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Overview

Brief Summary

Description

Orange-eye butterfly-bush, or summer lilac, is native to southwestern China and was introduced into North America around 1900 for ornamental purposes. It escaped from plantings and occurs in scattered locations in the Northeast, Southeast and Mid-Atlantic and in the western U.S. from southern California to northern Washington. Butterfly-bush prefers disturbed sites and riparian areas. It is a deciduous shrub with arching stems and can grow 3-15 ft. in height. The leaves are 6-10 in. long, opposite, lanced-shaped, pale gray-green, velvety and have toothed margins. It flowers summer to fall. The flowers are produced in thick, wand-like clusters from the tips of stems. Flowers are tubular, with four petals with wavy margins and can be lilac, pink or white with a deep yellow to orange center. The flowers produce lots of nectar which attracts butterflies. It spreads by seed which is dispersed mostly by wind. A related species, Lindley’s butterfly-bush (B. lindleyana) has been reported to be invasive in natural areas in Florida.

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Biology

This deciduous shrub has spread so well throughout Britain because the light seeds are winged and have extremely good powers of dispersal. The railways have acted as corridors for dispersal, from which the species has spread outwards (4). In more southerly areas it often forms very dense shrubberies (4).
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Description

This large shrub is so called because it is visited by large numbers of butterflies and moths, as it is an extremely good source of nectar (2). Indeed, the spread of this plant may have been the single factor responsible for the maintenance of many urban butterfly populations (4). The butterfly-bush has dark green lance-shaped leaves, which are white on the undersides. The purple flowers are densely arranged in flower spikes (2).
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Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Cultivated, Native of East Asiatic Region"
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Karnataka: Mysore Tamil Nadu: Dindigul
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Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan (most probably introduced)].
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Range

First introduced to Britain from China in the 1890s, the butterfly-bush has since spread throughout much of Britain, with the exception of most of the far north of Scotland (4).
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Distribution: China, W. and C. Europe, India and Pakistan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Deciduous shrub, up to 5 m tall. Branchlets 4-angled, tomentose. Leaves sub-sessile, 7-25 cm long, 1-7 cm broad, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely serrate, glabrous above, whitish tomentose beneath. Stipules interpetiolar, 2-lobed. Flowers sub-sessile, fragrant, in branched rounded clusters forming a terminal panicle 6-30 cm long. Bracts linear, 3 mm long. Calyx c. 3 mm long, stellate-tomentose. Corolla lilac to purple, orange to yellow at the mouth; corolla tube c. 1-1.2 cm long; straight, sparsely pubescent; lobes 3-4 mm long. Capsule glabrous, up to 1 cm long, cylindrical, pointed.
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Description

Shrubs 0.5--5 m tall; young branchlets, leaves abaxially, petioles, and inflorescences white tomentose or pubescent with stellate hairs. Branchlets nearly 4-angled. Stipules often present, suborbicular to ovate, 1--6 mm. Petiole 1--5 mm; leaf blade narrowly ovate, narrowly elliptic, or very narrowly ovate, 4--20 X 0.3--7.5 cm, adaxially dark green and glabrous or subglabrous, base cuneate, margin serrate, apex acuminate, lateral veins 9--14 pairs. Inflorescences terminal, seemingly racemose or thyrsoid cymes, 4--30 X 2--5 cm; lower bracts leafy, others small and linear. Calyx campanulate, 2--3.5 mm, outside stellate pubescent to glabrous; lobes narrowly triangular, 0.5--2 mm. Corolla violet to dark purple, sometimes white, with an orange-yellow throat, 0.8--1.4 cm, outside glabrous or stellate pubescent and/or with glandular hairs; tube narrowly cylindrical or subcylindrical, 6--11.5 X 1--1.5 mm, inside pilose except at base; lobes suborbicular, 1.5--3 X 1.5--3 mm, outside glabrous. Stamens inserted at middle to near base of corolla tube; anthers oblong, 0.8--1.2 mm. Ovary ovoid, 1.2--2 X 0.8--1.1 mm, glabrous to minutely pubescent, sometimes with glandular hairs. Style 0.5--1.5 mm; stigma clavate. Capsules brown, narrowly ellipsoid to narrowly ovoid, 5--9 X 1.5--2 mm, glabrous or sparsely stellate pubescent. Seeds ellipsoid, 2--4 X ca. 0.5 mm, long winged at both ends. Fl. May-Oct.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Synonym

Buddleja davidii var. alba Rehder & E. H. Wilson; B. davidii var. glabrescens Gagnepain; B. davidii var. magnifica (E. H. Wilson) Rehder & E. H. Wilson; B. davidii var. nanhoensis (Chittenden) Rehder; B. davidii var. superba (Veitch) Rehder & E. H. Wilson; B. davidii var. veitchiana (Veitch) Rehder & Bailey; B. davidii var. wilsonii (E. H. Wilson) Rehder & E. H. Wilson; B. shaanxiensis Z. Y. Zhang; B. shimidzuana Nakai; B. striata Z. Y. Zhang; B. striata var. zhouquensis Z. Y. Zhang; B. variabilis Hemsley; B. variabilis var. magnifica E. H. Wilson; B. variabilis var. nanhoensis Chittenden; B. variabilis var. prostrata C. K. Schneider; B. variabilis var. superba Veitch; B. variabilis var. veitchiana Veitch; B. variabilis var. wilsonii E. H. Wilson.
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Ecology

Habitat

Thickets on mountain slopes, side of draws in mountains; 800--3000 m.
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Although still popular in gardens, this species has escaped from cultivation and is now a common feature of waste ground, roadsides and railways, quarries and a range of urban habitats. It shows a preference for dry and disturbed sites (3).
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Associations

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Ganoderma australe is saprobic on dead trunk of Buddleja variabilis

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Foodplant / miner
larva of Amauromyza verbasci mines leaf of Buddleja davidii

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Auricularia auricula-judae is saprobic on wood of Buddleja davidii

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Byssomerulius corium is saprobic on fallen, decayed wood of Buddleja davidii
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Chaetotyphula actiniceps is saprobic on dead, attached inflorescence of Buddleja davidii

Foodplant / open feeder
Cionus scrophulariae grazes on leaf of Buddleja davidii

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Dendrothele commixta is saprobic on dead, attached twig of Buddleja davidii

Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora hariotii parasitises live Buddleja davidii

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Phlebiella bourdotii parasitises live twig of Buddleja davidii

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Steccherinum ochraceum is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed twig of Buddleja davidii
Other: minor host/prey

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: Aug.-Sept.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Buddleja davidii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Buddleja davidii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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Status

A widespread introduced species (3).
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Threats

This introduced species is not threatened.
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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Conservation

Not relevant.
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Wikipedia

Buddleja davidii

Buddleja davidii (spelling variant Buddleia davidii), also called summer lilac, butterfly-bush, or orange eye, is a species of flowering plant in the family Scrophulariaceae, native to Sichuan and Hubei provinces in central China, and also Japan.[1] It is widely used as an ornamental plant, and many named varieties are in cultivation. B. davidii is named for the Basque missionary and explorer in China, Father Armand David, who first noticed the shrub. It was found near Ichang by Dr Augustine Henry about 1887 and sent to St Petersburg. Another botanist-missionary in China, Jean-André Soulié, sent seed to the French nursery Vilmorin, and B. davidii entered commerce in the 1890s.[2]

B. davidii was accorded the RHS Award of Merit (AM) in 1898, and the Award of Garden Merit (AGM) in 1941. [3]


Description[edit]

B. davidii is a vigorous shrub with an arching habit, growing to 5 m (16 ft) in height. The pale brown bark becomes deeply fissured with age. The branches are quadrangular in section, the younger shoots covered in a dense indumentum. The opposite lanceolate leaves are 7–13 cm long, tomentose beneath when young. The honey-scented lilac to purple inflorescences are terminal panicles, < 20 cm long.[4] Flowers are perfect (having both male and female parts), hence are hermaphrodite rather than monoecious (separate male and female flowers on the same plant) as is often incorrectly stated. 2n = 76. [5]

Buddleja davidii, after Leeuwenberg[edit]

In his 1979 revision of the taxonomy of the African and Asiatic species of Buddleja, the Dutch botanist Anthonius Leeuwenberg sank the six varieties of the species as synonyms of the type, considering them to be within the natural variation of a species, and unworthy of varietal recognition. [6] It was Leeuwenberg's taxonomy which was adopted in the Flora of China[7] published in 1996. However, as the distinctions of the former varieties are still widely recognized in horticulture, they are treated separately here:

Cultivation[edit]

Buddleja davidii cultivars are much appreciated worldwide as ornamentals and for the value of their flowers as a nectar source for many species of butterfly, though the species and cultivars are not able to survive the harsh winters of northern or montane climates, being killed by temperatures below about −15 to −20 °C (5 to −4 °F).

Younger wood is more floriferous, so even if frosts do not kill the previous year's growth, the shrub is usually hard-pruned in spring once frosts have finished, to encourage new growth. The removal of spent flower panicles may be undertaken to reduce the nuisance of self-seeding and encourage further flower production; this extends the flowering season which is otherwise limited to about 6 weeks, although the flowers of the second and third flushes are invariably smaller.

Hardiness: USDA zones 5–9. [8]

There are approximately 180 davidii cultivars as well as numerous hybrids with B. globosa and B. fallowiana grown in gardens. Many of these cultivars are of a dwarf habit growing to no more than 1.5 metres (4.9 ft). The following davidii cultivars held the RHS Award of Garden Merit in 2012:-

Invasive species[edit]

Buddleja davidii is naturalized in Australia[9] and most cities of central and southern Europe, where it can spread on wastelands and in gardens. It has been classified as an invasive species in many countries in temperate regions, including the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Within the United States, it is widely established as an escape from cultivation, and classified as a noxious weed by the states of Oregon and Washington.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Phillips, R. and Martin Rix, Shrubs, Macmillan, 1994, p210
  2. ^ Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Buddleia"
  3. ^ Hillier & Sons. (1990). Hillier's Manual of Trees & Shrubs, 5th ed.. p. 47. David & Charles, Newton Abbot. ISBN 0-7153-67447
  4. ^ Stuart, D. (2006). Buddlejas. pp 30–34. RHS Plant Collector Series, Timber Press, Oregon. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0
  5. ^ Chen, G, Sun, W-B, & Sun, H. (2007). Ploidy variation in Buddleja L. (Buddlejaceae) in the Sino - Himalayan region and its biogeographical implications. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 2007, 154, 305 – 312. The Linnean Society of London.
  6. ^ Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. H. Veenman & Zonen B. V., Wageningen, Nederland.
  7. ^ Li, P-T. & Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1996). Loganiaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 15. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 978-0915279371 online at www.efloras.org
  8. ^ Stuart, D. D. (2006). Buddlejas. pp. 119 – 120. RHS Plant Guide. Timber Press, Oregon. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0
  9. ^ "Buddleja davidii". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  • Van Laere K (2008) Interspecific hybridisation in woody ornamentals. PhD. Thesis, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University
  • Christenhusz, M.J.M. (2009). Typification of ornamental plants: Buddleja davidii (Scrophulariaceae). Phytotaxa 2: 55-55.
  • Franchet, M.A. (1887). Plantae Davidianae ex sinarum imperio, part 2 "Plantes du Thibet Oriental (Province de Moupine)". (Nouvelles Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle Paris), ser. 2, 10: 33-198.
  • Li, P. T. & Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1996). Loganiaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 15. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 978-0915279371 online at www.efloras.org

See also[edit]

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Buddleja davidii var. veitchiana

Buddleja davidii var. veitchiana was collected in Hupeh and introduced to cultivation by E. H. Wilson; it was named for the British nurseryman and horticulturist James Veitch by Rehder. [1] [2] The taxonomy of the plant and the other five davidii varieties has been challenged in recent years. Leeuwenberg sank them all as synonyms, considering them to be within the natural variation of a species, [3] a treatment adopted in the Flora of China published in 1996. [4]

Var. veitchiana was awarded the Royal Horticultural Society's First Class Certificate (FCC) in 1902. [5]

Description[edit]

B. davidii var. veitchiana is chiefly distinguished by its dense panicles of lavender-blue flowers with orange eyes. The plant is otherwise like the type. [2]

Cultivation[edit]

Now rare in cultivation, a specimen is still grown in the UK, at the Sir Harold Hillier Gardens near Romsey; another is held by the University of Copenhagen's Botanic Garden. [1] The shrub does not appear to remain in commerce in the UK, and was last listed in the RHS Plantfinder in 2010.[2].

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bean, W. J. (1950). Trees and shrubs hardy in Great Britain, 7th edition. Murray, London.
  2. ^ a b Stuart, D. D. (2006). Buddlejas. RHS Plant Collector Guide. Timber Press, Oregon. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0
  3. ^ Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (1979). The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II. Revision of the African and Asiatic species. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen, Nederland
  4. ^ Li, P-T. & Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1996). Loganiaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 15, p. 335. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 978-0915279371 online at www.efloras.org
  5. ^ Hillier & Sons. (1990). Hillier's Manual of Trees & Shrubs, 5th ed.. p. 47. David & Charles, Newton Abbot. ISBN 0-7153-67447
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Buddleja davidii var. magnifica

Buddleja davidii var. magnifica is endemic to much of the same area as the type; it was named by Rehder & E. H. Wilson in 1909. [1] [2] The taxonomy of the plant and the other five davidii varieties has been challenged in recent years. Leeuwenberg sank them all as synonyms, considering them to be within the natural variation of a species, and thus unworthy of varietal recognition, [3] a treatment adopted in the Flora of China published in 1996. [4]

Var. magnifica was awarded the Royal Horticultural Society's First Class Certificate (FCC) in 1905. [5]

Description[edit]

B. davidii var. magnifica is chiefly distinguished by the length of its violet-purple panicles, which can reach 75  cm (very occasionally 90  cm). The plant is otherwise like the type. [2]

Cultivation[edit]

Now very rare in cultivation, specimens are still grown in the UK, at the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Edinburgh. [1] The shrub is no longer in commerce in the UK.[2].

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bean, W. J. (1950). Trees and shrubs hardy in Great Britain, 7th edition. Murray, London.
  2. ^ a b Stuart, D. D. (2006). Buddlejas. RHS Plant Collector Guide. Timber Press, Oregon. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0
  3. ^ Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (1979). The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II. Revision of the African and Asiatic species. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen, Nederland
  4. ^ Li, P-T. & Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1996). Loganiaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 15, p. 335. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 978-0915279371 online at www.efloras.org
  5. ^ Hillier & Sons. (1990). Hillier's Manual of Trees & Shrubs, 5th ed.. p. 47. David & Charles, Newton Abbot. ISBN 0-7153-67447
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Buddleja davidii var. nanhoensis

Buddleja davidii var. nanhoensis is endemic to Kansu, China, and introduced by Farrer in 1914.[1] [2] The taxonomy of the plant and the other five davidii varieties has been challenged in recent years. Leeuwenberg sank them all as synonyms, considering them to be within the natural variation of a species, [3] a treatment adopted in the Flora of China published in 1996. [4]

Contents

Description

B. davidii var. nanhoensis is chiefly distinguished by its small size. Rarely growing to a height of > 1.5 m, the shrub has a more compact habit than the type, narrower leaves and shorter panicles. [1]

Cultivation

Now very rare in cultivation, unlike its numerous cultivars, the shrub is still grown in the UK at the Sir Harold Hillier Gardens near Romsey. [1]

Suppliers

There are seven nurseries in the UK still raising the shrub listed in the RHS Plantfinder [2].

References

  1. ^ a b Bean, W. J. (1917). Trees and shrubs hardy in Great Britain, 7th edition. Murray, London.
  2. ^ Hatch, L. (2007) Cultivars of Woody Plants Volume I (A-G) 2007 Edition. TCR Press Horticultural PDF. books.
  3. ^ Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (1979). The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II. Revision of the African and Asiatic species. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen, Nederland
  4. ^ Li, P-T. & Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1996). Loganiaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 15, p. 335. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 978-0915279371 online at www.efloras.org
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Buddleja davidii var. wilsonii

Buddleja davidii var. wilsonii is endemic to western Hubei, China, at elevations of between 1600 and 2000 m; it was named for the indefatigable English plant collector Ernest Wilson by Alfred Rehder.[1] The taxonomy of the plant and the other five davidii varieties has been challenged in recent years. Leeuwenberg sank them all as synonyms, considering them to be within the natural variation of a species, [2] a treatment adopted in the Flora of China published in 1996. [3]

Description

B. davidii var. wilsonii is one of the more readily identifiable varieties by virtue of its lax, somewhat pendulous, delicate panicles, < 60 cm long, of lilac-pink flowers;[4] the flowers have reflexed margins to the lobes of the corollas; the leaves are narrower than the type.[1]

Cultivation

B. davidii var. wilsonii is rare in cultivation,[1] and not known to remain in commerce.

References

  1. ^ a b Phillips, R,., & Rix, M. (1989). Shrubs. Pan Garden Plant series. Pan Books Ltd., London. ISBN 0-330-30258-2
  2. ^ Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (1979). The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II. Revision of the African and Asiatic species. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen, Nederland
  3. ^ Li, P-T. & Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1996). Loganiaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 15, p. 335. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 978-0915279371 online at www.efloras.org
  4. ^ Hatch, L. (2007) Cultivars of Woody Plants Volume 1 (A-G), 2007 Edition. TCR Press Horticultural PDF. books.


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Buddleja davidii var. superba

Buddleja davidii var. superba is endemic to the Yunnan province of western China.[1] The taxonomy of the plant and the other five davidii varieties has been challenged in recent years. Leeuwenberg sank them all as synonyms, considering them to be within the natural variation of a species, [2] a treatment adopted in the Flora of China published in 1996. [3]

Description

B. davidii var. superba is chiefly distinguished by the size of its fragrant, violet-purple panicles, which are more than double the length of those of the type, and even longer than those of magnifica. The plant is otherwise like the type.[1]

Cultivation

B. davidii var. superba is not known to remain in cultivation. [1]

References

  1. ^ a b Stuart, D. D. (2006). Buddlejas. RHS Plant Collector Guide. Timber Press, Oregon. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0
  2. ^ Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (1979). The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II. Revision of the African and Asiatic species. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen, Nederland
  3. ^ Li, P-T. & Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1996). Loganiaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 15, p. 335. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 978-0915279371 online at www.efloras.org


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Buddleja davidii var. alba

Buddleja davidii var. alba is endemic to central and western China.[1] The plant has also been treated as a form, and a cultivar ('Alba'). [2] However, Anthonius Leeuwenberg sank var. alba and the other five varieties of davidii as synonyms,[3] considering them to be within the natural variation of a species, a treatment also adopted in the Flora of China published in 1996. [4]

Contents

Description

B. davidii var. alba is distinguished by its inflorescences of white flowers with yellow eyes, considered inferior to many of the white cultivars now in commerce, and narrower leaves. [2]

Cultivation

Now rare in cultivation, var. alba is still grown in the UK at the Sir Harold Hillier Gardens near Romsey, and at the Royal Horticultural Society's garden at Wisley in Surrey. [1]

Suppliers

There is one nursery in the UK marketing the shrub, listed in the RHS Plantfinder [2].

References

  1. ^ Bean, W. J. (1917). Trees and shrubs hardy in Great Britain, 7th edition. Murray, London.
  2. ^ a b Hatch, L. (2007) Cultivars of Woody Plants Volume I (A-G) 2007 Edition. TCR Press Horticultural PDF. books.
  3. ^ Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (1979). The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II. Revision of the African and Asiatic species. H. Veenman & Zonen B. V., Wageningen, Nederland
  4. ^ Li, P-T. & Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1996). Loganiaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 15, p. 335. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 978-0915279371 online at www.efloras.org
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Notes

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Medicinal; ornamental. 

 Buddleja davidii Franchet X B. fallowiana I. B. Balfour & W. W. Smith has been reported from Yunnan (Leeuwenberg, Meded. Landbouwhogeschool 79(6): 149. 1979). This hybrid has the following characteristics: Shrubs. Branchlets terete, densely stellate tomentose. Leaves subsessile to petiole 6 mm; leaf blade ovate to narrowly elliptic, 4--13 X 1--6.5 cm, both surfaces densely stellate tomentose to adaxially glabrescent, base cuneate to decurrent, margin crenate-serrate, apex acuminate, acute, or obtuse, venation inconspicuous. Inflorescences terminal, thyrsoid, 5--15 X 2--3 cm. Calyx campanulate, 3.5--5 mm, inside densely stellate tomentose. Corolla violet to lilac, with an orange-yellow throat, outside densely stellate tomentose and with glandular hairs, tube ca. 9 mm; lobes orbicular, 1--3 X 1--3 mm. Stamens inserted above middle of corolla tube; anthers oblong. Ovary oblong, stellate tomentose. Fl. May-Oct.

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Cultivated as an ornamental in the plains and hills of India and Pakistan.
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