Overview

Distribution

Pink wintergreen is most common throughout Canada and the northern United States. However, in the western United States, pink wintergreen occurs as far south as New Mexico and California. In the southwestern United States, pink wintergreen is restricted to high-elevation habitats [1,28,35]. Pyrola asarifolia subsp. asarifolia is more widely distributed than P. a. subsp. bracteata and occupies the entire range described for pink wintergreen. Pyrola asarifolia subsp. bracteata is restricted to the western United States and Canada. In the United States, P. a. subsp. bracteata does not occur farther east than Montana [83].

Plants Database provides a distributional map of pink wintergreen and its subspecies.

  • 1. Anderson, J. P. 1959. Flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 543 p. [9928]
  • 28. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 83. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2007. PLANTS Database, [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. [34262]
  • 35. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g., [13,14,28,29,33]).

Aboveground description: Pink wintergreen is an evergreen, glabrous, creeping perennial [1,30,57,61]. Nearly leafless flowering stalks are the tallest part of the plant [31]. Basal leaves are simple, alternate, and crowded in a rosette [31,35]. Blades are leathery, shiny, and circular to heart-shaped [33,61]. Leaf petioles are typically as long as the leaf blades [30,61]. Holmgren and others [31] report that leaf blades measure 0.8 to 4 inches (2-10 cm) long by 0.8 to 3 inches (2-8 cm) wide, and that petioles are 0.6 to 3.3 inches (1.5-8.5 cm) long. However, morphology is variable and affected by site conditions [17]. In western habitats leaf blades are generally wider than they are long, and in eastern habitats leaf blades are typically longer than they are wide. Leaves are often leathery in dry habitats and soft in wet habitats. Plants in moss hummocks often have particularly long, flexible petioles [17]. Pink wintergreen, as the name implies, produces pink to red-purple flowers, and flower color is often used in identification. Four to 25 nodding flowers occur in a loose raceme on stems up to 16 inches (40 cm) tall [1,17,31,61]. Flower stalks may have up to 3 scale leaves [13,14]. Pink wintergreen fruits are 5-chambered rounded capsules [1,61]. Capsules measure 4 to 8 mm in diameter, contain numerous seeds, and open from the base [1,14,52].

Belowground description: Pink wintergreen is rhizomatous. Rhizomes are shallow [16,30] and described as scaly, slender, long, branching, and extensive [14,17,61]. In jack pine (Pinus banksiana)-dominated stands in central Alberta, the maximum pink wintergreen rooting depth was 7.1 inches (18 cm) [78].

Subspecies: A key for distinguishing P. a. subsp. asarifolia and P. a. subsp. bracteata is available [17].

  • 1. Anderson, J. P. 1959. Flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 543 p. [9928]
  • 33. Hultén, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 28. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 29. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 57. Munz, Philip A.; Keck, David D. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 13. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 14. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 16. Habeck, James; Stickney, Peter; Pfister, Robert; Noste, Nonan. 1980. Fire response classification of Montana forest species. The University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 15 p. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 15 p. [6993]
  • 17. Haber, Erich. 1983. Morphological variability and flavonol chemistry of the Pyrola asarifolia complex (Ericaceae) in North America. Systematic Botany. 8(3): 277-298. [65657]
  • 30. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1959. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 4: Ericaceae through Campanulaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 510 p. [1170]
  • 31. Holmgren, Noel H.; Holmgren, Patricia K.; Cronquist, Arthur. 2005. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 2, Part B: Subclass Dilleniidae. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 488 p. [63251]
  • 52. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
  • 61. Pojar, Jim; MacKinnon, Andy, eds. 1994. Plants of the Pacific Northwest coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia and Alaska. Redmond, WA: Lone Pine Publishing. 526 p. [25159]
  • 78. Strong, W. L.; LaRoi, G. H. 1986. A strategy for concurrently monitoring the plant water potentials of spatially separate forest ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 16(2): 346-351. [10805]
  • 35. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: cover, fresh, litter, mesic, shrub

Moist sites including coniferous forests, woodlands, meadows, streambanks, fens, bogs, and swamps all provide pink wintergreen habitat [28,33,42,52,57,73].

In the Vancouver Forest Region of British Columbia, pink wintergreen indicates "dry to moist, nutrient-medium" sites [37]. In seral shrub communities within the western redcedar-western hemlock forest type in northern Idaho, pink wintergreen was most frequent on slopes over 60% and at the study area's northernmost latitudes. Pink wintergreen was significantly associated (P<0.05) with northern slopes, soils with low potassium levels (60-300 lbs/acre), and dense stands with 40% to 80% canopy cover [55].

Climate: Cool moist climates are typical in pink wintergreen habitats. In the McKinley River area of Alaska, pink wintergreen is described in habitats that average 20.3 inches (515 mm) of precipitation/year, most of which comes in the summer. Average January and July temperatures are -2.2 °F (-19 °C) and 52.7 °F (11.5 °C), respectively, with maximum and minimum temperatures of 81 °F (27 °C) and -45 °F (-43 °C) reported [87]. Pink wintergreen in coastal British Columbia experiences boreal, temperate, cool mesothermal climates [38]. Climate is humid, continental in lodgepole pine forests in Alberta's northern McLeod River Basin, where pink wintergreen occurs. Here winters are cold, summers are cool, and freezing temperatures are possible any month. July and January temperatures average 58.8 °F (14.9 °C) and 6.8 °F (-14 °C), respectively, and annual precipitation averages 21.7 inches (550 mm) [9]. Weather records from the Priest River Experimental Station describe the climate for pink wintergreen habitats in north Idaho's Selkirk Mountains. Annual precipitation is high, and nearly 75% falls as snow from October to April. The dormant season is long and cool, and the growing season is short, warm, and dry. The frost-free period averages 88 days [74]. A cool temperate climate prevails at Point Beach State Forests in Two Rivers, Wisconsin, where pink wintergreen occurs. Based on a 24-year record, time between frosts averaged 62 days. An extreme low of -12 °F (-24 °C) occurred in January, and an extreme high of 88 °F (31 °C) was reached in June. Annual precipitation averaged 25 inches (635 mm), and most came in May, July, and November [85].

Elevation: Pink wintergreen occupies higher elevations in the southern than in the northern part of its range.

Elevation tolerances for pink wintergreen
State/region Elevation (feet)
California 300-10,000 [28,57]
California, southern 7,000-9,300 [56]
Colorado 6,500-12,000 [26,67]
not below 8,000, according to [5]
New Mexico 9,000-11,000 [52]
Nevada 5,800-8,000 [35]
Utah 5,495-10,520 [95]
Washington, Mount Rainier National Park 2,000-4,000 [70]
Intermountain West 5,050-10,500 [31]
Pacific Northwest "low" elevations to timberline [61]
Yukon up to 3,900 [33]

Soils: Pink wintergreen occurs on a variety of substrate types, but soils are typically moist, acidic, and have thick litter or humus layers. In Manitoba, pink wintergreen grew in "fresh" to very moist, clayey, loamy, silty, and sandy soils [96]. In northwestern Quebec, pink wintergreen occurred only on mesic clay soils when boreal forests on clay and till surface deposits were compared [50].

In white fir-mixed conifer forests in the Sierra Nevada of California, pink wintergreen was common on soils covered with a "heavy carpet of litter" [66]. In forests along the Tanana River of interior Alaska, pink wintergreen occurred in open balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) woodlands with a forest floor thickness of 2 to 4 inches (5-10 cm) and 225 to 350 g/m² of leaf litter. Pink wintergreen also grew in open black spruce (Picea mariana) forests with a floor thickness of 9.8 to 12 inches (25-30 cm), 30 to 100 g/m² of leaf litter, and a 12- to 20-inch (30-50 cm)-deep organic layer [86]. In the McKinley River Area, pink wintergreen was described in birch-willow shrublands on glacial outwash deposits where humus layers were up to 14 inches (35 cm) thick, and pH was less than 5.7 [87].

Pink wintergreen occupied dry to wet sites within boreal conifer-hardwood forests of the Great Lakes region. Dry and wet soils averaged 161% and 365% dry-weight moisture-retaining capacity, respectively. Soil pH ranged from 4.5 to 4.9 [53]. In coastal British Columbia, pink wintergreen is indicative of moderately dry, fresh, and nitrogen-medium soils. Moderately dry soils experience water deficits more than 1.5 but less than 3.5 months/year. When water needs exceed supply and soil-stored water is used, soils are considered fresh. Nitrogen-medium soils are those with an average of 54 kg of mineralizable nitrogen/ha [38].

  • 33. Hultén, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 74. Stickney, Peter F. 1986. First decade plant succession following the Sundance Forest Fire, northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-197. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 26 p. [2255]
  • 28. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 57. Munz, Philip A.; Keck, David D. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 5. Cockerell, T. D. A. 1906. The Alpine Flora of Colorado. The American Midland Naturalist. 40(480): 861-873. [63653]
  • 9. Corns, Ian G.; La Roi, George H. 1976. A comparison of mature with recently clear-cut and scarified lodgepole pine forests in the Lower Foothills of Alberta. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 6(1): 20-32. [34970]
  • 26. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: The Swallow Press, Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 31. Holmgren, Noel H.; Holmgren, Patricia K.; Cronquist, Arthur. 2005. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 2, Part B: Subclass Dilleniidae. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 488 p. [63251]
  • 37. Klinka, K.; Green, R. N.; Courtin, P. J.; Nuszdorfer, F. C. 1984. Site diagnosis, tree species selection, and slashburning guidelines for the Vancouver Forest Region, British Columbia. Land Management Report No. 25. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests, Information Services Branch. 180 p. [15448]
  • 38. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703]
  • 42. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798]
  • 50. Legare, Sonia; Bergeron, Yves; Leduc, Alain; Pare, David. 2001. Comparison of the understory vegetation in boreal forest types of southwest Quebec. Canadian Journal of Botany. 79: 1019-1027. [38854]
  • 52. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
  • 53. Maycock, P. F.; Curtis, J. T. 1960. The phytosociology of boreal conifer-hardwood forests of the Great Lakes region. Ecological Monographs. Vol. 30, No. 1: 1-36. [62820]
  • 55. Mueggler, Walter F. 1965. Ecology of seral shrub communities in the cedar-hemlock zone of northern Idaho. Ecological Monographs. 35: 165-185. [4016]
  • 56. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924]
  • 61. Pojar, Jim; MacKinnon, Andy, eds. 1994. Plants of the Pacific Northwest coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia and Alaska. Redmond, WA: Lone Pine Publishing. 526 p. [25159]
  • 66. Rundel, Philip W.; Parsons, David J.; Gordon, Donald T. 1977. Montane and subalpine vegetation of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Ranges. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 559-599. [4235]
  • 67. Rydberg, Per Axel. 1906. Flora of Colorado. Bulletin 100. Fort Collins: Colorado Agricultural College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 448 p. [63874]
  • 70. St. John, Harold; Warren, Fred A. 1937. The plants of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. The American Midland Naturalist. 18(6): 952-985. [62707]
  • 73. Steen, O. A.; Roberts, A. L. 1988. Guide to wetland ecosystems of the Very Dry Montane interior Douglas-fir Subzone Eastern Fraser Plateau Variant (IDFb2) in the Cariboo Forest Region, British Columbia. Williams Lake, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Lands. 101 p. [53384]
  • 85. van Denack, Julia Marie. 1961. An ecological analysis of the sand dune complex in Point Beach State Forest, Two Rivers, Wisconsin. Botanical Gazette. 122(3): 155-174. [49642]
  • 86. Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T.; Foote, M. J. 1993. An overview of the vegetation and soils of the floodplain ecosystems of the Tanana River, interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 23: 889-898. [21887]
  • 87. Viereck, Leslie A. 1966. Plant succession and soil development on gravel outwash of the Muldrow Glacier, Alaska. Ecological Monographs. 36(3): 181-199. [12484]
  • 95. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 96. Zoladeski, C. A.; Delorme, R. J.; Wickware, G. M.; Corns, I. G. W.; Allan, D. T. 1998. Forest ecosystem toposequences in Manitoba. Special Report 12. Edmonton, AB: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre. 63 p. [35768]
  • 35. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: cover

Pink wintergreen is a small plant that rarely
produces enough cover to be considered a community dominant. It often occurs in
early seral deciduous forests dominated by poplar, birch, willow, and/or alder (Populus,
Betula, Salix, Alnus spp.) that regenerate following canopy
removal in coniferous forests. Pink wintergreen persists as deciduous forests
succeed to dense coniferous and/or boreal forest types. Overstory dominants in
these forests include white spruce (Picea glauca), Sitka spruce
(P. sitchensis), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), western hemlock
(Tsuga heterophylla), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), subalpine
fir (Abies lasiocarpa), white fir (A. concolor), and lodgepole pine
(Pinus contorta).

The following vegetation types and communities include pink wintergreen as a
dominant or differentiating species:
Colorado:



  • narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia)-Douglas-fir/pink wintergreen




  • Douglas-fir/Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum)/pink wintergreen along Animas River in
    southwestern Colorado [90]



British Columbia:



  • black cottonwood (P. balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa)/pink wintergreen on
    the coast [39]

  • 39. Klinka, Karel; Qian, Hong; Pojar, Jim; Meidinger, Del V. 1996. Classification of natural forest communities of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Vegetatio. 125: 149-168. [28530]
  • 90. Walford, Gillian M. 1993. Spatial variation in riparian vegetation along the Animas River, Colorado. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming. 99 p. Thesis. [53679]

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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: fire management, fire use, rhizome

The variable pink wintergreen fire response makes it difficult to make recommendations about fire use and fire management in its habitats. More specific information regarding postfire regeneration strategies, root and rhizome depths, and seed heat tolerance may improve the predictability of pink wintergreen recovery on burned sites.

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Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: cover, crown fire, density, duff, fire severity, frequency, litter, prescribed fire, presence, severity, shrub, succession, wildfire

It is nearly impossible to describe a typical pink wintergreen response to
fire. Sometimes pink wintergreen is absent from burned sites; sometimes
abundance is lower on burned than unburned sites; sometimes abundance is greater
on burned than unburned sites. Some studies suggest that high-severity fires
kill pink wintergreen [71,91,92], and other studies report the highest cover of
pink wintergreen on sites burned in high-severity fires [49]. As suggested earlier,
pink wintergreen rarely occurs with high cover or frequency in any habitat, and
likely sampling effects, microsite burn conditions, and the postfire growing
environment affect pink wintergreen's postfire response.

Researchers classified pink wintergreen as a "survivor" after observing the
first 15 years of postfire regeneration following 3 wildfires in northern Idaho.
All fires were stand replacing and reduced organic soil to mineral ash [51].
Pink wintergreen was classified as a "nonsurvivor"
after monitoring the early postfire succession after the Sundance Fire in the Rocky
Mountains of northern Idaho and northwestern Montana. The Sundance Fire was
"high intensity" and burned with "firestorm conditions" in the
western redcedar-western hemlock forest type [76].
Heating effects on seed bank:
The following study suggests that pink wintergreen seed can survive
temperatures as high as 210 °F (100 °C) for at least 1 hour. Soil samples were collected
from burned and unburned tufted hairgrass-sedge meadow sites in the Greater Yellowstone
Ecosystem of Montana and Wyoming. No seedlings emerged from burned sites.
Burned soil was collected in areas with complete overstory removal but not in areas
of smoldering described as "deep ash ghosts of burned
downfall". The density of pink wintergreen seedlings that
emerged from seed in unburned tufted hairgrass meadows was 53 seedlings/m². Soil samples had been
cleaned of vegetative propagules. Seedlings also emerged
from heat-treated unburned soils. Unburned soil samples treated for 1
hour of oven heating at 120 °F (50 °C), 210 °F (100 °C), and 300 °F (150 °C)
had 106 seedlings/m², 27 seedlings/m², and 0 seedlings/m² emerge, respectively [4].
Absence from burned sites:
Several studies report no pink wintergreen on burned sites, not all of which
burned in severe fires. Pink wintergreen was absent from 1-year-old moderately
and severely burned sites and 43-year-old burned sites along Jackson Lake in
Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. The frequency of pink wintergreen in unburned
Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii)-subalpine fir forest sites was 13% [2].
Pink wintergreen was eliminated from logged and burned Douglas-fir forests in
western Oregon and Washington. Before logging, forests were dominated by 120- to over
430-year-old trees. Understory species presence was evaluated before logging
and periodically for up to 28 years after disturbances [22]. There may have
been delayed mortality of pink wintergreen on logged and slash burned
Douglas-fir forests in Oregon's western Cascade Range. Before logging, pink
wintergreen cover was 0.1%, and frequency was 1.8% in old-growth (300-500
years old) stands. In the first postlogging year, pink wintergreen cover was less
than 0.05%, and frequency was 0.4%. In the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th years
following slash burning, pink wintergreen occurred only in trace amounts. In
the 5th year after logging and slash burning, pink wintergreen was not present
on burned sites [11].
Present on burned sites:
Pink wintergreen abundance was not different on burned and unburned subalpine sites
visited 10 years after fire in Alberta. There were no significant (P<0.05)
differences in pink wintergreen cover on 10-year-old burned and adjacent
unburned subalpine white spruce-lodgepole pine forests on 2 burned
sites. The fire near Banff National Park burned in late August and early September, spread at
a daily average speed of 3.4 to 6.7 m/min. The fire near Jasper National Park burned in October,
had a maximum spread rate of 26.8 m/min, and an average spread rate of 3.4 m/min [3].
In boreal mixed woods of southeastern Manitoba, sites burned 10 to 13
years earlier in a crown fire had 0.2% cover and 10% frequency of pink
wintergreen. Sites logged 10 to 14 years earlier had 0.4% cover and 11%
frequency of pink wintergreen [36].
Pink wintergreen frequency decreased but cover increased 7 years after a June
prescribed fire in spruce beetle-damaged white spruce forests in Alaska's Chugach
National Forest. Prior to the fire, pink wintergreen frequency was 24% and cover
5%. Seven years after the fire, which exposed the mineral soil in some areas,
pink wintergreen frequency was 6% and cover was 13%. Increased cover and
decreased frequency could be explained by fewer large-sized plants after the
fire [32].
Severely burned sites:
Some studies report no pink wintergreen on severely burned sites, but others report
pink wintergreen persistence on severely burned sites. Pink
wintergreen did not occur on unburned plots or plots burned in a "hot"
prescribed fire in western larch (Larix occidentalis)-Douglas-fir forests
in Montana's Lubrecht Experimental Forest. Spring and fall prescribed fires were
evaluated 3 years later and described as "light", "medium", and "hot" burns
[71,72]. Pink wintergreen was absent from plots unburned for 70 years and from plots burned in "hot" fires that
consumed litter, exposed mineral soil, and produced surface temperatures
above 570 °F (300 °C). Pink wintergreen averaged 1% cover 3 years after "medium"
fires that consumed 50% of litter and duff and produced surface temperatures of
390 to 570 °F (200-300 °C). Cover averaged 0.5% on "light" burns where surface
temperatures were less than 360 °F (180 °C) at the time of the fire, and less
than 50% of litter was consumed [71].
In southeastern Manitoba, pink wintergreen was present on scorched, "lightly"
burned, 10-year-old burned, and mature unburned boreal mixed woods but was
absent from severely burned sites. The Black River wildfire burned in early May
1999, and postfire vegetation was sampled for up to 4 years after fire. Fire
severity was determined by assessing depth of burn. Scorching fires did not burn
or just partially burned the litter layer. Light fires burned the litter layer
but consumed little or no duff. Severe fires consumed the forest floor
completely. Pink wintergreen averaged 0.1% and 6% cover and frequency,
respectively, on scorched sites. Cover and frequency averaged <0.1% and 3%,
respectively, on lightly burned sites [91,92].
Pink wintergreen cover was greatest on severely burned sites when unburned,
"lightly" burned, and severely burned sites were compared 2 years following a
spring fire in quaking aspen stands in northeastern Alberta. Pink wintergreen
cover averaged 1% on severely burned, 0.5% on "lightly" burned, and
0.3% on unburned sites. Unburned stands were over 120 years old. The researcher visually
assessed fire severity. Severely burned sites had all aboveground vegetation consumed, and
the top 2 to 4 inches (6-10 cm) of the organic layer oxidized.
Light fires partially oxidized the top 0 to 0.8 inch (2 cm) of the organic layer
of primarily mosses and litter. Pink wintergreen did not emerge from vegetative propagules
or seed in soil samples collected on burned or unburned sites [49]. Pink wintergreen
was present on 11-year-old burned stands but absent from unburned sites in a
mixed-conifer forest in northwestern Oregon. The fire was described as severe,
and unburned stands were an estimated 300 years old [58].
Repeatedly burned sites:
Frequency of pink wintergreen on unburned sites and sites burned more than once was much
lower than once burned, once logged, and once logged and burned sites in seral
shrub communities within the western redcedar-western hemlock forest type of
northern Idaho. Sampled stands were 2 to 60 years old. A variety of sites was
sampled, making it difficult to determine which affected pink wintergreen
frequency most: site conditions, disturbance type, or time since disturbance. A
description of the sites where pink wintergreen was most frequent is available in Site Characteristics.
The table below summarizes study results [55].
Overstory canopy cover and pink wintergreen
frequency on logged, logged and burned, and burned stands
DisturbanceNoneLogged,
unburned
Logged,
pile burned
Single fire≥2 fires in 30 years
Overstory canopy cover (%)57%41%40%20%28%
Pink wintergreen frequency (%)5%18%15%12%5%
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  • 4. Clark, David Lee. 1991. The effect of fire on Yellowstone ecosystem seed banks. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 115 p. Thesis. [36504]
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  • 49. Lee, Philip. 2004. The impact of burn intensity from wildfires on seed and vegetative banks, and emergent understory in aspen-dominated boreal forests. Canadian Journal of Botany. 82(10): 1468-1480. [51462]
  • 51. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496]
  • 55. Mueggler, Walter F. 1965. Ecology of seral shrub communities in the cedar-hemlock zone of northern Idaho. Ecological Monographs. 35: 165-185. [4016]
  • 58. Neiland, Bonita J. 1958. Forest and adjacent burn in the Tillamook Burn area of northwestern Oregon. Ecology. 39(4): 660-671. [8879]
  • 71. Stark, N.; Steele, R. 1977. Nutrient content of forest shrubs following burning. American Journal of Botany. 64(10): 1218-1224. [2224]
  • 72. Steele, Robert. 1976. Smoke considerations associated with understory burning in larch/ Douglas-fir. Proceedings, Montana Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire & land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 597-607. [19033]
  • 92. Wang, G. Geoff; Kemball, Kevin J. 2005. Effects of fire severity on early development of understory vegetation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 35: 254-262. [60329]
  • 2. Barmore, William J., Jr.; Taylor, Dale; Hayden, Peter. 1976. Ecological effects and biotic succession following the 1974 Waterfalls Canyon Fire in Grand Teton National Park. Research Progress Report 1974-1975. [Moose, WY: Grand Teton National Park]. Unpublished report on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 99 p. [16109]
  • 76. Stickney, Peter F.; Campbell, Robert B., Jr. 2000. Data base for early postfire succession in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-61-CD, [CD-ROM]. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [43743]
  • 91. Wang, G. Geoff; Kemball, Kevin J. 2004. The effect of fire severity on early development of understory vegetation following a stand replacing wildfire. In: 5th symposium on fire and forest meteorology; 2nd international wildland fire ecology and fire management congress: Proceedings; 2003 November 16-20; Orlando, FL. Session 3B - Fire Effects on Flora: part 2. [Boston, MA: American Meteorological Society]: 11 p. [64194]

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Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: fire severity, rhizome, severity

There are reports of pink wintergreen surviving fire through rhizome sprouting [51], and there are reports of pink wintergreen being killed by fire [76]. Pink wintergreen seedlings have not been described on burned sites, and general information on seedling establishment is lacking. Soil-stored seed survived temperatures of 210 °F (100 °C) for 1 hour under controlled conditions. For more on this study, see Heating effects on seed bank [4].

Pink wintergreen survival is likely dependent on depth of burn and soil temperatures produced. Pink wintergreen's small size and infrequency in most habitats suggests that general plot or site descriptions of fire severity may not capture microsite differences that are likely important to pink wintergreen survival.

  • 4. Clark, David Lee. 1991. The effect of fire on Yellowstone ecosystem seed banks. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 115 p. Thesis. [36504]
  • 51. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496]
  • 76. Stickney, Peter F.; Campbell, Robert B., Jr. 2000. Data base for early postfire succession in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-61-CD, [CD-ROM]. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [43743]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Pink wintergreen is top-killed if not entirely killed by fire.

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the term: rhizome

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [75]:
Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
  • 75. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. FEIS workshop: Postfire regeneration. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. [20090]

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: cover, fire regime, fire-return interval, lichens, low-severity fire, mesic, natural, severity

Fire adaptations: To date (2007) there is little published information on pink wintergreen's fire adaptations or responses. Pink wintergreen is shallowly rooted [16,78], and plant survival may depend on depth of burn and degree of soil heating. Pink wintergreen seedlings have not been described on burned sites, and general information on seedling establishment is lacking. Soil-stored seed survived temperatures of 210 °F (100 °C) for 1 hour under controlled conditions. For more on this study, see Heating effects on seed bank [4].

FIRE REGIMES: Fires are common in mixed-conifer, boreal, and subalpine forests that provide pink wintergreen habitat. Average fire-return intervals reported for these forests range from 23 to 258 years.

Larsen [47] indicates that a mix of fire severities is possible in boreal forests. Early spring fires that typically burn when humus layers are wet are often low severity and kill few perennial plants. Severe fires require dry, deep fuels. Consumption of the humus layer by severe fires results in more plant death. Mixed-severity fires are common in mixed stands because the deep fuels that accumulate under spruce and are generally lacking under quaking aspen canopies.

A review of fire ecology studies in northern Idaho forests provides the range of average fire-return intervals in forests where pink wintergreen occurs. Moist, subalpine habitats at 5,000 to 6,500 feet (1,500-2,000 m) dominated by subalpine fir, western hemlock, and mountain hemlock burn in low- to moderate-severity fires on average every 150 years. Stand-replacing fires are less frequent than mixed-severity fires. In moderately moist to moist grand fir-dominated forests, the mixed-severity fire-return interval averages range from 29 to over 116 years. Stand-replacing fire-return intervals average 138 to 203 years. The range of averages is a result of means reported from different areas and different studies. In moderately moist to moist western hemlock and western redcedar forests, average stand-replacing fire-return intervals range from 138 to over 258 years, and mixed-severity fires occur on average every 29 to 48 years [69].

In Canada's boreal and subarctic regions, summers are warm and dry, periods of sunlight are long, and the high cover of lichens and mosses dries readily. These factors produce readily burned surface fuels. In the Fort Simpson study area in the Northwest Territories where pink wintergreen occurs, researchers sampled 21 stands, dated 43 fires, and found that the interval between fires was 6 to 100 years. The average fire-return interval was 23 years ± 10 (SD). Sites were dominated by mixed woodlands and pine (Pinus spp.) forests. Lightning was the major fire cause [65].

Mixed-conifer forests of the Teakettle Experimental Forest in the southern Sierra Nevada averaged 12 to 17 years between fires before 1865; since 1865, however, only 2 small fires have burned (references cited in [60]).

The following table provides fire-return intervals for plant communities where pink wintergreen occurs. This list may not be inclusive for all plant communities in which pink wintergreen occurs.

Fire regime information on vegetation communities in which pink wintergreen may occur. For each community, fire regime characteristics are taken from the LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment Vegetation Models [43]. These vegetation models were developed by local experts using available literature, local data, and/or expert opinion as documented in the .pdf file linked from the name of each Potential Natural Vegetation Group listed below. Cells are blank where information is not available in the Rapid Assessment Vegetation Model.
Pacific Northwest California Southwest Great Basin Northern Rockies
Northern Great Plains Great Lakes Northeast    
Pacific Northwest
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Northwest Forested
Sitka spruce-western hemlock Replacement 100% 700 300 >1,000
Douglas-fir (Willamette Valley foothills) Replacement 18% 150 100 400
Mixed 29% 90 40 150
Surface or low 53% 50 20 80
Douglas-fir-western hemlock (dry mesic) Replacement 25% 300 250 500
Mixed 75% 100 50 150
Douglas-fir-western hemlock (wet mesic) Replacement 71% 400    
Mixed 29% >1,000    
Mixed conifer (southwestern Oregon) Replacement 4% 400    
Mixed 29% 50    
Surface or low 67% 22    
Mountain hemlock Replacement 93% 750 500 >1,000
Mixed 7% >1,000    
Subalpine fir Replacement 81% 185 150 300
Mixed 19% 800 500 >1,000
Mixed conifer (eastside mesic) Replacement 35% 200    
Mixed 47% 150    
Surface or low 18% 400    
Spruce-fir Replacement 84% 135 80 270
Mixed 16% 700 285 >1,000
California
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
California Forested
Mixed conifer (North Slopes) Replacement 5% 250    
Mixed 7% 200    
Surface or low 88% 15 10 40
Mixed conifer (South Slopes) Replacement 4% 200    
Mixed 16% 50    
Surface or low 80% 10    
Aspen with conifer Replacement 24% 155 50 300
Mixed 15% 240    
Surface or low 61% 60    
Interior white fir (northeastern California) Replacement 47% 145    
Mixed 32% 210    
Surface or low 21% 325    
Red fir-white fir Replacement 13% 200 125 500
Mixed 36% 70    
Surface or low 51% 50 15 50
Sierra Nevada lodgepole pine (cold wet upper montane) Replacement 23% 150 37 764
Mixed 70% 50    
Surface or low 7% 500    
Southwest
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Southwest Forested
Riparian forest with conifers Replacement 100% 435 300 550
Southwest mixed conifer (cool, moist with aspen) Replacement 29% 200 80 200
Mixed 35% 165 35  
Surface or low 36% 160 10  
Aspen with spruce-fir Replacement 38% 75 40 90
Mixed 38% 75 40  
Surface or low 23% 125 30 250
Lodgepole pine (Central Rocky Mountains, infrequent fire) Replacement 82% 300 250 500
Surface or low 18% >1,000 >1,000 >1,000
Spruce-fir Replacement 96% 210 150  
Mixed 4% >1,000 35 >1,000
Great Basin
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Great Basin Forested
Great Basin Douglas-fir (dry) Replacement 12% 90   600
Mixed 14% 76 45  
Surface or low 75% 14 10 50
Aspen with conifer (low to midelevation) Replacement 53% 61 20  
Mixed 24% 137 10  
Surface or low 23% 143 10  
Douglas-fir (warm mesic interior) Replacement 28% 170 80 400
Mixed 72% 65 50 250
Aspen with conifer (high elevation) Replacement 47% 76 40  
Mixed 18% 196 10  
Surface or low 35% 100 10  
Spruce-fir-pine (subalpine) Replacement 98% 217 75 300
Mixed 2% >1,000    
Aspen with spruce-fir Replacement 38% 75 40 90
Mixed 38% 75 40  
Surface or low 23% 125 30 250
Northern Rockies
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Northern Rockies Forested
Western redcedar Replacement 87% 385 75 >1,000
Mixed 13% >1,000 25  
Douglas-fir (xeric interior) Replacement 12% 165 100 300
Mixed 19% 100 30 100
Surface or low 69% 28 15 40
Douglas-fir (warm mesic interior) Replacement 28% 170 80 400
Mixed 72% 65 50 250
Douglas-fir (cold) Replacement 31% 145 75 250
Mixed 69% 65 35 150
Grand fir-Douglas-fir-western larch mix Replacement 29% 150 100 200
Mixed 71% 60 3 75
Mixed conifer-upland western redcedar-western hemlock Replacement 67% 225 150 300
Mixed 33% 450 35 500
Western larch-lodgepole pine-Douglas-fir Replacement 33% 200 50 250
Mixed 67% 100 20 140
Grand fir-lodgepole pine-larch-Douglas-fir Replacement 31% 220 50 250
Mixed 69% 100 35 150
Persistent lodgepole pine Replacement 89% 450 300 600
Mixed 11% >1,000    
Lower subalpine lodgepole pine Replacement 73% 170 50 200
Mixed 27% 450 40 500
Lower subalpine (Wyoming and Central Rockies) Replacement 100% 175 30 300
Upper subalpine spruce-fir (Central Rockies) Replacement 100% 300 100 600
Northern Great Plains
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Northern Plains Woodland
Northern Great Plains wooded draws and ravines Replacement 38% 45 30 100
Mixed 18% 94    
Surface or low 43% 40 10  
Great Lakes
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Great Lakes Forested
Great Lakes floodplain forest
Mixed 7% 833    
Surface or low 93% 61    
Great Lakes spruce-fir Replacement 100% 85 50 200
Minnesota spruce-fir (adjacent to Lake Superior and Drift and Lake Plain) Replacement 21% 300    
Surface or low 79% 80    
Northeast
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Northeast Forested
Northeast spruce-fir forest Replacement 100% 265 150 300
*Fire Severities: Replacement=Any fire that causes greater than 75% top removal of a vegetation-fuel type, resulting in general replacement of existing vegetation; may or may not cause a lethal effect on the plants.
Surface or low=Any fire that causes less than 25% upper layer replacement and/or removal in a vegetation-fuel class but burns 5% or more of the area.
Mixed=Any fire burning more than 5% of an area that does not qualify as a replacement, surface, or low-severity fire; includes mosaic and other fires that are intermediate in effects [23,44].
  • 4. Clark, David Lee. 1991. The effect of fire on Yellowstone ecosystem seed banks. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 115 p. Thesis. [36504]
  • 16. Habeck, James; Stickney, Peter; Pfister, Robert; Noste, Nonan. 1980. Fire response classification of Montana forest species. The University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 15 p. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 15 p. [6993]
  • 44. LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment. 2007. Rapid assessment reference condition models. In: LANDFIRE. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab; U.S. Geological Survey; The Nature Conservancy (Producers). Available: http://www.landfire.gov/models_EW.php [66533]
  • 47. Larsen, James A. 1980. Boreal communities and ecosystems: local variation. In: Larsen, James A., ed. The boreal ecosystem. New York: Academic Press: 281-350. [64914]
  • 60. North, Malcolm; Oakley, Brian; Fiegener, Rob; Gray, Andrew; Barbour, Michael. 2005. Influence of light and soil moisture on Sierran mixed-conifer understory communities. Plant Ecology. 177: 13-24. [64836]
  • 65. Rowe, J. S.; Bergsteinsson, J. L.; Padbury, G. A.; Hermesh, R. 1974. Fire studies in the Mackenzie Valley. ALUR 73-74-61. Ottawa: Canadian Department of Indian and Northern Development. 123 p. [50174]
  • 69. Smith, Jane Kapler; Fischer, William C. 1997. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-363. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 142 p. [27992]
  • 78. Strong, W. L.; LaRoi, G. H. 1986. A strategy for concurrently monitoring the plant water potentials of spatially separate forest ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 16(2): 346-351. [10805]
  • 23. Hann, Wendel; Havlina, Doug; Shlisky, Ayn; [and others]. 2005. Interagency fire regime condition class guidebook. Version 1.2, [Online]. In: Interagency fire regime condition class website. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; U.S. Department of the Interior; The Nature Conservancy; Systems for Environmental Management (Producer). Variously paginated [+ appendices]. Available: http://www.frcc.gov/docs/1.2.2.2/Complete_Guidebook_V1.2.pdf [2007, May 23]. [66734]
  • 43. LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment. 2005. Reference condition modeling manual (Version 2.1), [Online]. In: LANDFIRE. Cooperative Agreement 04-CA-11132543-189. Boulder, CO: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; U.S. Department of the Interior (Producers). 72 p. Available: http://www.landfire.gov/downloadfile.php?file=RA_Modeling_Manual_v2_1.pdf [2007, May 24]. [66741]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: bog, climax, cover, lichen, litter, mesic, presence, succession, tree, tundra

Early seral deciduous woodlands and late-seral or climax coniferous forests provide pink wintergreen habitat. In Glacier Bay, Alaska, pink wintergreen occurs in the early succession of glaciated rock surfaces [8] and in open willow thickets, closed thickets, and Sitka spruce forests [7]. In Alberta, pink wintergreen is a common understory species in balsam poplar and quaking aspen woodlands which, without fire or other top-killing disturbances, succeed to white spruce forests with pink wintergreen remaining in the understory [54]. In Montana's Glacier National Park, pink wintergreen was present in all but pioneer forests. Stands between 50 and 400 years old within the western redcedar-western hemlock forest type were sampled [15]. Pink wintergreen is often described in climax forests. It occurs in montane and subalpine forests on British Columbia's Mount Robson [6], climax western hemlock-Sitka spruce forests in southeastern Alaska [81], and in climax western redcedar-western hemlock-grand fir (Abies grandis) forests in Idaho's Bitterroot Mountains [45].

Shade tolerance: Pink wintergreen tolerates both sun and shade conditions [38]. The degree of shade tolerated has been described as extreme [45]. Although sun and shade are tolerated, studies suggest that shady habitats may be preferred. Pink wintergreen was significantly associated (P<0.001) with mesic, closed-canopy, mixed-conifer forests with thick litter layers and high soil moisture contents in the southern Sierra Nevada [60]. In northern Idaho, pink wintergreen was significantly associated (P<0.05) with dense seral mixed-shrub stands with 40% to 80% canopy cover [55].

Floodplain/glacier outwash succession: Along floodplain chronosequences, pink wintergreen is often present on early substrates with canopy vegetation and persists in dense climax forests. On the Tanana River floodplain in interior Alaska, pink wintergreen appears approximately 25 to 30 years after silt bars form along the active river channel. This early seral community is characterized by open balsam poplar-dominated stands with a dense thinleaf alder (Alnus incana subsp. tenuifolia) understory. Pink wintergreen remains in the understory in later, conifer-dominated stands [84,88]. Along a glacial outwash plain in Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska, pink wintergreen cover was greatest in late-seral forests dominated by Sitka spruce and mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana). Pink wintergreen was absent from early seral communities described as barren or with patchy vegetation dominated by balsam poplar and willow [27].

Grazing: While no study indicates that pink wintergreen is consumed by herbivores, the following studies suggest that grazing in pink wintergreen habitats may affect its abundance. Snowshoe hare and moose browsing were evaluated on enclosed and unprotected thinleaf alder-willow stands on the Tanana River floodplain. Pink wintergreen abundance was lower on browsed than protected sites. Sites were protected for 7 years. Browsed plots had lower tree cover, soil moisture, and relative humidity and received more light and higher ground temperatures than unbrowsed plots [80]. In the Peace River region of British Columbia, pink wintergreen cover was slightly greater in grazed quaking aspen stands. Pink wintergreen cover was 1.5% on harvested and grazed plots, 1.2% on unharvested grazed plots, 0.5% on harvested ungrazed plots, and 1% on unharvested ungrazed plots. Harvesting occurred 12 years before vegetation sampling. Cattle grazed plots from early June to early July for 9 years and utilized about 75% of available forage. Grazing had not occurred for 3 years before vegetation sampling [40].

Logging: Results are inconsistent with respect to pink wintergreen in logged stands. Some studies report that pink wintergreen disappears from clearcut sites while others report a tolerance of clearcut conditions.

Pink wintergreen occurred only in young mixed Douglas-fir-lodgepole pine forests in south-central British Columbia. Young stands were clearcut 17 years before the study. Other forests evaluated as part of the study were seed-tree harvested stands with 106- to 149-year-old Douglas-fir trees and unharvested stands with 70- to 133-year-old trees [79]. In the northern McLeod River Basin, pink wintergreen occurred in 6-, 7-, 9-, 10-, and 12-year-old clearcuts and in mature lodgepole pine forests [9].

In northeastern British Columbia, pink wintergreen was much more abundant in unlogged than logged stands in nearly 100-year-old quaking aspen woodlands [20]. In western Oregon and Washington, pink wintergreen was often absent from harvested Douglas-fir forests with 15% or 40% tree retention [21]. Pink wintergreen was eliminated in logged and burned stands in the same area. Before logging, forests were dominated by 120- to over 430-year-old Douglas-fir trees. Understory species presence was evaluated before logging and periodically for up to 28 years after the disturbances [22]. For more on this study, see Fire Effects.

There was pink wintergreen turnover when individual plots were observed in clearcut quaking aspen-lodgepole pine stands; however, overall occurrence was not different in 3- and 20-year old clearcuts. Pink wintergreen occurrence was monitored on 88 plots near Grande Prairie, Alberta. Forests were dominated by 62- to 82-foot (19-25 m)-tall quaking aspen before harvesting. Forests were about 20% lodgepole pine. Three years following harvest, pink wintergreen occurred on 28 of 88 plots. On 5-year-old clearcuts, pink wintergreen disappeared from 8 plots where it was previously detected and appeared on 3 new plots where it was not detected earlier. Pink wintergreen was present on a total of 33 of the 5-year-old clearcut plots. Nine years after harvest, pink wintergreen occurred on 3 new plots and was not detected on 16 plots that it had earlier occupied. Pink wintergreen occurred on a total of 20 of the 9-year-old clearcut plots. On 20-year-old clearcuts, pink wintergreen disappeared from 3 plots, appeared on 20 new plots, and was present on a total of 30 plots. It is possible that there was considerable pink wintergreen mortality and regeneration on this site, but it is also possible that pink wintergreen remained dormant in some years. Sampling techniques may have also affected results [77]. See Fire Effects for additional information on pink wintergreen in the early succession of sites following canopy removal.

Other disturbances: The following studies suggest that pink wintergreen tolerates some level of soil disturbance. These studies, however, suggest that the degree of soil disturbance tolerated and recovery time may be site dependent. Pink wintergreen occurred on grizzly bear digs in alpine tundra in Wrangell-St Elias National Park. Digs were made in the hunt for arctic ground squirrels and involved a deep excavation of sod and mineral soil. Dig area ranged from 10 to 200 feet² (1-20 m²) [10]. Pink wintergreen occurred in borrow pits and vehicle tracks but not on undisturbed sites along the Canol Road east of Macmillan Pass in the Northwest Territories. Disturbed and undisturbed sites were within the bog birch/star reindeer lichen (Betula glandulosa/Cladonia alpestris)-moss tundra habitat type. Borrow pits and vehicle tracks were created during pipeline construction and were abandoned 48 years before this study. Undisturbed sites had higher cover and abundance of woody plants than disturbed sites [25]. Pink wintergreen had a strong negative correlation (r = -0.50) with moderate and severe levels of mechanical site disturbances in boreal forests of central and northeastern British Columbia. Pink wintergreen abundance was greatest on undisturbed and/or low-severity disturbed sites [19].

  • 81. Taylor, R. F. 1932. The successional trend and its relation to second-growth forests in southeastern Alaska. Ecology. 13(4): 381-391. [10007]
  • 84. Van Cleve, K.; Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T. 1996. State factor control of soils and forest succession along the Tanana River in interior Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 28(3): 388-400. [65672]
  • 6. Cooper, W. S. 1916. Plant succession in the Mount Robson region, British Columbia. Journal of Ecology. 4(3/4): 196-198. [65678]
  • 7. Cooper, William S. 1930. The seed-plants and ferns of the Glacier Bay National Monument, Alaska. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 57(5): 327-338. [65666]
  • 8. Cooper, William Skinner. 1923. The recent ecological history of Glacier Bay, Alaska: the present vegetation cycle. Ecology. 4(3): 223-246. [65668]
  • 9. Corns, Ian G.; La Roi, George H. 1976. A comparison of mature with recently clear-cut and scarified lodgepole pine forests in the Lower Foothills of Alberta. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 6(1): 20-32. [34970]
  • 10. Doak, Daniel F.; Loso, Michael G. 2003. Effects of grizzly bear digging on alpine plant community structure. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. 35(4): 421-428. [47428]
  • 15. Habeck, James R. 1968. Forest succession in the Glacier Park cedar-hemlock forests. Ecology. 49(5): 872-880. [6479]
  • 19. Haeussler, Sybille; Bedford, Lorne; Boateng, Jacob O.; MacKinnon, Andy. 1999. Plant community responses to mechanical site preparation in northern interior British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 29: 1084-1100. [38978]
  • 20. Haeussler, Sybille; Kabzems, Richard. 2005. Aspen plant community response to organic matter removal and soil compaction. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 35: 2030-2044. [61573]
  • 21. Halpern, Charles B.; McKenzie, Donald; Evans, Shelley A.; Maguire, Douglas A. 2005. Initial responses of forest understories to varying levels and patterns of green-tree retention. Ecological Applications. 15(1): 175-195. [61472]
  • 22. Halpern, Charles B.; Spies, Thomas A. 1995. Plant species diversity in natural and managed forests of the Pacific Northwest. Ecological Applications. 5(4): 913-934. [62677]
  • 25. Harper, Karen A.; Kershaw, G. Peter. 1996. Natural revegetation on borrow pits and vehicle tracks in shrub tundra, 48 years following construction of the CANOL No. 1 Pipeline, N.W.T., Canada. Arctic and Alpine Research. 28(2): 163-171. [62701]
  • 27. Helm, D. J.; Allen, E. B. 1995. Vegetation chronsequence near Exit Glacier, Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 27(3): 246-257. [26686]
  • 38. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703]
  • 40. Krzic, M.; Newman, R. F.; Broersma, K. 2003. Plant species diversity and soil quality in harvested and grazed boreal aspen stands of northeastern British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management. 182: 315-325. [51139]
  • 45. Larsen, J. A. 1929. Fires and forest succession in the Bitterroot Mountains of northern Idaho. Ecology. 10: 67-76. [6990]
  • 54. Moss, E. H. 1955. The vegetation of Alberta. Botanical Review. 21(9): 493-567. [6878]
  • 55. Mueggler, Walter F. 1965. Ecology of seral shrub communities in the cedar-hemlock zone of northern Idaho. Ecological Monographs. 35: 165-185. [4016]
  • 60. North, Malcolm; Oakley, Brian; Fiegener, Rob; Gray, Andrew; Barbour, Michael. 2005. Influence of light and soil moisture on Sierran mixed-conifer understory communities. Plant Ecology. 177: 13-24. [64836]
  • 77. Strong, W. L. 2004. Secondary vegetation and floristic succession with a boreal aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clearcut. Canadian Journal of Botany. 82(11): 1576-1585. [52068]
  • 79. Sullivan, Thomas P.; Sullivan, Druscilla S.; Lindgren, Pontus M. F. 2000. Small mammals and stand structure in young pine, seed-tree, and old-growth forest, Southwest Canada. Ecological Applications. 10(5): 1376-1383. [65673]
  • 80. Suominen, Otso; Danell, Kjell; Bryant, John P. 1999. Indirect effects of mammalian browsers on vegetation and ground-dwelling insects in an Alaskan floodplain. Ecoscience. 6(4): 505-510. [65654]
  • 88. Viereck, Leslie A. 1989. Flood-plain succession and vegetation classification in interior Alaska. In: Ferguson, Dennis E.; Morgan, Penelope; Johnson, Frederic D., comps. Proceedings, land classifications based on vegetation: applications for resource management; 1987 November 17-19; Moscow, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-257. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 197-203. [6959]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: litter, perfect, rhizome

Pink wintergreen produces seeds and rhizomes. Information on seed production, seed dispersal, and seedling establishment was lacking as of 2007. Lackschewitz [42] reports that pink wintergreen propagates by rhizomes. Studies of pink wintergreen regeneration are needed.

Pollination: Because pink wintergreen produces perfect flowers, self pollination is possible, but pollination strategies were not discussed in the available literature (2007).

Breeding system: Pink wintergreen flowers are perfect [26].

Seed production and dispersal: The only studies of pink wintergreen seed production, dispersal, and banking are summarized in seed banking.

Seed banking: Pink wintergreen germinated from soils collected in tufted hairgrass/sedge (Deschampsia caespitosa/Carex spp.) meadows in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem of Montana and Wyoming but not from soils collected in mixed forests in Oregon's central Cascade Range or from soils collected in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) woodlands in northeastern Alberta. Fifty-three pink wintergreen seedlings/m² emerged from seed in soils collected in unburned tufted hairgrass meadows. Almost double this number of seedlings emerged when unburned soil samples were heated to 120 °F (50 °C) for 1 hour. Emergence was about half as much when heated to 210 °F (100 °C) for 1 hour. There was no emergence from soils heated at 300 °F (150 °C) for 1 hour or from soils collected in burned meadows [4]. Additional information on this study is available in Fire Effects.

Pink wintergreen was not collected in seed traps and did not germinate from soil samples collected in mixed forests or gravel bars in Oregon's central Cascade Range. In mixed forest sites, pink wintergreen occurred with an average of 0.1% cover/m²; pink wintergreen was not present on vegetated or unvegetated gravel bars within active third- and fifth-order streams. Soil samples were collected in mid-March, and emergence from rhizome pieces and seeds was monitored under greenhouse conditions [24]. Pink wintergreen did not emerge from vegetative propagules or seed in soil samples collected on burned or unburned quaking aspen stands in northeastern Alberta. Lightly and severely burned sites were sampled. The fire on severely burned sites consumed all aboveground vegetation and oxidized the top 2 to 4 inches (6-10 cm) of the organic soil layer. Light fires partially oxidized the top 0 to 0.8 inch (2 cm) of the organic layer, primarily mosses and litter. Unburned stands were over 120 years old [49].

Germination: The little information on pink wintergreen seed germination comes from the study conducted by [4], which is presented in seed banking.

Seedling establishment/growth: No information is available on this topic.

Vegetative regeneration: Pink wintergreen regenerates vegetatively by rhizomes. Researchers in south-central Alaska's Wrangell-St Elias National Park classified pink wintergreen as a "guerilla" colonizer because daughter ramets typically occurred beyond the perimeter of the aboveground parent plant [10].

  • 4. Clark, David Lee. 1991. The effect of fire on Yellowstone ecosystem seed banks. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 115 p. Thesis. [36504]
  • 10. Doak, Daniel F.; Loso, Michael G. 2003. Effects of grizzly bear digging on alpine plant community structure. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. 35(4): 421-428. [47428]
  • 24. Harmon, Janice M.; Franklin, Jerry F. 1995. Seed rain and seed bank of third- and fifth-order streams on the western slope of the Cascade Range. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-480. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 27 p. [25915]
  • 26. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: The Swallow Press, Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 42. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798]
  • 49. Lee, Philip. 2004. The impact of burn intensity from wildfires on seed and vegetative banks, and emergent understory in aspen-dominated boreal forests. Canadian Journal of Botany. 82(10): 1468-1480. [51462]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: hemicryptophyte

RAUNKIAER [62] LIFE FORM:
Hemicryptophyte
  • 62. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

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Life Form

More info for the term: forb

Forb

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Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

Pink wintergreen is shallowly rooted [16,78], and survival may depend on depend on depth of burn and degree of soil heating.
  • 16. Habeck, James; Stickney, Peter; Pfister, Robert; Noste, Nonan. 1980. Fire response classification of Montana forest species. The University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 15 p. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 15 p. [6993]
  • 78. Strong, W. L.; LaRoi, G. H. 1986. A strategy for concurrently monitoring the plant water potentials of spatially separate forest ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 16(2): 346-351. [10805]

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Pink wintergreen begins producing flowers in June or July. Flowering times are apparently slightly later in the eastern part of its range.

Flowering dates for pink wintergreen
State/region Flowering dates
California June-September for P. a. subsp. asarifolia [56,57];
June-July for P. a. subsp. bracteata [57]
Michigan usually 1st week in July [89]
Nevada July-September [35]
New Mexico July-August [52]
Washington,
Willamette, Mt Hood, Siuslaw National Forests
June-September [82]
Intermountain West June-September [30]
New England 21 June-23 July [68]
Northeastern United States July-August [13]
  • 68. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2nd ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 89. Voss, Edward G. 1996. Michigan flora. Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae--Compositae). Bulletin 61: Cranbrook Institute of Science; University of Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan. 622 p. [30401]
  • 57. Munz, Philip A.; Keck, David D. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 13. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 30. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1959. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 4: Ericaceae through Campanulaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 510 p. [1170]
  • 52. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
  • 56. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924]
  • 82. Topik, Christopher; Hemstrom, Miles A., comps. 1982. Guide to common forest-zone plants: Willamette, Mt. Hood, and Siuslaw National Forests. R6-Ecol 101-1982. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 95 p. [3234]
  • 35. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

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Source: NatureServe

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Information on state-level protected status of plants in the United States is available at Plants Database.

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Management

Management considerations

More info for the terms: litter, tree

Spruce cone rust (Chrysomyxa pirolata) uses wintergreens (Pyrola
spp.) as hosts. Spruce cone rust was found on pink wintergreen in an Engelmann
spruce-subalpine fir stand in central Utah [59].

On the Teakettle Experimental Forest,
pink wintergreen was significantly associated (P<0.001) with mixed-conifer
forests with closed canopies, a thick litter layer, and high soil moisture
content. Tree species in these forests included white fir, California black
oak (Quercus kelloggii), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), Jeffery
pine (P. jeffreyi), and incense-cedar (Calocedrus decurrens). Pink
wintergreen may be an indicator species for these forests and site conditions [60].
  • 60. North, Malcolm; Oakley, Brian; Fiegener, Rob; Gray, Andrew; Barbour, Michael. 2005. Influence of light and soil moisture on Sierran mixed-conifer understory communities. Plant Ecology. 177: 13-24. [64836]
  • 59. Nelson, David L.; Krebill, Richard G. 1982. Occurrence and effect of Chrysomyxa pirolata cone rust on Picea pungens in Utah. The Great Basin Naturalist. 42(2): 262-272. [15938]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: cover

Use of pink wintergreen by wildlife or livestock was not reported in the available literature (2007).

Palatability/nutritional value: No information is available on this topic.

Cover value: Pink wintergreen is a small plant that likely provides cover for only arthropods.

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Other uses and values

Native people of the Pacific Northwest used a pink wintergreen poultice for sores and swellings [61].
  • 61. Pojar, Jim; MacKinnon, Andy, eds. 1994. Plants of the Pacific Northwest coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia and Alaska. Redmond, WA: Lone Pine Publishing. 526 p. [25159]

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Wikipedia

Pyrola asarifolia

Pyrola asarifolia, commonly known as Bog Wintergreen, Liverleaf Wintergreen or Pink Wintergreen, is a plant species of the genus Pyrola native to western North America. It is found primarily on forest margins at mid latitude in the Pacific Northwest and northern California. It is so named simply because its leaves maintain their green color through winter.

Contents

Description[edit]

P. a. subsp. asarifolia inflorescence in Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest

The Pyrola asarifolia flower stalk stands 10–20 cm high, and holds about a dozen drooping pinkish bell-shaped flowers. The leaves themselves cluster around the base, and are round and smooth green.

Cultivation[edit]

Cultivation is extremely difficult due to sensitive mycorhizzal associations. However, this plant is used as an ornamental plant.

References[edit]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Synonyms

More info for the term: fern

Pyrola asarifolia var. bracteata (Hook.) Jepson [57]=

   Pyrola asarifolia subsp. bracteata [34]

Pyrola asarifolia var. incarnata (DC.) Fern. [1,4,26]=

   Pyrola asarifolia subsp. asarifolia [34]

Pyrola asarifolia var. purpurea (Bunge) Fern. [30,33,42,57,64,89]=

   Pyrola asarifolia subsp. asarifolia [34]

Pyrola bracteata Hook. [46,63,70]=

   Pyrola asarifolia subsp. asarifolia [34]

Pyrola californica Krisa [56]=

   Pyrola asarifolia subsp. asarifolia [34]

Pyrola rotundifolia subsp. asarifolia (Michx.) A&D Löve [93,94]=

   Pyrola asarifolia subsp. asarifolia [34]

Pyrola uliginosa Torr. & Gray ex Torr. [6,7,70,81]=

   Pyrola asarifolia subsp. asarifolia [34]
  • 1. Anderson, J. P. 1959. Flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 543 p. [9928]
  • 33. Hultén, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 89. Voss, Edward G. 1996. Michigan flora. Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae--Compositae). Bulletin 61: Cranbrook Institute of Science; University of Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan. 622 p. [30401]
  • 81. Taylor, R. F. 1932. The successional trend and its relation to second-growth forests in southeastern Alaska. Ecology. 13(4): 381-391. [10007]
  • 57. Munz, Philip A.; Keck, David D. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 4. Clark, David Lee. 1991. The effect of fire on Yellowstone ecosystem seed banks. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 115 p. Thesis. [36504]
  • 6. Cooper, W. S. 1916. Plant succession in the Mount Robson region, British Columbia. Journal of Ecology. 4(3/4): 196-198. [65678]
  • 7. Cooper, William S. 1930. The seed-plants and ferns of the Glacier Bay National Monument, Alaska. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 57(5): 327-338. [65666]
  • 26. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: The Swallow Press, Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 30. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1959. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 4: Ericaceae through Campanulaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 510 p. [1170]
  • 42. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798]
  • 56. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924]
  • 70. St. John, Harold; Warren, Fred A. 1937. The plants of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. The American Midland Naturalist. 18(6): 952-985. [62707]
  • 94. Weber, William A.; Wittmann, Ronald C. 1996. Colorado flora: eastern slope. 2nd ed. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado. 524 p. [27572]
  • 46. Larsen, J. A. 1940. Site factor variations and responses in temporary forest types in northern Idaho. Ecological Monographs. 10(1): 1-54. [12933]
  • 63. Roach, A. W. 1952. Phytosociology of the Nash Crater lava flows, Linn County, Oregon. Ecological Monographs. 22: 169-193. [8759]
  • 64. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 93. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. [7706]
  • 34. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. In: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]

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The scientific name of pink wintergreen is Pyrola asarifolia Michx. (Pyrolaceae) [31,34].

Infrataxa:

Pyrola asarifolia Michx. subsp. asarifolia [17,28,31,34]

Pyrola asarifolia subsp. bracteata (Hook.) Haber [17,28,31,34]
Hybrids:
Naturally occurring hybrids of pink wintergreen × largeflowered wintergreen (P. grandiflora)
occur in British Columbia and the Yukon Territory [17]. Pink wintergreen × snowline wintergreen (P. minor)
hybrid populations occur in Quebec, Ontario, Colorado, Alberta, British
Columbia, Yukon, and Alaska [18].
  • 28. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 17. Haber, Erich. 1983. Morphological variability and flavonol chemistry of the Pyrola asarifolia complex (Ericaceae) in North America. Systematic Botany. 8(3): 277-298. [65657]
  • 31. Holmgren, Noel H.; Holmgren, Patricia K.; Cronquist, Arthur. 2005. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 2, Part B: Subclass Dilleniidae. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 488 p. [63251]
  • 18. Haber, Erich. 1984. A comparative study of Pyrola minor x Pyrola asarifolia (Ericaceae) and its parental species in North America. Canadian Journal of Botany. 62(5): 1054-1061. [65653]
  • 34. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. In: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]

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Common Names

pink wintergreen

liverleaf wintergreen

pink shinleaf

alpine wintergreen

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