Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Honewort is a woodland wildflower that blooms in the shade during the summer. Its white flowers are quite small and not very showy, which is quite typical of wildflower species that adapt to this type of habitat. Because their are many members of the Carrot family with umbels of small white flowers, they can be difficult to identify. Honewort can be distinguished from similar species by the following characteristics
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Description

This herbaceous perennial plant is 1-3' tall; it is unbranched toward the base, but branches occasionally in the upper half. The light green stems are glabrous and occasionally glaucous; they are slightly wider and angular at the bases of petioles. The compound leaves are trifoliate. The lower compound leaves have long petioles, while the upper compound leaves are sessile, or nearly so. Elongated membranous sheaths can be found at the bases of petioles. The leaflets of the compound leaves are up to 4" long and 2" across, becoming smaller as they ascend the stems. Individual leaflets are ovate, elliptic or lanceolate in shape, doubly serrated along their margins, and glabrous. Some of the lower leaflets may be shallowly to deeply cleft along their margins, forming 1-2 lobes. The leaflets are rounded or wedged-shaped at their bases, where they have winged petiolules (basal stalklets). The upper surface of leaflets is medium to dark green. The upper stems terminate in compound umbels of tiny white flowers. These umbels are somewhat irregular and span about 1½-3" across. Each umbel divides into about 3-10 umbellets, while each umbellet consists of 3-10 flowers. Neither umbels nor umbellets have any significant floral bracts. Each flower is less than 3 mm. (1/8") across, consisting of 5 white petals, 5 white stamens, a conical pistil that is light green, and a short-tubular calyx that is green and without teeth. The petals usually curve inward at their tips. The blooming period occurs during early to mid-summer, lasts about 1 month. There is no noticeable floral scent. Each flower is replaced by an elongated ribbed fruit (schizocarp) that tapers at both ends. These fruits are initially green, but they later become dark-colored; each fruit consists of 2 seeds. The root system consists of a taproot. This plant spreads by reseeding itself; it occasionally forms colonies at favorable sites. Cultivation
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Honewort is a common plant that occurs in most areas of Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include moist to mesic deciduous woodlands (especially Sugar Maple & Basswood woodlands), woodland borders, edges of shady seeps, wooded areas along springs and streams, wooded bluffs, fence rows that are overgrown with trees, and shady edges of yards. This species adapts well to shaded areas with a history of light to moderate disturbance. It can also be found in higher quality woodlands with more conservative species. Faunal Associations
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Honewort is a common plant that occurs in most areas of Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include moist to mesic deciduous woodlands (especially Sugar Maple & Basswood woodlands), woodland borders, edges of shady seeps, wooded areas along springs and streams, wooded bluffs, fence rows that are overgrown with trees, and shady edges of yards. This species adapts well to shaded areas with a history of light to moderate disturbance. It can also be found in higher quality woodlands with more conservative species. Faunal Associations
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Honewort in Illinois

Cryptotaenia canadensis (Honewort)
(Short-tongued bees usually suck nectar & less often collect pollen; other insects suck nectar; one observation is from Krombein et al. as indicated below, otherwise observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn; Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades leavitti sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn, Augochlora purus purus sn fq, Augochlorella striata sn, Augochloropsis sumptuosa sn, Halictus confusus sn fq, Halictus ligatus sn, Halictus rubicunda sn, Lasioglossum cressonii sn, Lasioglossum foxii sn, Lasioglossum illinoensis sn, Lasioglossum imitatus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum pectinatus sn, Lasioglossum pectoralis sn fq, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn, Lasioglossum truncatus sn, Lasioglossum versatus sn fq, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes cressonii sn fq, Sphecodes dichroa sn, Sphecodes stygius sn; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes eulophi sn; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis sn, Hylaeus mesillae sn, Hylaeus saniculae sn; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena integra (Kr), Andrena nigrifrons sn, Andrena robertsonii sn cp, Andrena spiraeana sn; Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn

Wasps
Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Anacrabro ocellatus, Ectemnius lapidarius, Lestica confluentus, Oxybelus niger, Oxybelus uniglumis; Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris astarte, Cerceris clypeata; Pompilidae: Ceropales maculata; Chrysididae: Hedychrum parvum, Hedychrum violaceum; Gasteruptiidae: Gasteruption assectator, Gasteruption tarsatorius; Ichneumonidae: Dreisbachia slossonae, Lissonota tricincta (Ashmead, MS), Polyblastus citripes (Ashmead, MS); Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus, Parancistrocerus perennis, Symmorphus canadensis

Flies
Hilarimorphidae: Hilarimorpha mikii; Mycetophilidae: Epicypta scatophora; Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua, Epistrophe emarginata, Eristalis transversus, Eupeodes americanus, Orthonevra nitida, Paragus bicolor fq, Paragus tibialis fq, Pipiza femoralis, Syritta pipiens fq, Syrphus ribesii fq, Toxomerus geminatus fq, Toxomerus marginatus, Trichopsomyia apisaon; Empididae: Empis clausa, Empis loripedis; Bombyliidae: Geron calvus, Hemipenthes sinuosa; Conopidae: Thecophora occidensis, Zodion americanum, Zodion fulvifrons; Tachinidae: Cylindromyia euchenor, Gymnoclytia immaculata, Gymnoclytia occidua, Linnaemya comta, Siphona geniculata fq, Xanthomelanodes arcuatus; Sarcophagidae: Metopia argyrocephala; Muscidae: Neomyia cornicina; Anthomyiidae: Delia platura; Fanniidae: Fannia manicata; Scathophagidae: Cordilura munda; Lauxaniidae: Camptoprosopella vulgaris; Sepsidae: Sepsis violacea; Drosophilidae: Leucophenga varia; Chloropidae: Chaetochlorops inquilina, Chlorops proximus, Liohippelates flavipes, Olcella trigramma

Beetles
Attelabidae: Eugnamptus angustatus; Brentidae: Apion nigrum; Cantharidae: Podabrus brunnicollis; Cerambycidae: Euderces picipes, Typocerus lugubris; Chrysomelidae: Acanthoscelides submuticus, Diabrotica undecimpunctata, Gibbobruchus mimus fq, Meibomeus musculus, Sennius abbreviatus; Coccinellidae: Diomus terminatus; Curculinoidae: Centrinaspis picumna; Dermestidae: Cryptorhopalum triste; Melyridae: Malchius erichsonii; Mordellidae: Mordella marginata, Mordellistena limbalis, Mordellistena pubescens, Paramordellaria triloba; Scraptiidae: Pentaria trifasciatus

Plant Bugs
Thyreocoridae: Corimelaena lateralis

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cryptotaenia canadensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cryptotaenia canadensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: FOOD

Comments: Cultivated in Japan for food.

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Wikipedia

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