fertile, but cross pollination by insects, especially bees, is common [125]. In a review, black huckleberry was recognized as a nectar source for 1st and 2nd generations of endangered Karner blue butterfly populations in Wisconsin. The 1st and 2nd adult generations emerge from the pupa in late spring and mid-summer, respectively [58].

Breeding system: Flowers are perfect [125].

Seed production: Information on the quantity of black huckleberry seed produced is lacking.

Seed dispersal: A number of wildlife species eat black huckleberries; however, the viability of seed passed through the digestive tract is unknown [112]. A study of vegetation change on the Montague Plain of central Massachusetts suggests that black huckleberry dispersal by seed is limited. Black huckleberry occurred on 80% of sites that had not been plowed in the past and just 21% of old-field sites. Researchers suspected that black huckleberry's poor recolonization of abandoned agricultural sites was due to poor seed dispersal and/or seedling establishment [98].

Seed banking: Several studies suggest that black huckleberry has a limited seed bank or that germination requirements may be difficult to reproduce in controlled environments. From 34 oak-pine stands in southern New Jersey, soil was collected in June and July of 1986. The total 5,000 cm³ was unstratified and dark, cold greenhouse stratified and only 1 black huckleberry seedling/m² emerged, although it was a dominant understory shrub in the stands sampled [89].

No black huckleberry seedlings germinated from soil samples taken from regenerating eastern white pine-red pine (Pinus resinosa) forests in northern Lower Michigan. Sites burned 1 to 70 years prior, and soil from a total area of 0.25 m² was collected from each site for 3 years. Soil was watered and fertilized in a greenhouse to encourage seedling germination. Germination was monitored until no germination was observed for an 8-week period [119].

Neither black huckleberry seeds nor seedlings were recovered from soil samples taken from Brush Mountain on southwestern Virginia's Jefferson National Forest. Soil was collected in mature oak woodlands dominated by chestnut oak, scarlet oak, black huckleberry, and Blue Ridge blueberry (Vaccinium vacillans). Litter, humus, and surface soil to 2 inch (5 cm) depths were collected. Seventy-five percent of soil samples were encouraged to germinate in greenhouse conditions (40 to 100 °F (5-40 °C)) for a year. The other 25% of soil samples were sifted and visually searched for seed. Researchers acknowledged that some black huckleberry seed may have been missed as it resembled root fragments [120].

A review reported that several black huckleberry seed samples had fewer than 50% viable seeds. When seeds were stored at 41 °F (5 °C) in sealed bottles for more than 2 years, they retained their viability [12].

Germination: Black huckleberry seed germination can be slow, and often germination percentages are low. Fifty black huckleberry seeds taken from ripe fruits were cleaned and sown outdoors. Just 2 seeds germinated after 623 days [1]. Another researcher collected 200 black huckleberry seeds in northern Michigan. Thirteen seeds germinated in soil kept outdoors for a period of 83 days beginning in the late fall. The 1st seeds to germinate took 42 days; the last seeds to germinate took 169 days. Forty-four seeds germinated without cold treatments. The 1st noncold treated seeds germinated after 111 days in the greenhouse and the last seeds after 330 days [101]. Young and Young [150] suggested that a 30-day warm stratification followed by cold seed treatments "enhanced" black huckleberry germination.

Seedling establishment/growth: To date (2006), field studies documenting black huckleberry seedling establishment or growth rate are lacking, suggesting a heavy reliance on vegetative reproduction.

Asexual regeneration: Vegetative regeneration is through rhizome, root crown, and epicormic sprouting. Sprout growth triggered by stem damage typically arises from buds nearest the apex stem [15]. Black huckleberry stems that are merely bent may also produce epicormic shoots from preventitious buds [147].

Black huckleberry clonal growth is normally extensive [21]. Clonal growth is by rhizome extension and upward growth that produces ramets every 10 to 20 inches (30-50 cm). Through the excavation of 5 intact black huckleberry rhizome systems in the pitch pine barrens of New Jersey, researchers revealed a multibranched (mean 6.93 inches (17.6 cm)) between rhizome branches) system with a large number of buds (average 36.2 buds/10 cm). Few buds, however, were ever used for growth [86]. First growing season stems from rhizomes were unbranched and up to 8 inches (20 cm) tall. From ring counts of 69 stems, the average ramet age was 5.7 years, and the maximum age was 15 years [112].

Aboveground damage can affect clonal growth. Experimental manipulations of black huckleberry shrubs in woodlands of New Jersey's Lebanon Forest showed that clipped ramets produced greater stem length and more stems than unclipped ramets. Ramets attached to a greater length of rhizome were more likely to sprout than those with shorter rhizome length. Sprouts were produced close to the severed end of rhizomes [87].

Rates of black huckleberry clonal expansion were studied in a little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) grassland-shrubland community on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Clonal patches with discrete edges were compared in aerial photos from 1975 and ground surveys in 1990. Of 40 clones, 28 had significant (p<0.05) increases in size from 1975 to 1990. From all clones studied, the average increase in diameter was 6.9 feet (2.1 m) or 35% in 15 years. Clonal expansion averaged 29.5 m² or 89% from 1975 to 1990. Stem density of clones ranged from a high of 424 stems/ha in the clone center to a low of 4 stems/ha on the clone edge [59].

  • 1. Adams, John. 1927. The germination of the seeds of some plants with fleshy fruits. American Journal of Botany. 14(8): 415-428. [48174]
  • 12. Bonner, F. T.; Halls, Lowell K. 1974. Gaylussacia baccata (Wangh.) K. Koch--black huckleberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 427-428. [7672]
  • 15. Brayton, R. D.; Woodwell, G. M. 1966. Effects of ionizing radiation and fire on Gaylussacia baccata and Vaccinium vacillans. American Journal of Botany. 53(8): 816-820. [9074]
  • 21. Camp, W. H. 1941. Studies in the Ericales: a review of the North American Gaylussacieae; with remarks on the origin and migration of the group. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 68(8): 531-551. [60959]
  • 58. Haack, Robert A. 1993. The endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): biology, management considerations, and data gaps. In: Gillespie, Andrew R.; Parker, George R.; Pope, Phillip E., eds. Proceedings, 9th central hardwood forest conference; 1993 March 8-10; West Lafayette, IN. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-161. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 83-100. [27003]
  • 59. Harper, Karen A. 1995. Effect of expanding clones of Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry) on species composition in sandplain grassland on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 122(2): 124-133. [60948]
  • 86. Matlack, G. R.; Gibson, D. J.; Good, R. E. 1993. Clonal propagation, local disturbance, and the structure of vegetation: Ericaceous shrubs in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Biological Conservation. 63: 1-8. [20098]
  • 87. Matlack, Glenn R. 1997. Resource allocation among clonal shoots of the fire-tolerant shrub Gaylussacia baccata. Oikos. 80(3): 509-518. [29359]
  • 89. Matlack, Glenn R.; Good, Ralph E. 1990. Spatial heterogeneity in the soil seed bank of a mature coastal plain forest. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 117(2): 143-152. [22905]
  • 101. Nichols, George E. 1913. The vegetation of Connecticut. II. Virgin forests. Torreya. 13(9): 199-215. [14069]
  • 112. Reiners, W. A. 1965. Ecology of a heath-shrub synusia in the pine barrens of Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 92(6): 448-464. [22835]
  • 119. Scheiner, Samuel M. 1988. The seed bank and above-ground vegetation in an upland pine-hardwood succession. Michigan Botanist. 27(4): 99-106. [12396]
  • 120. Schiffman, Paula M.; Johnson, W. Carter. 1992. Sparse buried seed bank in a southern Appalachian oak forest: implications for succession. The American Midland Naturalist. 127(2): 258-267. [18191]
  • 125. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publications. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907]
  • 147. Wilson, Brayton F. 1997. Response to stem bending in forest shrubs: stem or shoot reorientation and shoot release. Canadian Journal of Botany. 75(10): 1643-1648. [60953]
  • 150. Young, James A.; Young, Cheryl G. 1986. Collecting, processing and germinating seeds of wildland plants. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 236 p. [12232]
  • 98. Motzkin, Glenn; Foster, David; Allen, Arthur; [and others]. 1996. Controlling site to evaluate history: vegetation patterns of a New England sand plain. Ecological Monographs. 66(3): 345-365. [28579]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: geophyte, phanerophyte

RAUNKIAER [111] LIFE FORM:
Geophyte
Phanerophyte
  • 111. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

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Life Form

More info for the term: shrub

Shrub

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Black huckleberry produced flowers and fruits earlier in more coastal and more southern portions of its range compared to inland and northern sites. Fruits typically persist for several weeks [12].

Flowering
United States:
AR: Ouachita Mountain region April to May [66]
IL May to June [94]
NJ and Hudson Valley late May to early June [87]
NY: Adirondacks June [22,76]
NY: Long Island early to mid-May [112]
NC and SC April to June [110]
WV May to June [131]
Atlantic and Gulf coasts May to July [34]
Blue Ridge Province April to June [149]
New England 21 May to 4 July [121]
Northeastern U.S. May to June [54]
Canada:
NS early June [117]
ON late May to June [125]
Fruiting
United States:
AR: Ouachita Mountain region June to September [66]
NJ and Hudson Valley mature in August [22]
NY: Adirondacks develop in August [87]
NY: Long Island ripe at end of July [112]
NC and SC July to August [110]
OH: Wauseon ripen from 15 to 28 July [55]
Canada:
ON July to August [125]

Several northeastern areas report additional black huckleberry seasonal development information. In the greater Chicago area that included 2 Wisconsin, 7 Illinois, 1 Michigan, and 3 Indiana counties, observations made from 1942 through 1950 indicated that the earliest black huckleberry flowering occurred on 22 April and the latest on 15 June [134]. In a review, Gorchov [55] reported that during 5 years of observations in Wauseon, Ohio, black huckleberry fruits 1st ripened from 15 to 28 July. From 13 years of data, the average interval between flower opening and fruit ripening was 65 days. In New Jersey and the Hudson Valley, black huckleberry leaves dropped in late September or early October [87].
  • 76. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376]
  • 117. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 54. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 131. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 12. Bonner, F. T.; Halls, Lowell K. 1974. Gaylussacia baccata (Wangh.) K. Koch--black huckleberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 427-428. [7672]
  • 22. Chapman, William K.; Bessette, Alan E. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 131 p. [12766]
  • 34. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
  • 55. Gorchov, David L. 1987. Sequence of fruit ripening in bird-dispersed plants: consistency among years. Ecology. 68(1): 223-225. [3395]
  • 66. Hunter, Carl G. 1989. Trees, shrubs, and vines of Arkansas. Little Rock, AR: The Ozark Society Foundation. 207 p. [21266]
  • 87. Matlack, Glenn R. 1997. Resource allocation among clonal shoots of the fire-tolerant shrub Gaylussacia baccata. Oikos. 80(3): 509-518. [29359]
  • 110. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 112. Reiners, W. A. 1965. Ecology of a heath-shrub synusia in the pine barrens of Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 92(6): 448-464. [22835]
  • 121. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 125. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publications. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907]
  • 134. Swink, Floyd A. 1952. A phenological study of the flora of the Chicago region. The American Midland Naturalist. 48(3): 758-768. [55183]
  • 149. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]
  • 94. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gaylussacia baccata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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The state of Missouri considers black huckleberry critically imperiled because it is extremely rare or vulnerable to extirpation [93].

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Management

Management considerations

More info for the terms: presence, shrub

The presence of black huckleberry may indicate suitable sites for oak reforestation in the Lake
States. Black huckleberry was constant in oak stands, growing on more than 40% of the oak
plots and less than 5% of other stands [118].

Black huckleberry is adapted to nutrient-poor sites, and fertilization of these sites may
decrease the abundance of black huckleberry. Researchers irrigated oak forests near the Falmouth Wastewater Treatment Plant
in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, with nitrogen-enriched wastewater. Black huckleberry coverage before
irrigation treatments was 72.0%. One, two, and three years following irrigation
treatments black huckleberry coverage was 75.2%, 71.2%, and 6.0%, respectively. The dramatic
decreases in black huckleberry coverage were likely due to extreme increases in weedy
American pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) with increased nitrogen inputs [69].
Stanek and State [126] provide several equations useful for
predicting black huckleberry shrub, stem, foliage, and bark biomass.
  • 69. Jordan, Marilyn J.; Nadelhoffer, Knute J.; Fry, Brian. 1997. Nitrogen cycling in forest and grass ecosystems irrigated with 15N-enriched wastewater. Ecological Applications. 7(3): 864-881. [49829]
  • 118. Rudolf, Paul O. 1950. Forest plantations in the Lake States. Tech. Bull. 1010. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 171 p. [13463]
  • 126. Stanek, W.; State, D. [n.d.]. Equations predicting primary productivity (biomass) of trees, shrubs and lesser vegetation based on current literature. [Ottawa]: Environment Canada, Forestry Service. 58 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20783]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Other uses and values

More info for the term: fresh

Huckleberries are eaten fresh off the plant or prepared into a variety of sweet dishes including syrups, pies, and jams. While sweet and edible, black huckleberries are considered seedy [131]. Huckleberries can be dried and made into pemmican that will keep until the winter months when properly prepared [33].

In a review, Duke [33] indicated that several tribes utilized black huckleberry. The Cherokee chewed black huckleberry leaves like tobacco to treat dysentery and tender gums. A black huckleberry tea was drunk when suffering from Bright's disease, the common cold, dysentery, or indigestion. Iroquois smoked black huckleberry leaves, and drank a tea to purify the blood, and to treat arthritis, colds, kidney ailments, rheumatism, tapeworm infections, and venereal diseases. Members of the Chippewa, Delaware, Mohegans, Menominee, Ojibwatribe, Potawatomi, and Shinnecock tribes drank huckleberry teas as a blood tonic and to treat colds, rheumatism, kidney ailments, fevers, and lumbago [33].

  • 131. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 33. Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of edible weeds. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 246 p. [52780]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the terms: cover, density, peatland, selection, shrubs, swamp

Black huckleberry berries and browse are important foods for gamebirds, songbirds, small mammals, bears, and other wildlife. Huckleberry shrubs provide important cover for birds and small mammals in dry open woodlands, as well [33,52,61].

Domestic sheep: The coastal grassland vegetation of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, was routinely grazed by sheep until 1948. The author noted that domestic sheep only "lightly" browsed black huckleberry [37].

Deer: White-tailed deer browsing of black huckleberry is variable. Likely white-tailed deer densities, availability of more palatable browse, and age of black huckleberry stems affect selection. Between 1% and 6% of white-tailed deer diets can be huckleberry browse in the eastern U.S. [86]. Little and others [81] suggest that new huckleberry growth is only "lightly" browsed when available.

However, white-tailed deer heavily browsed black huckleberry in red spruce-hemlock-pine forests of southwestern Nova Scotia. White-tailed deer population density was an estimated 5 deer/mi² in the area where black huckleberry shrubs made up 5.4% of the total available weight. White-tailed deer utilization was 6.7%, and the preference factor suggested heavy black huckleberry browsing [136].

Small mammals: Black huckleberry fruits are likely eaten by a variety of small mammals. Martin and others [86] report that huckleberry makes up to 2% of eastern gray squirrel and fox diets in the eastern United States.

Snowshoe hares heavily browsed black huckleberry in red spruce-hemlock-pine forests of southwestern Nova Scotia. Snowshoe hare populations were considered high, but no densities were reported. Black huckleberry shrubs made up 5.4% of the total available weight, and percent utilization by snowshoe hares was 8.0%. The preference factor suggested heavy black huckleberry browsing [136].

Birds: Gamebirds, songbirds, and raptors feed on black huckleberry fruit and/or utilize black huckleberry for cover. Up to 2% of ruffed grouse, northern bobwhite, wild turkey, catbird, white winged crossbill, pine grosbeak, Florida jay, orchard oriole, scarlet tanager, and red-eyed towhee diets can be huckleberries [86]. Reiners [112] indicates that birds of Long Island, New York, have purple-blue scat due to the high number of huckleberries consumed. The viability of seed once passed through the digestive tract is unknown.

In Wisconsin, 1.9% of the fall foods recovered from sharp-tailed grouse was black huckleberry, and 3 of 17 greater prairie-chicken stomach contents contained black huckleberry [138].

Northern harrier habits were studied from 19 February 1987 to 26 April 1988 on Barney's Joy Point, Massachusetts. Northern harrier roosting sites were chiefly in dense black huckleberry patches. The 2 nests found with egg shell pieces were found in dense shrublands dominated by black huckleberry. Barney's Joy Point represents the only known Massachusetts mainland northern harrier breeding site excluding Cape Cod [23].

Reptiles: In New York's Cicero Swamp, the eastern massasauga rattlesnake, listed as endangered in New York [100], was found primarily in a peatland dominated by mountain holly (Nemopanthus mucronatus), highbush blueberry, and black chokeberry, with some black huckleberry and leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata). The peatland is thought to be important in the gestation period and for overwintering [67].

Insects: Several insects feed on black huckleberry leaves [112], and in a review, black huckleberry is recognized as a nectar source for the 1st and 2nd generations of endangered Karner blue butterflies in Wisconsin. The 1st and 2nd adult generations emerge from the pupa at different times of the year, late spring and mid-summer, respectively [58].

Palatability/nutritional value: Several states report the nutritional value of black huckleberry. Black huckleberry fruits collected in the fall of 1970 and 1971 from several sites in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, averaged 4,324 cal/g in energy value and 68.5% in moisture content [19].

The nutrient content and concentrations in black huckleberry leaves collected in open white and northern red oak forests of west Greenwich, Rhode Island, were as follows [72]:

Nutrient N P Cu Fe Zn Specific leaf mass
Mean content (µg/cm²) 65.2 5.5 0.05 0.12 0.09 6.6 mg/cm²
Mean concentration (µg/g) 9,840 830 7.2 19 13 ----

The nutrient and ash concentration of black huckleberry varied only slightly in different-aged jack pine stands regenerating after in Clinton County, New York. Data are summarized below [127]:

Nutrient (%) N P K Ca Mg Ash
21-year-old stand 1.21 0.08 0.96 0.87 0.21 4.38
29-year-old stand 1.24 0.08 1.05 1.11 0.19 4.83
46-year-old stand 1.26 0.09 0.74 0.98 0.3 4.42
67-year-old stand 1.36 0.09 0.94 0.94 0.21 4.58

Cover value: Huckleberry shrubs provide important cover for birds and small mammals in dry open eastern woodlands [52].

  • 37. Dunwiddie, Peter W. 1997. Long-term effects of sheep grazing on coastal sandplain vegetation. Natural Areas Journal. 17(3): 261-264. [27443]
  • 58. Haack, Robert A. 1993. The endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): biology, management considerations, and data gaps. In: Gillespie, Andrew R.; Parker, George R.; Pope, Phillip E., eds. Proceedings, 9th central hardwood forest conference; 1993 March 8-10; West Lafayette, IN. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-161. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 83-100. [27003]
  • 61. Healy, William M.; Robinette, Sadie L. 1974. Huckleberries. In: Gill, John D.; Healy, William M. Shrubs and vines for northeastern wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-9. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 89-92. [51815]
  • 86. Matlack, G. R.; Gibson, D. J.; Good, R. E. 1993. Clonal propagation, local disturbance, and the structure of vegetation: Ericaceous shrubs in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Biological Conservation. 63: 1-8. [20098]
  • 112. Reiners, W. A. 1965. Ecology of a heath-shrub synusia in the pine barrens of Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 92(6): 448-464. [22835]
  • 127. Stergas, R. L.; Adams, K. B. 1989. Jack pine barrens in northeastern New York: postfire macronutrient concentrations, heat content, and understory biomass. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 19: 904-910. [8629]
  • 19. Burns, Thomas A.; Viers, Charles E., Jr. 1973. Caloric and moisture content values of selected fruits and mast. Journal of Wildlife Management. 37(4): 585-587. [41689]
  • 23. Christiansen, Dave A., Jr.; Reinert, Steven E. 1990. Habitat use of the northern harrier in a coastal Massachusetts shrubland with notes on population trends in southeastern New England. Journal of Raptor Research. 24(4): 84-90. [60952]
  • 33. Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of edible weeds. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 246 p. [52780]
  • 52. Gill, John D.; Healy, William M. 1974. Shrubs and vines for northeastern wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-9. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 180 p. [6207]
  • 72. Killingbeck, Keith T.; Costigan, Steve A. 1988. Element resorption in a guild of understory shrub species: niche differentiation and resorption thresholds. Oikos. 53: 366-374. [8973]
  • 81. Little, Silas; Moorhead, George R.; Somes, Horace A. 1958. Forestry and deer in the pine region of New Jersey. Station Pap. No. 109. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 33 p. [11681]
  • 136. Telfer, Edmund S. 1972. Browse selection by deer and hares. Journal of Wildlife Management. 36(4): 1344-1349. [12455]
  • 138. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Misc. Publ. No. 303. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 67. Johnson, Glenn; Breisch, Alvin R. 1993. The eastern massasauga rattlesnake in New York: occurrence and Habitat management. In: Johnson, Bob; Menzies, Vi, eds. International symposium and workshop on the conservation of the eastern massasauga rattlesnake, Proceedings; 1992 May 8-9; Toronto, ON. West Hill, ON: Metropolitan Toronto Zoo: 48-54. [26682]
  • 100. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Fish Wildlife and Marine Resources. 2003. List of endangered, threatened and special concern fish and wildlife species of New York State, [Online]. Albany, NY: New York Natural Heritage Program (Producer). Available: http://www.dec.state.ny.us/website/dfwmr/wildlife/endspec/etsclist.html [2006, March 13]. [61041]

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

Black huckleberry invaded revegetated areas of the highly disturbed Warren Grove Weapons Range in New Jersey. Researchers suggested that black huckleberry should be tested in future revegetation efforts since it could provide wildlife habitat and food, structural diversity, and ecological function to revegetated communities [46].
  • 46. Fimbel, Robert A.; Kuser, John E. 1993. Restoring the pygmy pine forest of New Jersey's pine barrens. Restoration Ecology. 1(2): 117-129. [22352]

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Wikipedia

Gaylussacia baccata

Gaylussacia baccata, the black huckleberry, is a common huckleberry found throughout a wide area of northeastern North America. It closely resembles the blueberry plants (Vaccinium species) with which it grows, but can be readily identified by the numerous resin dots on the undersides of the leaves which glitter when held up to the light. It is a vigorous clonal colonizer.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The currently accepted scientific name of black huckleberry is Gaylussacia
baccata (Wangenh.) Koch (Ericaceae) [54,71,110,117,125,131,140].
In this review, where information is provided at the genus
level (Gaylussacia spp.), the common name
huckleberry is used.
  • 117. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 54. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 131. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 110. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 125. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publications. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907]
  • 140. Voss, Edward G. 1996. Michigan flora. Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae--Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 61/University of Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan. 622 p. [30401]
  • 71. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]

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Common Names

black huckleberry

huckleberry

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