Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub Distribution notes: Exotic
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

China, Indo-Malesia; introduced in Tropical and Subtropical countries

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Wayanad, Idukki, Malappuram, Palakkad, Kollam

"
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"Maharashtra: Ahmednagar, Pune, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Coorg, Hassan, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga Kerala: Idukki, Kollam, Malapuram, Palakkad, Wynad Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Dindigul, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Theni, Salem, Virudhunagar"
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Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam]
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Distribution: Malaysia, China, Burma India and Pakistan.
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Himalaya (Chitral to NEFA), India, Burma, Indo-China, Malaysia, C. & S. China, Taiwan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

A large evergreen shrub. Branches stellate-tomentose. Leaves sub-sessile, 3-9 cm long, lanceolate, acute to acuminate, entire to serrulate, glabrous above, tomentose beneath; tomentum stellate, grey. Flowers sub-sessile, 6-9 mm long, white, fragrant, in terminal and axillary, dense, continuous spikes. Bract 2.5 mm long, lanceolate, acuminate, stellate-pubescent. Calyx campanulate, 2.5 mm long; lobes ovate, obtuse. Corolla 6-7 mm long, stellate-tomentose, 4-lobed; lobes orbicular, c. 2 mm long, sparsely pubescent; margin undulate. Stamens sub-sessile, included, anthers c. 1 mm long. Ovary ovoid, c. 2 mm long; style c. 1 mm long; stigma linear, c. 1 mm long. Capsule oblong-ovate, c. 3 mm long, glabrous, 2-valved. Seeds many, 0.3 mm long, membranous round the edge.
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Description

Shrubs or small trees, 1--8 m tall; young branchlets, leaves abaxially, petioles, and inflorescences densely stellate pubescent or woolly with white, gray, or tawny hairs. Branchlets terete or subterete. Leaves opposite, sometimes alternate towards branchlet apex. Petiole 2--15 mm; leaf blade narrowly to very narrowly elliptic, 6--30 X 1--7 cm, adaxially stellate pubescent or glabrous, base cuneate to decurrent, margin subentire or remotely serrate-dentate, apex acuminate, lateral veins 10--14 pairs. Inflorescences terminal and/or axillary, 1--3 or more seemingly racemose cymes together, 5--25 X 0.7--2 cm; bracteoles linear. Pedicel to 2 mm. Calyx campanulate, 1.5--4.5 mm; lobes triangular, outside stellate pubescent or tomentose, inside glabrous. Corolla white, rarely pale violet or greenish; tube 2.5--4.8 mm, outside densely to sparsely stellate pubescent; lobes suborbicular, 1--1.7 X 1--1.5 mm, spreading. Stamens inserted above middle of corolla tube to nearly at mouth, included; anthers oblong. Ovary ovoid to narrowly ovoid, 1--1.5 X 0.8--1 mm, glabrous or scaly. Style short; stigma capitate. Capsules ellipsoid, 3--5 X 1.5--3 mm, glabrous or sparsely and minutely scaly. Seeds pale brown, elliptic, 0.8--1 X 0.3--0.4 mm, short winged at both ends. Fl. Jan-Oct; fr. Mar-Dec.
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Elevation Range

350-2000 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Shrubs, 2-4 m tall, the branches lax, young shoots stellate-pubescent. Leaves opposite, 5-9 x 1-2.5 cm, oblanceolate, acuminate-caudate, attenuate at base, serrulate, dull olive-gray green, tawny or whitish pubescent beneath; petiole 3-9 mm long. Flowers in dense terminal and axillary elongate, often nodding spikes, up to 20 cm long, dull white; bracts and bracteoles glandular-hairy. Calyx 1-2 mm long, pubescent, 4-lobed. Corolla white, 2 mm across, lobes 4, membranous, villous. Stamens 4. Ovary 2 mm long, glabrous; style 4 mm long, stigma 2-lobed. Capsules 3-4 mm long, subglobose, calyx persistent at base; seeds many, about 0.3 mm long."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Synonym

Buddleja acuminatissima Blume; B. arfakensis Kanehira & Hatusima; B. amentacea Kraenzlin; B. asiatica var. brevicuspe Koorders; B. asiatica var. densiflora (Blume) Koorders & Valeton; B. asiatica var. salicina (Lamarck) Koorders & Valeton; B. asiatica var. sundaica (Blume) Koorders & Valeton; B. densiflora Blume; B. neemda Buchanan-Hamilton ex Roxburgh; B. neemda var. philippensis Chamisso & Schlechtendal; B. salicina Lamarck; B. serrulata Roth; B. subserrata Buchanan-Hamilton ex D. Don; B. sundaica Blume; B. virgata Blanco; Vitex esquirolii H. Léveillé.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Degraded forest areas
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Open places, at edge of open forests, open woodlands; 0--2800 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: October-April
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Flower/Fruit

Fl.Per.: Feb.-April.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Buddleja asiatica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Buddleja asiatica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Buddleja asiatica

Buddleja asiatica is a tender deciduous shrub endemic to a vast area of the East Indies, and first described by Loureiro in 1790. The shrub can be found in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, China, Taiwan, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, New Guinea, and the Philippines, growing in open woodland at elevations < 2,800 m either as understorey scrub, or as a small tree.[1] B. asiatica was introduced to the UK in 1874, and accorded the RHS Award of Garden Merit (record 675) in 1993.[2][1]

Given the huge range of the species, it has inevitably acquired a long list of synonyms.[3]

Description[edit]

B. asiatica can grow < 7 m tall in the wild. The leaves are usually narrowly lanceolate to ovoid, < 30 cm long, attached by petioles 15 mm long, to branches round in section. The sweetly scented flowers are usually white, occasionally pale violet, and borne in late winter at the ends of the long, lax branches in slender panicles, the size of which can vary widely according to source.[1] 2n = 38 (diploid). [4]

Cultivation[edit]

B. asiatica is not hardy in the UK, but can be grown reliably against a south-facing wall in coastal areas of the south and west. A specimen is grown under glass by Longstock Park Nursery, near Stockbridge, Hampshire, one of the four NCCPG national collection holders. Hardiness: RHS 2 (tender), USDA zones 9–10. [1]

Uses[edit]

In Nepal leaves of B. asiatica are collected as fodder for domesticated animals, and the trunk is cut for firewood. During Thangmi wedding rituals, the female relatives of the groom wear necklaces made of the white flower.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Stuart, D. (2006). Buddlejas. Plant Collector Guide. Timber Press, Oregon, USA. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0
  2. ^ Hillier Nurseries (1977). Hilliers' Manual of Trees & Shrubs. David & Charles, Newton Abbot. ISBN 0-7153-6744-7
  3. ^ Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen, Nederland.
  4. ^ Chen, G, Sun, W-B, & Sun, H. (2007). Ploidy variation in Buddleja L. (Buddlejaceae) in the Sino - Himalayan region and its biogeographical implications. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 2007, 154, 305 – 312. The Linnean Society of London.
  5. ^ Turin, Mark. "ETHNOBOTANICAL NOTES ON THANGMI PLANT NAMES AND THEIR MEDICINAL AND RITUAL USES". www.digitalhimalaya.com. http://www.digitalhimalaya.com. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 


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Notes

Comments

The plant grows in the sub-Himalayan tract up to 1600 m. alt. s.m. It is planted in gardens as an ornamental shrub, and the wood may be used for making walking sticks.
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Comments

Medicinal and source of perfume.
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