Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Among members of the Carrot family, Yellow Pimpernel has an unusual appearance because the leaflets lack any lobes or teeth. This makes the species easy to identify in the field. Also, the compound umbels are unusually open and airy in appearance. This member of the Carrot family is rarely seen in cultivation, but should be grown more often as the tiny flowers attract many beneficial insects. Return
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Description

This native perennial plant is 1-3' tall, branching sparingly. The stems are round, hairless, and dull green to reddish brown. They may be slightly glaucous. The larger leaves are doubly compound, while the smaller upper leaves may be singly compound. They are arranged alternately along the stems. In each compound leaf, the leaflets form groups of three (trifoliate). A lower compound leaf may be 12" long and 6" across, while the upper compound leaves are much smaller. There is a sheath at the base of each compound leaf. A typical leaflet is about 1" long and ½" across. It is dull green with a smooth surface and edges, and oval, ovate, or oblanceolate in shape. The terminal leaflet has a conspicuous petiole, while the side leaflets are usually sessile, or nearly so. Some of the upper stems terminate in compound umbels of tiny yellow flowers. When fully mature, a compound umbel will span about 4-7" and consist of about 12-15 umbellets. The umbellets will be widely spaced, giving the compound umbel and airy appearance. Each umbellet will consist of about 12 flowers. Each flower is less than 1/8" across and has 5 yellow petals. The blooming period occurs during late spring or early summer and lasts about one month. There is no noticeable floral scent. Each flower is eventually replaced by a 5-angled fruit. The root system consists of taproot. Cultivation
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

Yellow Pimpernel occurs occasionally in northern and central Illinois, but is uncommon or absent in southern Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include dry upland prairies, edges of hill prairies, upland savannas, rocky upland forests, bluffs, areas along woodland paths, eroded clay banks in semi-shaded areas, and thickets. This plant typically occurs at the edge of dry wooded areas, especially where slopes occur.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Yellow Pimpernel occurs occasionally in northern and central Illinois, but is uncommon or absent in southern Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include dry upland prairies, edges of hill prairies, upland savannas, rocky upland forests, bluffs, areas along woodland paths, eroded clay banks in semi-shaded areas, and thickets. This plant typically occurs at the edge of dry wooded areas, especially where slopes occur.
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Associations

Faunal Associations

The flowers attract small bees, wasps (including parasitic wasps), flies, and beetles. These insects seek nectar primarily, although some bees may collect pollen and some flies and beetles may feed on pollen. Some of the fly visitors include Syrphid flies, Tachinid flies, Chloropid flies, March flies, and Blow flies, while bee visitors include Nomadine bees, Little Carpenter bees, Halictid bees, Carder bees, and Andrenid bees. The caterpillars of the butterflies Papilio polyxenes asterias (Black Swallowtail) and Papilio joanae (Ozark Swallowtail) feed on the foliage of this plant; the latter insect has not been observed in Illinois, although it has been found in Missouri and western Kentucky. Little information is available about this plant's relationships to birds and mammals as a possible food source. Photographic Location
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Flower-Visiting Insects of Yellow Pimpernel in Illinois

Taenidia integerrima (Yellow Pimpernel)
(Short-tongued bees collect pollen or suck nectar; beetles feed on nectar or pollen; flies suck nectar, unless otherwise indicated; other insects suck nectar; some observations are from Krombein et al. and MacRae as indicated below, otherwise observations are from Robertson; information about oligolegy of bees is from Krombein et al.)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus griseocallis sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata sn, Ceratina dupla dupla sn; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada affabilis sn, Nomada articulata sn, Nomada cressonii sn, Nomada cuneatus sn, Nomada denticulata sn, Nomada luteola sn, Nomada ovatus sn, Nomada sayi sn; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons sn, Osmia lignaria lignaria sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlora purus sn, Augochlorella aurata sn cp fq, Augochlorella striata sn, Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn, Halictus confusus sn fq, Halictus ligatus sn fq, Lasioglossum foxii sn cp, Lasioglossum imitatus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum macoupinensis sn cp, Lasioglossum pectoralis sn, Lasioglossum tegularis sn, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes dichroa sn, Sphecodes pimpinellae sn, Sphecodes ranunculi sn, Sphecodes stygius sn; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes aestivalis sn; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis sn, Hylaeus illinoisensis sn, Hylaeus mesillae sn fq, Hylaeus modestus modestus sn fq, Hylaeus saniculae sn; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena crataegi sn cp, Andrena cressonii sn cp, Andrena heraclei sn, Andrena imitatrix imitatrix sn cp, Andrena nasonii sn cp fq, Andrena nuda sn, Andrena personata sn cp fq, Andrena robertsonii sn cp, Andrena ziziae sn cp fq olg (Rb, Kr)

Wasps
Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Ectemnius lapidarius, Ectemnius trifasciatus, Lestica confluentus; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Chalybion californicus, Sceliphron caementaria; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus, Eumenes fraterna, Euodynerus foraminatus, Leionotus scrophulariae (Rb, MS), Stenodynerus ammonia, Stenodynerus anormis, Stenodynerus foraminatus, Stenodynerus histrionalis, Stenodynerus oculeus, Symmorphus canadensis; Tiphiidae: Tiphia letalis; Pompilidae: Anoplius illinoensis; Chrysididae: Chrysis intricata; Gasteruptiidae: Gasteruption assectator; Ichneumonidae: Diadegma obscurus, Ophionellus virginiensis

Flies
Stratiomyidae: Nemotelus glaber; Syrphidae: Cheilosia hoodiana, Eristalis arbustorum, Eupeodes americanus, Ocyptamus fuscipennis, Orthonevra nitida, Sphaerophoria contiqua, Syritta pipiens fq, Syrphus ribesii, Toxomerus geminatus, Toxomerus marginatus; Empidae: Empis clausa, Empis levicula; Bombyliidae: Hemipenthes sinuosa fp, Toxophora amphitea; Conopidae: Thecophora occidensis, Zodion fulvifrons; Tachinidae: Copecrypta ruficauda, Cylindromyia euchenor, Cylindromyia fumipennis, Gymnoclytia occidua, Leucostoma gravipes, Linnaemya comta, Tachinomyia panaetius; Sarcophagidae: Helicobia rapax; Calliphoridae: Lucilia sericata; Muscidae: Bithoracochaeta leucoprocta; Sepsidae: Sepsis violacea; Platystomatidae: Rivellia pallida; Lauxaniidae: Camptoprosopella vulgaris; Chloropidae: Hippelates plebejus, Homaluroides mellea, Thaumatomyia glabra

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Chlosyne nycteis

Beetles
Buprestidae: Acmaeodera ornata (McR); Chrysomelidae: Althaeus hibisci, Babia quadriguttatus, Sennius abbreviatus; Curculionidae: Centrinites strigicollis, Cylindridia prolixa; Histeridae: Phelister subrotundus; Melyridae: Malachius erichsonii; Mordellidae: Mordella marginata, Mordellistena aspersa

Plant Bugs
Thyreocoridae: Corimelaena lateralis

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Taenidia integerrima

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Taenidia integerrima

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

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