Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Because the flowers usually bloom at night, Ragged Evening Primrose is a fairly low and inconspicuous plant. These flowers are very similar in appearance to those of Oenothera biennis (Common Evening Primrose) and other species in this genus. It is primarily the pinnatifid shape of the leaves that sets Ragged Evening Primrose apart; they have conspicuous lateral lobes. The leaf-margins of other Oenothera spp. in Illinois are usually less wavy. Another common name of Oenothera laciniata is Cutleaf Evening Primrose.
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Description

Ragged Evening Primrose is a native annual about ½–2' long; this plant often sprawls across the ground, or it is weakly ascending (particularly near the tips of its branches). Small plants are usually unbranched, while larger plants produce lateral stems occasionally. Each stem is terete, light green, and more or less hairy. Along each stem, there are alternate leaves up to 4" long and 1" across. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate to oblong-oblanceolate and pinnatifid; they are hairy, although less so along their upper surfaces. The middle to upper leaves are sessile, while the lower leaves have short petioles. From the axils of the middle to upper leaves, there develops individual flowers that are sessile. Each flower spans about 1" across when it is fully open, consisting of 4 yellow petals, a narrowly cylindrical calyx (about 2" long) with 4 narrowly triangular lobe-segments at its apex, a narrowly cylindrical ovary/fruit (about 1–1½" long), 8 stamens, and a central united style with cross-shaped stigmata. The flowers bloom at night and become closed during the morning. Even though it appears that each flower has a stalk-like pedicel about 3" long, this is actually the narrowly cylindrical calyx and ovary/fruit of the flower. The lobe-segments of the calyx hang downward. The blooming period occurs from late spring to mid-summer and lasts about 1½–2 months. Only a few flowers are in bloom at the same time. After pollination of a flower, the entire calyx becomes pale salmon pink and falls off the fruit. The cylindrical fruit (or developing seed capsule) is straight to slightly curved and ascends upward; it is terete, slightly 4-ribbed, and more or less pubescent along its length. This plant reproduces by reseeding itself; the surfaces of the small seeds are pitted.
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Shola forests.
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb Distribution notes: Exotic
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Ragged Evening Primrose is occasional throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include sand prairies, hill prairies, sandy fields and meadows, areas along railroads, roadsides, and waste areas. Usually this wildflower is found in disturbed sandy habitats, although it is occasionally found in barren gravelly areas. It is slightly weedy.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Occurs from Maine to South Dakota south to South America.

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"
Global Distribution

Native of northern temperate hemisphere

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Idukki

"
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Kerala: Idukki
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Fujian, Taiwan [Japan; native to E North America, naturalized in S Africa, Australia, Central America, Europe, and South America].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs erect to procumbent, annual or short-lived perennial, usually with basal rosette. Stems 5-50(-100) cm tall, simple or branched, strigillose and often villous, often with glandular hairs on inflorescence. Leaves green, with inconspicuous veins, strigillose and villous, often also glandular puberulous, sessile to shortly petiolate; rosette blade 4-15 × 1-3 cm; cauline blade narrowly oblanceolate to lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 2-10 × 0.5-3.5 cm, base narrowly cuneate, margin deeply lobed to dentate, apex acute. Inflorescence a lax open spike. Flowers open near sunset, one per stem per day; floral tube 1.2-3.5 cm, upcurved in bud. Sepals 5-15 mm, with free tips 0.3-3 mm, apical, spreading. Petals yellow to pale yellow, fading to orange, 5-22 mm. Anthers 2-6 mm; pollen ca. 50% fertile. Ovary strigillose, with spreading and sometimes a few glandular hairs; stigma surrounded by anthers. Capsules cylindric, 2-5 cm, sessile. Seeds in two rows per locule, brown to dark brown, ellipsoid to suborbicular, 0.9-1.8 mm, pitted. Fl. Apr-Sep(-Oct), fr. May-Oct. 2n = 14, permanent translocation heterozygote; self-compatible, autogamous.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Synonym

Raimannia laciniata (Hill) Rose ex Britton & A. Brown.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Ragged Evening Primrose is occasional throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include sand prairies, hill prairies, sandy fields and meadows, areas along railroads, roadsides, and waste areas. Usually this wildflower is found in disturbed sandy habitats, although it is occasionally found in barren gravelly areas. It is slightly weedy.
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General Habitat

Degraded forest and wasteland in the high ranges
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Open, disturbed, usually sandy sites, often along coastal areas; near sea level to 400 m.
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Associations

Faunal Associations

The flowers are pollinated by Sphinx moths and, to a lesser extent, by bumblebees, honeybees, and other long-tongued bees. Small bees and Syrphid flies may also visit the flowers, where they collect or feed on the pollen, but these latter insects are less effective at cross-pollination. Insects that feed on Ragged Evening Primrose and other Oenothera spp. include several aphids, flea beetles, weevils, moths, and other insects (see the Insect Table for a listing of these species). The Mourning Dove has been observed eating the seeds, while the Cottontail Rabbit and White-Tailed Deer often browse on the foliage. Photographic Location
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Known predators

Oenothera laciniata (cutleaf evening primrose (forb/shrub)) is prey of:
Bos taurus
Lepus townsendii
Coleoptera
Auchenorrhyncha
Sternorrhyncha

Based on studies in:
USA: California, Cabrillo Point (Grassland)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • L. D. Harris and L. Paur, A quantitative food web analysis of a shortgrass community, Technical Report No. 154, Grassland Biome. U.S. International Biological Program (1972), from p. 17.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: August-January
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Oenothera laciniata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sunlight, mesic to dry conditions, and sandy soil where the ground vegetation is low and sparse. Most growth and development occurs during the cool weather of spring.
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Wikipedia

Oenothera laciniata

Oenothera laciniata is a species of flowering plant in the evening primrose family known by the common name cutleaf evening primrose. It is native to the eastern United States but it can be found in many other places as an introduced species and sometimes a noxious weed. It is reported from Hawaii, Australia, Britain, France, Korea, Japan, and other areas.[1] This is an annual or short-lived perennial herb producing a spreading stem from a hairy rosette of deeply cut or lobed leaves. Flowers occur in the axils of leaves higher on the stem. Each flower has pale to deep yellow petals up to about 2 centimeters long which fade orange, pink, or red with age. The fruit is a cylindrical capsule up to 5 centimeters in length.

References[edit]

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