Range and Habitat in Illinois
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Range and Habitat in Illinois
Habitat & Distribution
Flower-Visiting Insects of Water Parsnip in Illinois
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, other insects suck nectar; most observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Graenicher as indicated below)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus impatiens cp, Bombus pensylvanica cp; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn
Halictidae (Halictinae): Halictus confusus sn, Halictus ligatus sn, Halictus rubicunda sn, Lasioglossum cinctipes sn, Lasioglossum coriaceus sn, Lasioglossum illinoensis sn, Lasioglossum imitatus sn, Lasioglossum truncatus sn, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes dichroa sn, Sphecodes stygius sn fq; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes americana sn, Colletes eulophi sn; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis sn, Hylaeus mesillae sn, Hylaeus modestus modestus sn
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Hoplisoides placidus, Pseudoplisus phaleratus, Stizus brevipennis, Synnevrus plagiatus, Zanysson plesia; Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Ectemnius atriceps fq, Ectemnius continuus, Ectemnius lapidarius fq, Ectemnius trifasciatus, Lestica confluentus, Lindenius columbianus fq, Oxybelus emarginatus fq, Oxybelis frontalis fq, Oxybelus niger, Oxybelus packardii, Oxybelus uniglumis fq; Sphecidae (Larrinae): Ancistromma distincta, Liris argentata fq, Lyroda subita, Tachysphex terminata, Tachytes distinctus, Trypoxylon clavatus; Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris bicornuta, Cerceris clypeata, Cerceris echo, Cerceris finitima, Cerceris kennicottii, Cerceris prominens, Philanthus gibbosus; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Chalybion californicus, Chlorion aerarius, Eremnophila aureonotata, Isodontia apicalis, Prionyx thomae, Sceliphron caementaria; Scoliidae: Scolia bicincta; Tiphiidae: Methoca stygia, Myzinum quinquecincta; Sapygidae: Sapyga interrupta; Pompilidae: Ageniella acceptus, Ageniella longulus, Anoplius atrox, Anoplius lepidus, Anoplius marginatus, Anoplius nigritus, Anoplius tenebrosus, Ceropales maculata, Episyron biguttatus, Evagetes parvus; Bethylidae: Goniozus cellularis; Mutillidae: Dasymutilla macra, Myrmosula parvula; Chrysididae: Caenochrysis doriae, Chrysis nitidula, Holopyga ventrale; Eucoilidae: Eucoila erythropus, Eucoila impatiens, Eucoilidea canadensis, Kleidotoma americana, Pseudeucoila mellipes fq; Figitidae: Figites impatiens, Neralsia armatus; Chalcididae: Brachymeria ovata, Conura debilis, Haltichella onatas, Haltichella xanticles; Elasmidae: Elasmus nigripes; Eurytomidae: Bruchophagus gibba, Eurytoma sp.; Leucospididae: Leucospis affinis; Perilampidae: Syntomopus americanus; Pteromalidae: Callitula cyrnus; Ichneumonidae: Cryptus mundus, Cryptus persimilis, Diadegma pattoni, Ichneumon ambulatorius, Trathala delicatus; Braconidae: Chelonus sericeus, Microplites ceratomiae, Rhygoplitis terminalis, Vipio rugator; Vespidae: Polistes fuscata, Vespula germanica; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus, Ancistrocerus campestris, Eumenes fraterna, Euodynerus foraminatus, Leionotus scrophulariae (Rb, MS), Leionotus ziziae (Rb, MS), Monobia quadridens
Sciaridae: Sciara atrata; Tabanidae: Chrysops striatus; Stratiomyidae: Stratiomys meigenii; Empididae: Empis clausa; Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua, Eristalinus aeneus, Eristalis tenax, Orthonevra nitida, Paragus tibialis, Platycheirus quadratus (Rb, Gr), Syritta pipiens, Syrphus ribesii, Toxomerus geminatus, Toxomerus marginatus, Toxomerus politus (Rb, Gr), Trichopsomyia banksi, Tropidia albistylum, Tropidia quadrata; Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa fasciata, Exoprosopa fascipennis, Sparnopolius confusus, Toxophora amphitea, Villa alternata (Rb, Gr); Tachinidae: Belvosia unifasciata, Chaetogaedia analis, Chetogena claripennis, Distichona varia, Doriella distincta, Euclytia flava, Gnadochaeta globosa, Gnadochaeta metallica, Gymnosoma fuliginosum, Lespesia aletiae, Leucostoma simplex, Linnaemya comta, Lixophaga variabilis, Panzeria aldrichi fq, Phasia purpurascens fq, Spallanzania hesperidarum, Trichopoda pennipes; Sarcophagidae: Amobia aurifrons, Amobia floridensis, Helicobia rapax, Ravinia derelicta, Ravinia stimulans fq, Sarcophaga africa, Senotainia rubriventris, Sphixapata trilineata fq; Calliphoridae: Calliphora splendida, Cochliomyia macellaria, Lucilia sericata, Phormia regina; Muscidae: Coenosia ovata, Graphomya americana, Limnophora narona, Morellia micans, Musca domestica, Neomyia cornicina, Stomoxys calcitrans; Anthomyiidae: Anthomyia leucostoma, Calythea nigricans; Fanniidae: Fannia incisurata, Fannia manicata; Otitidae: Euxesta notata; Tephritidae: Tomoplagia obliqua; Sepsidae: Themira putris; Ephydridae: Ochthera lauta prd; Chloropidae: Chlorops proximus, Liohippelates flavipes, Liohippelates pusio, Meromyza americana, Olcella cinerea; Milichiidae: Leptometopa latipes
Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus, Libytheana carinenta; Lycaenidae: Celastrina argiolus, Parrhasius m-album; Pieridae: Pieris rapae
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus, Silis bidentatus; Chrysomelidae: Acalymma vittata, Acanthoscelides obsoletus, Althaeus hibisci, Diabrotica longicornis, Diabrotica undecimpunctata, Megacerus discoidus; Coccinellidae: Coleomegilla maculata, Cycloneda sanguinea; Curculionidae: Centrinaspis picumna; Dermestidae: Attagenus megatoma; Lampyridae: Photinus pyralis; Meloidae: Epicauta pensylvanica; Melyridae: Collops quadrimaculatus; Mordellidae: Hoshihananomia octopunctata, Mordella marginata, Mordella melaena; Scarabaeidae: Euphoria sepulcralis
Anthocoridae: Orius insidiosus; Lygaeidae: Lygaeus turcicus; Miridae: Lopidea medius fq; Thyreocoridae: Corimelaena pulicarius
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Sium suave
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sium suave
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure
Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Sium suave (from the Latin sium, the Latinization of Greek sion, meaning "water parsley," and suâvis, meaning "sweet."), the Water Parsnip, is a herb native to parts of Eurasia and North America.
The Water Parsnip lives in marshes and other wetland in areas below 3000 feet.
These plants all have white flowers in large compound umbels. Therefore, these plants are confused with each other; the water parsnip, (swamp parsnip, Sium suave) and the western water hemlock, (Cicuta douglasii, poison hemlock) or the spotted water hemlock (Cicuta maculata, spotted water hemlock, spotted parsley, spotted cowbane). Water parsnip and water hemlock both have cluster of small white flowers shaped like umbrellas, and both have the same habitat near the shore line of lakes, and rivers. Water parsnip has leaves only once compound, and water hemlock has leaves which are three times compound. Water hemlock has a large swelling at the stem base. All water hemlock is highly poisonous. Water parsnip is not poisonous. The water hemlock has bracts at the base of each small flower cluster, not at the base of the main flower head. The Water parsnip has small bracts at the base of flowers and main flower head as well. The Yarrow, (Common Yarrow, Gordaldo, Nosebleed plant, Old Man's Pepper, Sanguinary, Milfoil, Soldier's Woundwort, Thousand-leaf (as its binomial name affirms), Thousand-seal or Achillea millefolium) also has many small white flowers in a cluster. However, the yarrow has feathery looking leaves which are pinnately separated into small narrow segments. The cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum, Heracleum maxinium Indian Celery or Pushki, and Heracleum sphondylium, hogweed) is also confused in this group with similar flower groupings. However, the cow parsnip has large, broad leaves, and an unpleasant odour. Hemlock's distinguishing characteristics are that it requires a more consistent supply of water than Lomatium or Osha, and Lomatium species tend to prefer dry rocky soils devoid of organic material. Lomatium roots have a delicate rice-like odor, unlike the musty odor of Hemlock, with finely divided, hairlike leaves in most Lomatium species. Lomatium species tend to produce yellow flowers, but some species are white flowered and closely resemble Poison Hemlock. If the plant is growing on a hillside in dry, mineral soil far away from a source of water and has umbells of yellow flowers, its likely a Lomatium. If the plant is growing in an area near water in consistently moist soil, is tall (0.75-2 m), has purple splotches on the main stem, and is heavily branched with small umbels of white flowers, it is probably Hemlock and should be avoided.
Osha does not do well in overly moist soils since it is a species dependent on mycorrhizal fungi to survive, but there are areas where Osha and Poison Hemlock can be found only a few feet from each other. Poison Hemlock lacks the "spicy celery" odor of Osha, and is easily distinguished from it due to the absence of hairlike dead leaf material present on the root crown of Osha roots. Poison Hemlock roots in many cases have no discernible odor, and are typically heavily branched rather than carrot-like, but this is not always the case. The plants themselves smell musty or "mousy", and in most instances will have purple blotches or shading on the lower stem of the plant if the plant is fairly mature, but again, this is not always the case.
In the Mountain West of North America, poison hemlock has become well established and invasive, and can be found in remote mountain areas anywhere water is present or soils are persistently moist. It is often found growing in the same habitat and side by side with Osha and Lomatium species, useful medicinal relatives in the Parsley family which Hemlock closely resembles, and can be very difficult to distinguish from Lomatium (an important historical food plant of Native Americans known as Biscuit Root).
A useful trick to determine whether a plant is poison hemlock rather than fennel, which it resembles, is to crush some leaves and smell the result. Fennel smells like anise or licorice, whereas the smell of poison hemlock is often described as mouse-like or musty. Considering the high toxicity of poison hemlock, if the plant cannot be identified it must be discarded. Coniine can be absorbed through the skin, and it is well advised to wash your hands immediately after handling this plant and avoid touching your eyes or mouth if you have recently handled or come into contact with Poison Hemlock, or if you have crushed the leaves of this plant in your hand to perform a "smell test".
Poison hemlock is sometimes confused with water hemlocks in the related genus Cicuta, but are readily distinguished by the less finely divided leaves of the latter; the leaf veins of poison hemlock also run through the tips of the teeth, but those of the water hemlock run through the notches in between the teeth. The poison hemlock's root is long, white, and fleshy and is usually stringy and heavily branched, but can be carrot-like and unbranched in younger specimens of Conium. Water hemlock's roots are made up of several tubers, and are typically chambered, and exude a yellow, rank, highly toxic sap that contains cicutoxin.
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- "FirstVoices- Ktunaxa. Plants: food plants: words.". Retrieved 2012-07-07.
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- "Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples By Harriet V Kuhnlein, Nancy J.". Google books. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- "Western Water Hemlock - Agriculture - Government of Saskatchewan". Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- "Water Parsnip - Agriculture - Government of Saskatchewan". Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- "Yarrow Achillea millefolium". Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- "Heracleum lanatum". University of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- "Water hemlock (Cicuta spp.)". Natural Standard, The Authority on Integrative Medicine. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- "Water Hemlock (Cicuta douglasii)". Field Guide to Noxious and Other Selected Weeds of British Columbia. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands Government of British Columbia. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
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