Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

On moist ground, Water Parsnip initially forms a rosette of basal leaves up to 1½' across. In shallow water, this wildflower initially forms a cluster of aquatic or semi-aquatic leaves of variable length. The terrestrial basal leaves are very similar to the alternate leaves (described below), except the leaflets of the former are wider. Fully aquatic leaves are double-pinnate or double-pinnatifid with filiform leaflets or lobes that are pale green and glabrous. Semi-aquatic leaves are primarily odd-pinnate with linear to linear-lanceolate leaflets; these leaflets usually have narrow pointed lobes along their sides. In addition, semi-aquatic leaves may have whorls of secondary leaflets at the bases of the primary leaflets. These secondary leaflets are similar to the primary leaflets, except the former are smaller in size. Regardless of which kind of leaves has been developed, this is followed by a flowering plant 2½-6' tall (above the ground or water surface) that branches sparingly. The stems of the flowering plant are light green, glabrous, and longitudinally veined; they are terete or angular-terete in cross-section. Alternate leaves along the stems are up to 1½' long and about one-half as much across; they are odd-pinnate with 7-17 leaflets. The leaflets of these compound leaves are 1½-4½" long and ¼-1¼" across; they are linear-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate in shape and their margins are finely serrated. The upper surface of these leaflets is medium green and glabrous, while the lower surface is pale green and glabrous. The lateral leaflets are sessile, while the terminal leaflet of each compound leaf has a short petiolule (basal stalklet) up to 1" long. Each compound leaf has a sheath that extends along the entire length of its petiole (¼-4" long); the lower leaves have longer petioles than upper leaves. Both the petiole and rachis of each compound leaf is medium green, glabrous, and angular; they are often finely grooved along their upper surfaces.
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Water Parsnip is occasional throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats consist of soggy thickets, wet prairies, marshes, bottoms of seeps, low areas along springs, swamps, borders and shallow water of ponds, and ditches. This wildflower is found in both sandy and non-sandy wetland habitats.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 60–120 cm, stout. Root fibrous or fascicled, fusiform. Leaf blade oblong or ovate, 6–25 × 7–10 cm; pinnae 3–9 pairs; leaflets lanceolate or linear, 10–40 × 3–15 mm, margin serrate. Upper leaves smaller, 3-lobed or entire, sessile on expanded sheaths. Umbels 4–8 cm across, terminal on stem and branches; bracts 6–10, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 3–15 mm, entire or incised; rays (8–)10–20, 1.5–3 cm, unequal; bracteoles 5–10, linear-lanceolate, 1–3 mm, entire; umbellules 10–20-flowered; pedicels 3–5 mm. Calyx teeth triangular-lanceolate or minute triangular, 0.5–2 mm. Fruit ovoid, ca. 3 × 2 mm, ribs prominent, corky, thickened, narrowly winged; vittae 1–3 in each furrow, 2–6 on commissure. Fl. Jul–Aug, fr. Sep–Oct.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Water Parsnip is occasional throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats consist of soggy thickets, wet prairies, marshes, bottoms of seeps, low areas along springs, swamps, borders and shallow water of ponds, and ditches. This wildflower is found in both sandy and non-sandy wetland habitats.
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Habitat & Distribution

Damp grasslands, marshlands, streamsides. Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shandong, Taiwan [Japan, Korea, Russia; North America].
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Associations

Faunal Associations

The flowers can attract a wide variety of insects, including Halictid bees, plasterer bees (Colletes spp.), masked bees (Hylaeus spp.), Sphecid wasps, spider wasps, cuckoo wasps (Chrysididae), Chalcid wasps, Eucoilid wasps, Ichneumon wasps, Braconid wasps, Vespid wasps, flower flies (Syrphidae), bee flies (Bombyliidae), Tachinid flies, flesh flies (Sarcophagidae), Muscid flies, Callophorid flies, frit flies (Chloropidae), leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae), ladybird beetles, and tumbling flowering beetles (Mordellidae). These insects obtain primarily nectar from the flowers (Robertson, 1929). Both adults and larvae of a leaf beetle, Prasocuris phellandrii, feed on the foliage of Water Parsnip. Unlike some wetland species in the Carrot family with white flowers, the foliage of Water Parsnip is not regarded as toxic to mammalian herbivores.
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Flower-Visiting Insects of Water Parsnip in Illinois

Sium suave (Water Parsnip)
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, other insects suck nectar; most observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Graenicher as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus impatiens cp, Bombus pensylvanica cp; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Halictus confusus sn, Halictus ligatus sn, Halictus rubicunda sn, Lasioglossum cinctipes sn, Lasioglossum coriaceus sn, Lasioglossum illinoensis sn, Lasioglossum imitatus sn, Lasioglossum truncatus sn, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes dichroa sn, Sphecodes stygius sn fq; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes americana sn, Colletes eulophi sn; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis sn, Hylaeus mesillae sn, Hylaeus modestus modestus sn

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Hoplisoides placidus, Pseudoplisus phaleratus, Stizus brevipennis, Synnevrus plagiatus, Zanysson plesia; Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Ectemnius atriceps fq, Ectemnius continuus, Ectemnius lapidarius fq, Ectemnius trifasciatus, Lestica confluentus, Lindenius columbianus fq, Oxybelus emarginatus fq, Oxybelis frontalis fq, Oxybelus niger, Oxybelus packardii, Oxybelus uniglumis fq; Sphecidae (Larrinae): Ancistromma distincta, Liris argentata fq, Lyroda subita, Tachysphex terminata, Tachytes distinctus, Trypoxylon clavatus; Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris bicornuta, Cerceris clypeata, Cerceris echo, Cerceris finitima, Cerceris kennicottii, Cerceris prominens, Philanthus gibbosus; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Chalybion californicus, Chlorion aerarius, Eremnophila aureonotata, Isodontia apicalis, Prionyx thomae, Sceliphron caementaria; Scoliidae: Scolia bicincta; Tiphiidae: Methoca stygia, Myzinum quinquecincta; Sapygidae: Sapyga interrupta; Pompilidae: Ageniella acceptus, Ageniella longulus, Anoplius atrox, Anoplius lepidus, Anoplius marginatus, Anoplius nigritus, Anoplius tenebrosus, Ceropales maculata, Episyron biguttatus, Evagetes parvus; Bethylidae: Goniozus cellularis; Mutillidae: Dasymutilla macra, Myrmosula parvula; Chrysididae: Caenochrysis doriae, Chrysis nitidula, Holopyga ventrale; Eucoilidae: Eucoila erythropus, Eucoila impatiens, Eucoilidea canadensis, Kleidotoma americana, Pseudeucoila mellipes fq; Figitidae: Figites impatiens, Neralsia armatus; Chalcididae: Brachymeria ovata, Conura debilis, Haltichella onatas, Haltichella xanticles; Elasmidae: Elasmus nigripes; Eurytomidae: Bruchophagus gibba, Eurytoma sp.; Leucospididae: Leucospis affinis; Perilampidae: Syntomopus americanus; Pteromalidae: Callitula cyrnus; Ichneumonidae: Cryptus mundus, Cryptus persimilis, Diadegma pattoni, Ichneumon ambulatorius, Trathala delicatus; Braconidae: Chelonus sericeus, Microplites ceratomiae, Rhygoplitis terminalis, Vipio rugator; Vespidae: Polistes fuscata, Vespula germanica; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus, Ancistrocerus campestris, Eumenes fraterna, Euodynerus foraminatus, Leionotus scrophulariae (Rb, MS), Leionotus ziziae (Rb, MS), Monobia quadridens

Flies
Sciaridae: Sciara atrata; Tabanidae: Chrysops striatus; Stratiomyidae: Stratiomys meigenii; Empididae: Empis clausa; Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua, Eristalinus aeneus, Eristalis tenax, Orthonevra nitida, Paragus tibialis, Platycheirus quadratus (Rb, Gr), Syritta pipiens, Syrphus ribesii, Toxomerus geminatus, Toxomerus marginatus, Toxomerus politus (Rb, Gr), Trichopsomyia banksi, Tropidia albistylum, Tropidia quadrata; Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa fasciata, Exoprosopa fascipennis, Sparnopolius confusus, Toxophora amphitea, Villa alternata (Rb, Gr); Tachinidae: Belvosia unifasciata, Chaetogaedia analis, Chetogena claripennis, Distichona varia, Doriella distincta, Euclytia flava, Gnadochaeta globosa, Gnadochaeta metallica, Gymnosoma fuliginosum, Lespesia aletiae, Leucostoma simplex, Linnaemya comta, Lixophaga variabilis, Panzeria aldrichi fq, Phasia purpurascens fq, Spallanzania hesperidarum, Trichopoda pennipes; Sarcophagidae: Amobia aurifrons, Amobia floridensis, Helicobia rapax, Ravinia derelicta, Ravinia stimulans fq, Sarcophaga africa, Senotainia rubriventris, Sphixapata trilineata fq; Calliphoridae: Calliphora splendida, Cochliomyia macellaria, Lucilia sericata, Phormia regina; Muscidae: Coenosia ovata, Graphomya americana, Limnophora narona, Morellia micans, Musca domestica, Neomyia cornicina, Stomoxys calcitrans; Anthomyiidae: Anthomyia leucostoma, Calythea nigricans; Fanniidae: Fannia incisurata, Fannia manicata; Otitidae: Euxesta notata; Tephritidae: Tomoplagia obliqua; Sepsidae: Themira putris; Ephydridae: Ochthera lauta prd; Chloropidae: Chlorops proximus, Liohippelates flavipes, Liohippelates pusio, Meromyza americana, Olcella cinerea; Milichiidae: Leptometopa latipes

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus, Libytheana carinenta; Lycaenidae: Celastrina argiolus, Parrhasius m-album; Pieridae: Pieris rapae

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus, Silis bidentatus; Chrysomelidae: Acalymma vittata, Acanthoscelides obsoletus, Althaeus hibisci, Diabrotica longicornis, Diabrotica undecimpunctata, Megacerus discoidus; Coccinellidae: Coleomegilla maculata, Cycloneda sanguinea; Curculionidae: Centrinaspis picumna; Dermestidae: Attagenus megatoma; Lampyridae: Photinus pyralis; Meloidae: Epicauta pensylvanica; Melyridae: Collops quadrimaculatus; Mordellidae: Hoshihananomia octopunctata, Mordella marginata, Mordella melaena; Scarabaeidae: Euphoria sepulcralis

Plant Bugs
Anthocoridae: Orius insidiosus; Lygaeidae: Lygaeus turcicus; Miridae: Lopidea medius fq; Thyreocoridae: Corimelaena pulicarius

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sium suave

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sium suave

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun, shallow water (up to 1½' deep) or wet ground, and soil that is mucky or sandy. Depending on its level of exposure to standing water, Water Parsnip may produce terrestrial, semi-aquatic, or fully aquatic leaves during the early stages of its development.
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Wikipedia

Sium suave

Sium suave (from the Latin sium, the Latinization of Greek sion, meaning "water parsley," and suâvis, meaning "sweet."),[1] the Water Parsnip, is a herb native to parts of Eurasia and North America.[2]

Appearance[edit]

The Water Parsnip is a member of the Apiaceae family and appears with leaves and white flowers during blooming.[3]

Habitat[edit]

The Water Parsnip lives in marshes and other wetland in areas below 3000 feet.

Common names[edit]

The Kutenai called water parsnip nakhankam (Ktunaxa: naq̓an̓kam).[4]

Similar species[edit]

The white flowers of Sium suave (left) appear similar to the highly poisonous Cicuta douglasii (right)

These plants all have white flowers in large compound umbels. Therefore, these plants are confused with each other; the water parsnip, (swamp parsnip, Sium suave) and the western water hemlock, (Cicuta douglasii, poison hemlock) or the spotted water hemlock (Cicuta maculata, spotted water hemlock, spotted parsley, spotted cowbane). Water parsnip and water hemlock both have cluster of small white flowers shaped like umbrellas, and both have the same habitat near the shore line of lakes, and rivers. Water parsnip has leaves only once compound, and water hemlock has leaves which are three times compound. Water hemlock has a large swelling at the stem base. All water hemlock is highly poisonous.[5] Water parsnip is not poisonous.[6] The water hemlock has bracts at the base of each small flower cluster, not at the base of the main flower head.[7] The Water parsnip has small bracts at the base of flowers and main flower head as well.[8] The Yarrow, (Common Yarrow, Gordaldo, Nosebleed plant, Old Man's Pepper, Sanguinary, Milfoil, Soldier's Woundwort, Thousand-leaf (as its binomial name affirms), Thousand-seal or Achillea millefolium) also has many small white flowers in a cluster. However, the yarrow has feathery looking leaves which are pinnately separated into small narrow segments.[9] The cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum, Heracleum maxinium Indian Celery or Pushki, and Heracleum sphondylium, hogweed) is also confused in this group with similar flower groupings. However, the cow parsnip has large, broad leaves, and an unpleasant odour.[10] Hemlock's distinguishing characteristics are that it requires a more consistent supply of water than Lomatium or Osha, and Lomatium species tend to prefer dry rocky soils devoid of organic material. Lomatium roots have a delicate rice-like odor, unlike the musty odor of Hemlock, with finely divided, hairlike leaves in most Lomatium species. Lomatium species tend to produce yellow flowers, but some species are white flowered and closely resemble Poison Hemlock. If the plant is growing on a hillside in dry, mineral soil far away from a source of water and has umbells of yellow flowers, its likely a Lomatium. If the plant is growing in an area near water in consistently moist soil, is tall (0.75-2 m), has purple splotches on the main stem, and is heavily branched with small umbels of white flowers, it is probably Hemlock and should be avoided.

Osha does not do well in overly moist soils since it is a species dependent on mycorrhizal fungi to survive, but there are areas where Osha and Poison Hemlock can be found only a few feet from each other. Poison Hemlock lacks the "spicy celery" odor of Osha, and is easily distinguished from it due to the absence of hairlike dead leaf material present on the root crown of Osha roots. Poison Hemlock roots in many cases have no discernible odor, and are typically heavily branched rather than carrot-like, but this is not always the case. The plants themselves smell musty or "mousy", and in most instances will have purple blotches or shading on the lower stem of the plant if the plant is fairly mature, but again, this is not always the case.

In the Mountain West of North America, poison hemlock has become well established and invasive, and can be found in remote mountain areas anywhere water is present or soils are persistently moist. It is often found growing in the same habitat and side by side with Osha and Lomatium species, useful medicinal relatives in the Parsley family which Hemlock closely resembles, and can be very difficult to distinguish from Lomatium (an important historical food plant of Native Americans known as Biscuit Root).

A useful trick to determine whether a plant is poison hemlock rather than fennel, which it resembles, is to crush some leaves and smell the result. Fennel smells like anise or licorice, whereas the smell of poison hemlock is often described as mouse-like or musty. Considering the high toxicity of poison hemlock, if the plant cannot be identified it must be discarded. Coniine can be absorbed through the skin, and it is well advised to wash your hands immediately after handling this plant and avoid touching your eyes or mouth if you have recently handled or come into contact with Poison Hemlock, or if you have crushed the leaves of this plant in your hand to perform a "smell test".

Poison hemlock is sometimes confused with water hemlocks in the related genus Cicuta,[11] but are readily distinguished by the less finely divided leaves of the latter; the leaf veins of poison hemlock also run through the tips of the teeth, but those of the water hemlock run through the notches in between the teeth. The poison hemlock's root is long, white, and fleshy and is usually stringy and heavily branched, but can be carrot-like and unbranched in younger specimens of Conium. Water hemlock's roots are made up of several tubers, and are typically chambered, and exude a yellow, rank, highly toxic sap that contains cicutoxin.[12]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Sium suave". Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  2. ^ http://www.life.illinois.edu/downie/Spalik_Sium_cpDNA.pdf
  3. ^ "Britanica - white parsnip". Retrieved 2007-11-02. 
  4. ^ "FirstVoices- Ktunaxa. Plants: food plants: words.". Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  5. ^ "Cicuta maculata". Retrieved 2008-08-03. [dead link]
  6. ^ "Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples By Harriet V Kuhnlein, Nancy J.". Google books. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  7. ^ "Western Water Hemlock - Agriculture - Government of Saskatchewan". Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  8. ^ "Water Parsnip - Agriculture - Government of Saskatchewan". Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  9. ^ "Yarrow Achillea millefolium". Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  10. ^ "Heracleum lanatum". University of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  11. ^ "Water hemlock (Cicuta spp.)". Natural Standard, The Authority on Integrative Medicine. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  12. ^ "Water Hemlock (Cicuta douglasii)". Field Guide to Noxious and Other Selected Weeds of British Columbia. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands Government of British Columbia. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 

References[edit]

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Notes

Comments

This species has reputed medicinal value. Sium ninsi Thunberg (Fl. Jap. 118. 1784), known from Korea, Japan, and SE Russia, is likely to occur also in SE Heilongjiang and E Jilin. The upper part of the plant is morphologically similar to S. suave but can be distinguished by the long-petiolate, ternate uppermost cauline leaves (vs. sessile in S. suave).
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