Overview

Brief Summary

Apocynum cannabinum has a broad bioregional distribution in North America ranging from California to British Columbia on the west coast and spreading broadly across the Great Basin Floristic Province and thence further eastward in the USA. Preferred habitats are moist places near streams, springs and floodplains at elevations less than 2000 meters.

With the common name Hemp dogbane, this stout plant is more or less stiffly erect and branched near the top. The leaves are petioled with blades five to eight centimeters, with a base tapered to cordate, sometimes clasping stem; leaf tips are obtuse to acute. Flower corollae are 2.5 to 5.0 millimeters in extent, and cylindric to urn-shaped in shape. Fruits are six to nine cm in characteristic size.
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Comprehensive Description

Comments

Another common name for this plant is Indian Hemp, because native Amerindians obtained strong silky fibers from the stems. These fibers were used as twine in basketry, mats, netting, rope, and other artifacts. Some early French explorers remarked upon the abundance of this plant in the original prairie, which they referred to as 'hemp' in their writings. Common Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) can be distinguished from a similar species, Spreading Dogbane (Apocynum androsaemifolium), by its smaller flowers with more erect petals. The flowers are Spreading Dogbane are about 6-8 mm. long and similarly across; their petals are ascending, rather than erect, and the tips of their petals are recurved, rather than straight. Unlike Common Dogbane, Spreading Dogbane is typically found in upland habitats where the soil is more sandy and/or acidic. Return
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Description

This herbaceous perennial plant becomes about 2½–5' tall at maturity. Initially, this plant develops an erect central stem with opposite leaves during the late spring, but during early to mid-summer it branches abundantly. The stems are light green to red, terete, glabrous, and sometimes glaucous. At intervals along these stems, there are pairs of opposite leaves. These leaves are 1½–3½" long and about one-third as much across; they are broadly elliptic to broadly elliptic-oblong in shape and smooth (entire) along their margins. The upper leaf surface is medium green or yellowish green and glabrous, while the lower leaf surface is light green, glabrous, and sometimes glaucous. Leaf venation is pinnate. When petioles are present, they are up to ¼" long, light green, and glabrous; otherwise, the leaves are sessile. Plants with sessile leaves are sometimes referred to as Apocynum sibericum. The stems and leaves contain a milky latex that is bitter-tasting and toxic. The upper stems and some lateral stems terminate in panicles of flowers spanning 1–3" across; these panicles are flat-headed to dome-shaped. Each small flower is about 2-3 mm. across and 3-5 mm. long, consisting of 5 white petals, a light green calyx, 5 stamens, and a pistil. The petals are ovate to oval in shape and they are erect to slightly spreading; the calyx is glabrous and it has 5 triangular teeth. The branches and pedicels of the panicles are light green or light yellowish green, terete, and glabrous; individual pedicels are 2-6 mm. long. The blooming period usually occurs during the summer for about 1 month. The flowers are sweetly fragrant. Afterwards, cross-pollinated flowers are replaced by pairs of follicles (seedpods that open along one side). Mature follicles are 4-8" long, narrowly cylindrical in shape, and dark brown. These follicles eventually split open to release their seeds to the wind. Individual seeds are 4-6 mm. long, linear in shape, and brown; they have tufts of white hair at their apices that help to carry them aloft. The root system is long-rhizomatous, often producing clonal colonies of plants.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Description

General: Dogbane Family (Apocynaceae). The plant stem can be 0.61-1.83 m (2-6 feet) tall, and contains milky juice. The elliptical leaves are small, about 5.0-7.6 cm (2-3 inches) long, and opposite. The flowers are small and inconspicuous, cylindric to urn-shaped, and greenish pink. The fruit is 6 - 9 cm (2.4-3.5 cm) long and pendant, slender and cylindric. When the fruit matures and splits open, the seeds are wind dispersed with long tufts of silky hairs.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Alternative names

Dogbane, milkweed, honeybloom, bitter root, black hemp, hemp dogbane, lechuguilla, westernwall

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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States or Provinces

(key to state/province abbreviations)
UNITED STATES
AL AZ AR CA CO CT DE FL GA ID
IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI
MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY
NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN
TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY DC PR
VI

CANADA
AB BC MB NB NF NT NS ON PQ SK

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [16]:

1 Northern Pacific Border

2 Cascade Mountains

3 Southern Pacific Border

4 Sierra Mountains

5 Columbia Plateau

6 Upper Basin and Range

7 Lower Basin and Range

8 Northern Rocky Mountains

9 Middle Rocky Mountains

10 Wyoming Basin

11 Southern Rocky Mountains

12 Colorado Plateau

13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont

14 Great Plains

15 Black Hills Uplift

16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
  • 16. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

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Indianhemp occurs in North America [156]. It is found throughout all of the lower 48 United States and most of Canada, including Newfoundland. Historic populations in Maryland have been extirpated [72]. Plants Database provides a distributional map of Indian hemp.
  • 156. Woodson, R. E., Jr. 1930. Studies in the Apocynaceae. I. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 17: 1-212. [62287]
  • 72. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]

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For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site. Indian hemp or dogbane proliferates in moist places near riparian areas along streams, springs, levees, roadsides, and waste places. This well-known source of fibers is found in damp places, below 5,000 feet altitude through most of California, even here and there in the deserts. Indian hemp grows throughout California north to British Colombia and east across the United States.

Indian hemp is found near the borders of woods, along paths, in clearings, or in disturbed, waste places like ditches. It is no longer very common in California, and many traditional gathering sites are gone.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: cyme, trichasium

This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available [17,31,38,50,57,91,112,125,134,155,158].

Indianhemp is a native, perennial, broadleaf herb. In some cases, it is considered a weed [15,77,104,119]. It has an erect to ascending growth habit and reaches heights of 2 to 6 feet (0.6-1.8 m) from a spreading root stalk [15,28,77,119,156] Branching is opposite or sub-opposite [156]. The leaves are opposite, ovate to lanceololate, entire, and glabrous to sparingly pubescent beneath [5,15,28,119,156]. The flowers consist of 5 petals occurring in terminal clusters from the leaf axils [15,119]. The inflorescence of Indianhemp is a trichasial cyme. The lateral cymes of the trichasium can continue growing vegetatively to form a complete stem with their own terminal trichasiums [156]. The fruits are slender, pencil-like, hanging pods that are 4 to 8 inches (10-20 cm) long and occur in pairs. Seeds are flat, thin, and tufted with soft hairs [15,77,119]. Indianhemp leaves, stems, and roots all contain milky juice [14,15,28,119].

Indianhemp has 2 underground organs: the 1st are thick, branched, horizontal rhizomes that produce new aerial shoots at variable depths. The 2nd are slender, well-branched, vertical, absorbing roots [99]. These large roots/rhizome systems have been found as deep as 13 feet (4 m) below the soil surface and may extend up to 20 feet (6 m) in radial spread [76,104].

  • 5. Andreas, Barbara K.; Cooperrider, Tom S. 1979. The Apocynaceae of Ohio. Castanea. 44(4): 238-241. [55119]
  • 14. Becker, Roger L.; Fawcett, Richard S. 1998. Seasonal carbohydrate fluctuations in hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) crown roots. Weed Science. 46(3): 358-365. [55110]
  • 15. Becker, Roger. 1981. Today's weed: hemp dogbane. Weed Science. 12(4): 15-16. [55122]
  • 31. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124]
  • 38. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 57. Goodrich, Sherel; Neese, Elizabeth. 1986. Uinta Basin flora. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ashley National Forest; U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Vernal District. 320 p. [23307]
  • 76. Kiltz, B. F. 1930. Perennial weeds which spread vegetatively. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy. 22(3): 216-234. [25191]
  • 77. Knight, A. P. 1988. Oleander poisoning. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian. Princeton Junction, NJ: Veterinary Learning Systems 1979 9999. 10(2): 262-263. [61248]
  • 91. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
  • 99. Mueller, Irene M. 1941. An experimental study of rhizomes of certain prairie plants. Ecological Monographs. 11: 165-188. [25837]
  • 104. Orfanedes, Michael S.; Wax, Loyd M. 1991. Differential response of hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) to clopyralid, Dowco 433, and 2,4-D. Weed Technology. 5(4): 782-788. [61233]
  • 112. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 119. Salzman, Fred; Renner, Karen; Kells, Jim. 1992. Controlling hemp dogbane. IPM Facts: Extension Bulletin E-2247. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University. 2 p. [55123]
  • 125. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 134. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2d ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 155. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]
  • 156. Woodson, R. E., Jr. 1930. Studies in the Apocynaceae. I. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 17: 1-212. [62287]
  • 158. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 806 p. [28655]
  • 17. Booth, W. E.; Wright, J. C. 1962. [Revised]. Flora of Montana: Part II--Dicotyledons. Bozeman, MT: Montana State College, Department of Botany and Bacteriology. 280 p. [47286]
  • 28. Chesnut, V. K. 1902. Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Botany. 7(3): 295-408. [54917]
  • 50. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2). [14935]

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: mesic, tree

Indianhemp can grow in diverse environments [113]. It prefers damp locations along streams and ditches and in marshes, though it can be found growing less abundantly in drier locations such as thickets, open woods, and open ground [35,70].

Indianhemp is seldom found on soils low in fertility. It grows best on fertile, medium- to heavy-textured soils [116,160].

The following table describes site characteristics for Indianhemp throughout its distribution.

State/Region/Province Site Characteristics
Arizona Streambeds in woodlands and riparian woodlands between 3,000 to 7,500 feet (910-2,300 m) [18,74]
California Damp/moist places near streams, springs, and ditches below 7,000 feet (2,100 m), sometimes in deserts or a weed in orchards [28,63,101,102]
Colorado Roadside ditches and floodplains between 3,500 and 7,500 feet (1,100-2,300 m) [61,145,146]
Illinois Prairies, fields, abandoned fields and rocky woods [89,98]
Kansas Prairies, streambanks, roadsides, and "waste grounds" [11]
Minnesota Pipestone National Monument: rock outcrops, woodlands, and tallgrass prairies [13]
Montana Hills, slopes, moist, shady areas, and disturbed areas [17,42]; sometimes found in wetlands, but also occurs in drier sites [115]
     west-central Montana Along rivers below high water marks, on islands, and low banks. Often in half shade beneath tree canopies, also on gravelly, vernally moist to wet places, and on disturbed sites. Dry to moist valleys [81,82]
Nevada Gravelly slopes, damp ditch banks or canyon bottoms from 2,800 to 6,500 feet (850-2,000 m) [73]
Nebraska Occurs in patches in field crops and may occur as a dense infestation throughout the field [160]; ravines and wet meadows [131]
New Mexico Moist, open, or "waste ground" between 3,500 and 7,500 feet (1,100-2,300 m) [91]
New York

Wet meadows and margins of bogs [126]. Rarely found on Fire Island (off Long Island, New York) on dry, open sandflats and sandy dredged material [44]

North Carolina Disturbed areas, old fields, and roadsides [94]
Ohio Moist to mesic fields and thickets, pond and stream margins, moist to mesic woodland openings and borders, railways, roadsides, and other "waste places" [5]
Oregon "Wastelands" and seldom cultivated areas, especially in orchards [139]
South Dakota - Black Hills Hills, streambanks, and railroad embankments [41,93]
Texas Open or disturbed, often moist ground. Sandy, gravelly, or eroding clayey soils [38]
Utah Roadsides, fields, streambanks, and disturbed sites mainly in riparian communities between 3,200 to 7,700 feet (970-2,350 m). "Poorly kept" agricultural lands [57,152]
Virginia Low woods [151]
Wyoming Hills, slopes, and disturbed areas [43]
Great Plains Prairies, river floodplains, terraces, open or woodland waterways or lakeshores, disturbed roadsides or fields, ditches, and sparsely wooded slopes [58,70]
Intermountain west Moist to moderately moist, disturbed areas along roadsides and ditch-banks between 1,600 to 7,200 feet (500-2,200 m) [34]
Northern Great Plains Borders of marshes, lakes, streams and other moist to wet places, often in disturbed areas [83]
Ozark Mountains Glades, prairies, open woods, and "waste ground" [33]
Pacific Northwest A "serious" weed on "wasteland" areas that are infrequently plowed, occasionally a problem in orchards [64,65]
western U.S. Grows on plains and foothills at elevations up to 7000 feet (2,100 m). Commonly found on gravelly or sandy fields, in meadows, and along creekbeds, irrigation ditches, and fence lines in cultivated pastures [69,140]
British Columbia Collected in draws and exposed banks [1]
Nova Scotia Gravelly beaches and cobbley or sandy stream banks [117]
Baja California Streams and ditches, meadows, and hillsides [154]
  • 33. Crawford, Hewlette S.; Kucera, Clair L.; Ehrenreich, John H. 1969. Ozark range and wildlife plants. Agric. Handb. 356. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 236 p. [18602]
  • 42. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. [819]
  • 43. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. [6129]
  • 1. Alldritt-McDowell, Judith; Coupe, Ray. 1998. The ecology of the bunchgrass zone. QP #004216. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests, Research Branch. 5 p. [29235]
  • 5. Andreas, Barbara K.; Cooperrider, Tom S. 1979. The Apocynaceae of Ohio. Castanea. 44(4): 238-241. [55119]
  • 11. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 13. Becker, Donald A.; Bragg, Thomas B.; Sutherland, David M. 1986. Vegetation survey and prairie management plan for Pipestone National Monument. Elkhorn, NE: Ecosystems Management. 126 p. [60514]
  • 18. Bowers, Janice E.; McLaughlin, Steven P. 1987. Flora and vegetation of the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona. Desert Plants. 8(2): 50-94. [495]
  • 35. Dalby, Richard. 2004. Dogbane and horsemint: two interesting honey sources. American Bee Journal. 144(1): 46-48. [61227]
  • 38. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 41. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Flora of the Black Hills. Cheyenne, WY: Robert D. Dorn and Jane L. Dorn. 377 p. [820]
  • 44. Dowhan, Joseph J.; Rozsa, Ron. 1989. Flora of Fire Island, Suffolk County, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 116(3): 265-282. [22041]
  • 57. Goodrich, Sherel; Neese, Elizabeth. 1986. Uinta Basin flora. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ashley National Forest; U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Vernal District. 320 p. [23307]
  • 58. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 61. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press, Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 63. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 64. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 65. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1959. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 4: Ericaceae through Campanulaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 510 p. [1170]
  • 69. James, L. F.; Keeler, R. F.; Johnson, A. E.; Williams, M. C.; Cronin, E. H.; Olsen, J. D. 1980. Plants poisonous to livestock in the western states. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 415. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration. 90 p. [1243]
  • 70. Johnson, Samuel A.; Bruederle, Leo P.; Tomback, Diana F. 1998. A mating system conundrum: hybridization in Apocynum (Apocynaceae). American Journal of Botany. 85(9): 1316-1323. [55109]
  • 74. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 81. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1986. Plants of west-central Montana--identification and ecology: annotated checklist. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-217. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 128 p. [2955]
  • 82. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798]
  • 89. Maier, Chris T. 1976. An annotated list of the vascular plants of Sand Ridge State Forest, Mason County, Illinois. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Sciences. 69(2): 153-175. [37897]
  • 91. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
  • 93. McIntosh, Arthur C. 1931. A botanical survey of the Black Hills of South Dakota. Black Hills Engineer. 19(3): 159-276. [3980]
  • 94. McLeod, Donald Evans. 1988. Vegetation patterns, floristics, and environmental relationships in the Black and Craggy Mountains of North Carolina. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina. 222 p. Dissertation. [60570]
  • 101. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 102. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924]
  • 113. Ransom, Corey V.; Kells, James J.; Wax, Loyd M.; Orfanedes, Michael S. 1998. Morphological variation among hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) populations. Weed Science. 46(1): 71-75. [55111]
  • 115. Reed, Porter B., Jr. 1986. 1986 wetland plant list, Montana. St. Petersburg, FL: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory. 26 p. [8381]
  • 116. Robison, Laren R.; Jeffery, Larry S. 1972. Hemp dogbane growth and control. Weed Science. 20(2): 156-159. [55121]
  • 117. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 126. Shanks, Royal E.; Goodwin, Richard H. 1943. Notes on the flora of Monroe County, New York. Proceedings of the Rochester Academy of Science. 8(5-6): 299-331. [49682]
  • 131. Steiger, T. L. 1930. Structure of prairie vegetation. Ecology. 11(1): 170-217. [3777]
  • 140. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1968. 22 plants poisonous to livestock in the Western states. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 327. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Disease and Parasite Research Division and Crops Research Division. 64 p. [4275]
  • 145. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. [7706]
  • 146. Weber, William A.; Wittmann, Ronald C. 1996. Colorado flora: eastern slope. 2d ed. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado. 524 p. [27572]
  • 151. Wells, Elizabeth Fortson; Brown, Rebecca Louise. 2000. An annotated checklist of the vascular plants in the forest at historic Mount Vernon, Virginia: a legacy from the past. Castanea. 65(4): 242-257. [47363]
  • 152. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 154. Wiggins, Ira L. 1980. Flora of Baja California. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1025 p. [21993]
  • 160. Young, Loyd; Cranfill, J. C.; Robison, Laren R. 1971. Take the "bite" out of hemp dogbane. Quarterly--Serving Farm, Ranch and Home. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, College of Agriculture. 18(3): 13-15. [61247]
  • 17. Booth, W. E.; Wright, J. C. 1962. [Revised]. Flora of Montana: Part II--Dicotyledons. Bozeman, MT: Montana State College, Department of Botany and Bacteriology. 280 p. [47286]
  • 28. Chesnut, V. K. 1902. Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Botany. 7(3): 295-408. [54917]
  • 34. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; [and others]. 1984. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 4. Subclass Asteridae, (except Asteraceae). New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 573 p. [718]
  • 73. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]
  • 83. Larson, Gary E. 1993. Aquatic and wetland vascular plants of the Northern Great Plains. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-238. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 681 p. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (Producer). Available: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/plants/vascplnt/vascplnt.htm [2006, February 11]. [22534]
  • 98. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
  • 139. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District. 1998. Appendix table 3 - Literature review of plant species common in the Snake River region, based on several published works listed in the reference section, [Online]. In: Lower Snake River junvenile salmon migration feasibility study: Regeneration potential of vegetation on newly exposed riverside shoreline. Walla Walla, WA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Producer). Available: http://www.nww.usace.army.mil/lsr/REPORTS/VEGETATION/tab3a.htm [2005, March 17]. [52739]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: association, marsh, natural

Indianhemp is not an indicator or dominant species in vegetation typings. It is
considered a characteristic (secondary) plant species in the wet-meadow
vegetation of the Prairie Potholes in North Dakota [132].
In Virginia, Indianhemp is "particularly characteristic" of the Rocky Bars and
Shores communities of the palustrine-alluvial floodplain communities
[52].

Other communities where Indianhemp is known to occur:



  • Freshwater tidal marsh of the Merrimack River, Massachusetts in the high tide zone [25]




  • Weeping alkali grass (Puccinellia distans) association and seeps in canyons
    (vertical, loose, sandy soils) in Tsegi Canyon, Arizona [66]




  • Cultivated and uncultivated field crops [64,65,69,89,98,104,140,160]




  • Natural (vs. restored) prairie wetlands in northwest Iowa [124]

  • 25. Caldwell, Fredricka Ann; Crow, Garrett E. 1992. A floristic and vegetation analysis of a freshwater tidal marsh on the Merrimack River, West Newbury, Massachusetts. Rhodora. 94(877): 63-97. [18126]
  • 64. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 65. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1959. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 4: Ericaceae through Campanulaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 510 p. [1170]
  • 66. Holiday, Susan. 2000. A floristic study of Tsegi Canyon, Arizona. Madrono. 47(1): 29-42. [38998]
  • 69. James, L. F.; Keeler, R. F.; Johnson, A. E.; Williams, M. C.; Cronin, E. H.; Olsen, J. D. 1980. Plants poisonous to livestock in the western states. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 415. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration. 90 p. [1243]
  • 89. Maier, Chris T. 1976. An annotated list of the vascular plants of Sand Ridge State Forest, Mason County, Illinois. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Sciences. 69(2): 153-175. [37897]
  • 104. Orfanedes, Michael S.; Wax, Loyd M. 1991. Differential response of hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) to clopyralid, Dowco 433, and 2,4-D. Weed Technology. 5(4): 782-788. [61233]
  • 124. Seabloom, Eric W.; van der Valk, Arnold G. 2003. Plant diversity, composition, and invasion of restored and natural prairie pothole wetlands: implications for restoration. Wetlands. 23(1): 1-12. [46095]
  • 132. Stewart, Robert E.; Kantrud, Harold A. 1972. Vegetation of prairie potholes, North Dakota, in relation to quality of water and other environmental factors. In: Hydrology of prairie potholes in North Dakota. Geological Survey Professional Paper 585-D. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife: D1 to D36. [25186]
  • 140. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1968. 22 plants poisonous to livestock in the Western states. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 327. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Disease and Parasite Research Division and Crops Research Division. 64 p. [4275]
  • 160. Young, Loyd; Cranfill, J. C.; Robison, Laren R. 1971. Take the "bite" out of hemp dogbane. Quarterly--Serving Farm, Ranch and Home. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, College of Agriculture. 18(3): 13-15. [61247]
  • 52. Fleming, G. P.; Coulling, P. P.; Patterson, K. D. 2005. Palustrine system, [Online]. In: The natural communities of Virginia: classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.1. Richmond, VA: Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage (Producer). Available: http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm [2005, November 3]. [60509]
  • 98. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]

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Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the term: cover

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [127]:

101 Bluebunch wheatgrass

401 Basin big sagebrush

411 Aspen woodland

601 Bluestem prairie

602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed

604 Bluestem-grama prairie

606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

607 Wheatgrass-needlegrass

608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass

609 Wheatgrass-grama

610 Wheatgrass

731 Cross timbers-Oklahoma
  • 127. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

SAF COVER TYPES [49]:

1 Jack pine

16 Aspen

17 Pin cherry

18 Paper birch

20 White pine-northern red oak-red maple

37 Northern white-cedar

39 Black ash-American elm-red maple

40 Post oak-blackjack oak

46 Eastern redcedar

61 River birch-sycamore

63 Cottonwood

70 Longleaf pine

71 Longleaf pine-scrub oak

75 Shortleaf pine

76 Shortleaf pine-oak

78 Virginia pine-oak

79 Virginia pine

83 Longleaf pine-slash pine

95 Black willow

107 White spruce

108 Red maple

210 Interior Douglas-fir

217 Aspen

222 Black cottonwood-willow

233 Oregon white oak

235 Cottonwood-willow

237 Interior ponderosa pine

252 Paper birch
  • 49. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

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Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

KUCHLER [79] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:

K011 Western ponderosa forest

K012 Douglas-fir forest

K026 Oregon oakwoods

K038 Great Basin sagebrush

K053 Grama-galleta steppe

K054 Grama-tobosa prairie

K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe

K063 Foothills prairie

K064 Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass

K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass

K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

K068 Wheatgrass-grama-buffalo grass

K069 Bluestem-grama prairie

K074 Bluestem prairie

K081 Oak savanna

K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100

K084 Cross Timbers

K093 Great Lakes spruce-fir forest

K095 Great Lakes pine forest

K096 Northeastern spruce-fir forest

K098 Northern floodplain forest

K100 Oak-hickory forest

K101 Elm-ash forest

K104 Appalachian oak forest

K111 Oak-hickory-pine

K112 Southern mixed forest
  • 79. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]

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Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

ECOSYSTEMS [54]:

FRES10 White-red-jack pine

FRES11 Spruce-fir

FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine

FRES14 Oak-pine

FRES15 Oak-hickory

FRES16 Oak-gum-cypress

FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood

FRES18 Maple-beech-birch

FRES19 Aspen-birch

FRES20 Douglas-fir

FRES21 Ponderosa pine

FRES28 Western hardwoods

FRES29 Sagebrush

FRES32 Texas savanna

FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe

FRES36 Mountain grasslands

FRES38 Plains grasslands

FRES39 Prairie
  • 54. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

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Dispersal

Establishment

Indian hemp plants are not widely available. Transplanting bare rootstock or collecting seed for direct reseeding into the ground will be necessary in most areas. Use of plants which have been traditionally used by the ancestors of that place, and which are adapted to the climate, soils, and site conditions of that place, is optimum.

Seed Collections: Collect seeds after pods have ripened, but before they have split open. This usually occurs in late summer, from August to September. The seeds are wind dispersed, so be careful when gathering to place them in a paper or burlap bag to avoid losing them.

Seeds can be directly sown into the ground in the fall. The seed is very viable. Planting seed the first fall after collecting seeds maximizes revegetation success. It is not certain how long you can store the seeds. Irrigation the first summer after planting will improve plant survival. Once root are established, extra watering will be unnecessary. Indian hemp is fairly aggressive, and will usually out-compete other plant species on its own. The latex in stems and leaves protects the plant from most herbivores.

Live Plant Collections: Plants can be divided almost any time of year, but revegetation is most successful in fall after the plants senesce. Harvest and planting of Indian hemp is optimum in October, or just after the first fall rains. Stalks should be cut to a conveniently manageable length before digging up plants (approximately 25 to 35 cm).

No more than 1/4 of the plants in an area should be collected; a depth of 15 cm (6 in) is sufficiently deep for digging plugs. This will leave enough plants and roots to grow back during the following growing season.

Live transplants should be planted as soon as possible. Plants should be transported and stored in a cool location prior to planting. Plugs may be split into smaller units, generally no smaller than 6 x 6 cm (2.4 x 2.4 in) with healthy roots and tops. Weeds in the plugs should be removed by hand. For ease in transport, soil may be washed gently from roots. The roots should always remain moist or in water until planted. Roots should be kept moist after the plants have been dug up. Planting should occur at a spacing of approximately one-foot centers. Plants should be watered in. Irrigation may be necessary through the first dry season. By the second year, roots should have extended to the water table and irrigation should no longer be necessary.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Associations

Faunal Associations

The abundant nectar of the flowers attracts many kinds of insects, including cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.), Halictid bees, plasterer bees (Colletes spp.), masked bees (Hylaeus spp.), Sphecid wasps, Syrphid flies, bee flies (Bombyliidae), Tachinid flies, Calliphorid flies, butterflies, skippers, and beetles (Robertson, 1929). These insects vary in how effectively they cross-pollinate the flowers. The larvae of several moths feed on Common Dogbane, including the Delicate Cycnia (Cycnia tenera), Oregon Cycnia (Cycnia oregonensis), Six-spotted Gray (Spargaloma sexpunctata), and a Gracillariid moth (Marmara apocynella); see Wagner (2005), Covell (1984/2005), and Needham et al. (1928). Larvae of the last moth bore through the stems of this plant. Other insect feeders include larvae and adults of the Dogbane Beetle (Chrysochus auratus), larvae of the Red Milkweed Beetle (Tetraopes tetrophthalmus), larvae of the Dogbane Flower Midge (Clinodiplosis apocyni), the Large Milkweed Bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus), and an aphid (Aphis asclepiadis); see Clark et al. (2004), Yanega (1996), Felt (1917), Hoffman (1996), and Hottes & Frison (1931). Mammalian herbivores usually avoid the consumption of Common Dogbane because the bitter foliage contains cardiac glycosides and other toxic compounds. Photographic Location
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Flower-Visiting Insects of Common Dogbane in Illinois

Apocynum cannabinum (Common Dogbane)
(Insects suck nectar; most observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Moure & Hurd, Mitchell, Hilty, Krombein et al., and MacRae as indicated below)

With pollinia:

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada affabilis, Nomada articulata fq

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea, Augochlorella striata; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes producta

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bicyrtes ventralis; Sphecidae (Eumeninae): Euodynerus foraminatus; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Isodontia apicalis

Without pollinia:

Bees (long-tongued)
Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys octodentata; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile rugifrons; Megachilidae (Stelidini): Stelis lateralis

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochloropsis metallica metallica, Halictus confusus, Lasioglossum versatus; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes aestivalis; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis; Melittidae: Macropis steironematis fq

Wasps
Sphecidae (Astatinae): Astata unicolor; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Prionyx atrata, Prionyx thomae

Flies
Scaridae: Sciara atrata; Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua, Eristalis dimidiatus, Parhelophilus laetus, Sphaerophoria contiqua, Tropidia mamillata, Tropidia quadrata; Empidae: Empis clausa; Bombyliidae: Bombylius atriceps, Villa alternata; Tachinidae: Archytas analis, Copecrypta ruficauda, Cylindromyia euchenor, Gymnoclytia occidua, Linnaemya comta, Spallanzania hesperidarum; Sarcophagidae: Helicobia rapax; Calliphoridae: Cochliomyia macellaria, Phormia regina; Muscidae: Limnophora narona; Fanniidae: Fannia manicata

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Speyeria cybele; Lycaenidae: Satyrium calanus

Beetles
Scarabaeidae (Cetonniae): Trichiotinus piger

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Lygus lineolaris; Lygaeidae: Lygaeus turcicus

Pollinia presence unspecified:

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea (MH), Augochloropsis metallica metallica (MH), Augochlorella striata (MH), Halictus confusus (MH), Lasioglossum versatus (MH); Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus illinoisensis (Mch), Hylaeus saniculae (Mch, Kr); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena personata (Kr), Andrena quintilis (Kr)

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Epargyreus clarus (H)

Beetles
Buprestidae: Acmaeodera pulchella (McR), Anthaxia flavimana (McR)

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General Ecology

Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: cover, density, fire frequency, frequency, graminoid, prescribed burn, prescribed fire

There are conflicting results as to how Indianhemp responds to fire. Johnson and Knapp [71] stated that populations of Indianhemp increased with increased fire frequency on tallgrass prairie in Kansas [71]. However, Tester [137] found a nonsignificant negative effect of burn frequency on Indianhemp in an oak savanna of east-central Minnesota [137].

Indianhemp was found on all 5 burned study plots 100 days after fire in a white spruce-quaking aspen site in Ontario [27]. Indianhemp also produced new spring growth within days following a prescribed burn in a tallgrass prairie in Kansas [71].

Prescribed burns were implemented in consecutive years in an oak savanna in east-central Illinois. The 1st fire resulted in a "hot, intense" fire, and the fire the following year was not as hot or intense. Indianhemp increased on burned sites but only in the 2nd postfire year [67]. It increased in percent cover on both control and burn plots studied after a prescribed fire on a mid-elevation wetland in southeastern Arizona [51].

Conversely, the findings of Bowles and others [19] indicate that Indianhemp populations did not survive after 8 dormant-season prescribed burns on graminoid fens in Cook County, Illinois. Indianhemp plants were recorded on the study plots before burning, but were not present after 5 years [19]. On study plots dominated by post oak, winged elm (Ulmus alata), and white ash (Fraxinus americana) in southern Illinois, Indianhemp was observed during prefire sampling and not found in postfire months 5 or 6 (burns characterized as "moderate, at best") [62]. In a sedge-beaked spikerush-Kentucky bluegrass (Carex spp.-Eleocharis rostellata-Poa pratensis) wetland near Tucson, Arizona, Indianhemp density increased more on control plots than burned plots. Indianhemp increased on high-frequency repeat spring burns (every 2-3 years), medium-frequency repeat spring burns (every 5-7 years), and unburned control plots [51]. However, analyses of variance failed to demonstrate a significant (p=0.70) effect of burning on Indianhemp cover.

  • 19. Bowles, Marlin; McBride, Jeanette; Stoynoff, Nick; Johnson, Ken. 1996. Temporal changes in vegetation composition and structure in a fire-managed prairie fen. Natural Areas Journal. 16(4): 275-288. [27220]
  • 27. Catling, Paul M.; Sinclair, Adrianne; Cuddy, Don. 2001. Vascular plants of a successional alvar burn 100 days after a severe fire and their mechanisms of re-establishment. Canadian Field Naturalist. 115(2): 214-222. [45889]
  • 51. Fishbein, Mark; Gori, Dave; Meggs, Donya. 1995. Prescribed burning as a management tool for Sky Island bioregion wetlands with reference to the management of the endangered orchid Spiranthes delitescens. In: DeBano, Leonard F.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Hamre, Robert H.; Edminster, Carleton B., tech. coords. Biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago: the Sky Islands of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico: Proceedings; 1994 September 19-23; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GRT-264. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 468-477. [26253]
  • 62. Heikens, Alice Long; West, K. Andrew; Robertson, Philip A. 1994. Short-term response of chert and shale barrens vegetation to fire in southwestern Illinois. Castanea. 59(3): 274-285. [27228]
  • 67. Hruska, Mary C.; Ebinger, John E. 1995. Monitoring a savanna restoration in east-central Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science. 88(3&4): 109-117. [41436]
  • 71. Johnson, Stephen R.; Knapp, Alan K. 1995. The influence of fire on Spartina pectinata wetland communities in a northeastern Kansas tallgrass prairie. Canadian Journal of Botany. 73: 84-90. [25701]
  • 137. Tester, John R. 1996. Effects of fire frequency on plant species in oak savanna in east-central Minnesota. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 123(4): 304-308. [28035]

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Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

More info for the terms: rhizome, root crown

The development of new Indianhemp plants 100 days following severe fire in Ontario, on a site previously dominated by white spruce and quaking aspen, resulted from rhizome and root crown sprouts [27].
  • 27. Catling, Paul M.; Sinclair, Adrianne; Cuddy, Don. 2001. Vascular plants of a successional alvar burn 100 days after a severe fire and their mechanisms of re-establishment. Canadian Field Naturalist. 115(2): 214-222. [45889]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the term: rhizome

Fire likely top-kills Indianhemp. It is probably resistant to fire-induced mortality because of its deep root and rhizome system.

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: geophyte, rhizome, secondary colonizer

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [133]:
Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
Geophyte, growing points deep in soil
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)
  • 133. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. FEIS postfire regeneration workshop--April 12: Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. 10 p. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20090]

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: rhizome, root crown, top-kill

Fire adaptations: Indianhemp has an extensive, deep root and rhizome system, and sprouts from the root crown and rhizomes after top-kill by fire. For example, populations near Ottawa, Ontario, sprouted from both rhizomes and root crowns following severe fire [27]. Indianhemp also reproduces from wind-blown seed [96,97], so postfire establishment from seed is possible. The ability of Indianhemp to colonize disturbed areas may give it an advantage on burned soils.

FIRE REGIMES: The extensive distribution of Indianhemp places it in a wide range of fire regimes. Plains and mountain grasslands where Indianhemp occurs have short fire-return intervals and could burn in any year if fuels are cured [20]. Indianhemp is found in communities with mixed-severity and understory FIRE REGIMES as described by Brown and Smith [20]. The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where Indianhemp occurs. For further information, see the FEIS review of the dominant species listed below.

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
maple-beech Acer-Fagus spp. 684-1,385 [30,144]
maple-beech-birch Acer-Fagus-Betula spp. >1,000 [144]
Nebraska sandhills prairie Andropogon gerardii var. paucipilus-Schizachyrium scoparium <10
bluestem-Sacahuista prairie Andropogon littoralis-Spartina spartinae <10
sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [106]
basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata 12-43 [120]
birch Betula spp. 80-230 [136]
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. 106,157]
blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii 106,118,157]
blue grama-buffalo grass Bouteloua gracilis-Buchloe dactyloides 106,157]
grama-galleta steppe Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis jamesii 106]
cheatgrass Bromus tectorum 107,153]
black ash Fraxinus nigra 144]
green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica <35 to >300 [47,144]
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii <5-47+ [106,111,157]
Great Lakes spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35 to >200
northeastern spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35-200 [45]
jack pine Pinus banksiana 30,45]
shortleaf pine Pinus echinata 2-15
shortleaf pine-oak Pinus echinata-Quercus spp. <10 [144]
longleaf-slash pine Pinus palustris-P. elliottii 1-4 [103,144]
longleaf pine-scrub oak Pinus palustris-Quercus spp. 6-10 [144]
interior ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-30 [7,10,85]
red pine (Great Lakes region) Pinus resinosa 3-18 (x=3-10) [29,53]
eastern white pine Pinus strobus 35-200 [136,144]
Virginia pine Pinus virginiana 10 to <35
Virginia pine-oak Pinus virginiana-Quercus spp. 10 to <35
sycamore-sweetgum-American elm Platanus occidentalis-Liquidambar styraciflua-Ulmus americana <35 to 200 [144]
eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides <35 to 200 [106]
quaking aspen-paper birch Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera 35-200 [45,144]
quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains) Populus tremuloides 7-120 [7,60,95]
mountain grasslands Pseudoroegneria spicata 3-40 (x=10) [6,7]
Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir* Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca 25-100 [7,8,9]
oak-hickory Quercus-Carya spp. <35 [144]
Oregon white oak Quercus garryana <35 [7]
oak savanna Quercus macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 2-14 [106,144]
post oak-blackjack oak Quercus stellata-Q. marilandica <10 [144]
little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. <35 [106]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species review
  • 6. Arno, Stephen F. 1980. Forest fire history in the Northern Rockies. Journal of Forestry. 78(8): 460-465. [11990]
  • 7. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. [36984]
  • 8. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. [342]
  • 9. Arno, Stephen F.; Scott, Joe H.; Hartwell, Michael G. 1995. Age-class structure of old growth ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir stands and its relationship to fire history. Res. Pap. INT-RP-481. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 25 p. [25928]
  • 10. Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569. [14986]
  • 20. Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. 2000. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech Rep. RMRS-GRT-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 257 p. [36581]
  • 27. Catling, Paul M.; Sinclair, Adrianne; Cuddy, Don. 2001. Vascular plants of a successional alvar burn 100 days after a severe fire and their mechanisms of re-establishment. Canadian Field Naturalist. 115(2): 214-222. [45889]
  • 29. Clark, James S. 1990. Fire and climate change during the last 750 yr in northwestern Minnesota. Ecological Monographs. 60(2): 135-159. [11650]
  • 45. Duchesne, Luc C.; Hawkes, Brad C. 2000. Fire in northern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 35-51. [36982]
  • 47. Eggler, Willis A. 1980. Live oak. In: Eyre, F. H., ed. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters: 63-64. [49984]
  • 53. Frissell, Sidney S., Jr. 1968. A fire chronology for Itasca State Park, Minnesota. Minnesota Forestry Research Notes No. 196. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota. 2 p. [34527]
  • 60. Gruell, G. E.; Loope, L. L. 1974. Relationships among aspen, fire, and ungulate browsing in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region. [3862]
  • 85. Laven, R. D.; Omi, P. N.; Wyant, J. G.; Pinkerton, A. S. 1980. Interpretation of fire scar data from a ponderosa pine ecosystem in the central Rocky Mountains, Colorado. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., tech. coords. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 46-49. [7183]
  • 95. Meinecke, E. P. 1929. Quaking aspen: A study in applied forest pathology. Tech. Bull. No. 155. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. [26669]
  • 96. Merritt, David M.; Wohl, Ellen E. 2006. Plant dispersal along rivers fragmented by dams. River Research and Applications. 22: 1-26. [61821]
  • 97. Moffatt, S. F.; McLachlan, S. M. 2004. Understorey indicators of disturbance for riparian forests along an urban-rural gradient in Manitoba. Ecological Indicators. 4: 1-16. [51154]
  • 103. Myers, Ronald L. 2000. Fire in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 161-173. [36985]
  • 106. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Haase, Sally M.; Harrington, Michael G.; Narog, Marcia G.; Sackett, Stephen S.; Wilson, Ruth C. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
  • 111. Quinnild, Clayton L.; Cosby, Hugh E. 1958. Relicts of climax vegetation on two mesas in western North Dakota. Ecology. 39(1): 29-32. [1925]
  • 118. Rowe, J. S. 1969. Lightning fires in Saskatchewan grassland. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 83: 317-324. [6266]
  • 120. Sapsis, David B. 1990. Ecological effects of spring and fall prescribed burning on basin big sagebrush/Idaho fescue--bluebunch wheatgrass communities. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 105 p. Thesis. [16579]
  • 136. Swain, Albert M. 1978. Environmental changes during the past 2000 years in north-central Wisconsin: analysis of pollen, charcoal, and seeds from varved lake sediments. Quaternary Research. 10: 55-68. [6968]
  • 144. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; Grace, James B.; Hoch, Greg A.; Patterson, William A., III. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. [36983]
  • 153. Whisenant, Steven G. 1990. Postfire population dynamics of Bromus japonicus. The American Midland Naturalist. 123: 301-308. [11150]
  • 157. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]
  • 30. Cleland, David T.; Crow, Thomas R.; Saunders, Sari C.; Dickmann, Donald I.; Maclean, Ann L.; Jordan, James K.; Watson, Richard L.; Sloan, Alyssa M.; Brosofske, Kimberley D. 2004. Characterizing historical and modern FIRE REGIMES in Michigan (USA): a landscape ecosystem approach. Landscape Ecology. 19: 311-325. [54326]

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Successional Status

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Indianhemp is most often referred to as an early successional species. It colonizes disturbed sites, abandoned agricultural fields, and prairie pot hole wetlands [75,100,108]. On restored prairies in Arkansas, Indianhemp established during the 2nd year after disturbance, declined during the 3rd year, and generally disappeared or was greatly diminished by the 4th growing season, when it was overtopped by other species [36].

Indianhemp is occasional in older (20 to 30 years) jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and mixed-hardwood stands in New Brunswick [88].

  • 36. Dale, Edward D., Jr.; Smith, Thomas C. 1983. Changes in vegetation on a restored prairie at Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 237-241. [3224]
  • 75. Keever, Catherine. 1979. Mechanisms of plant succession on old fields of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 106(4): 299-308. [41717]
  • 88. MacLean, David A.; Wein, Ross W. 1977. Changes in understory vegetation with increasing stand age in New Brunswick forests: species composition, cover, biomass, and nutrients. Canadian Journal of Botany. 55: 2818-2831. [10106]
  • 100. Mulhouse, John M.; Galatowitsch, Susan M. 2003. Revegetation of prairie pothole wetlands in the mid-continental US: twelve years post-reflooding. Plant Ecology. 169(2): 143-159. [52957]
  • 108. Platt, W. J.; Weis, I. M. 1977. Resource partitioning and competition within a guild of fugitive prairie plants. The American Naturalist. 111: 479-513. [62288]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: adventitious, coma, competition, rhizome, root crown

Indianhemp regenerates by seed and vegetative means. Regeneration is largely by vegetative means from rhizomes or from root crown buds located at the woody base of stems [15,55,104,119,147].

Pollination: Indianhemp is visited by 19 species of bees and wasps, 17 species of flies, 2 species of butterflies and/or moths, 1 species of beetle, and 2 species of bugs and/or aphids. However, it appears that these visits do not succeed in pollination. Successful transfer of pollen seems to occur only when the insect is trapped in the flower and struggles to escape, in turn collecting pollen [156]. Bees, butterflies, and flies were observed as nectar feeders on Apocynum flowers. Pollen was not observed on any of these insects after visiting the flowers [70]. Indianhemp does not self pollinate [70,156].

Breeding system: Apocynum flowers depend largely on cross-pollination for sexual reproduction [156]. Cross-pollination is frequent in the genus [3].

Seed production: Indianhemp can produce numerous seeds [69,113]. A study by Shultz and Burnside [122] in Nebraska reveals that the number of seeds produced by an individual plant is dependent on the amount of competition for water, light, and nutrients. Grown without any competition Indianhemp produced up to 150 pods with 81 seeds per pod. When grown with soybeans (Glycine max), Indianhemp only produced 2 pods/plant on average [122]. Seed production in disturbed areas was around 600/plant [109].

Seed dispersal: Indianhemp seeds are dispersed by wind and gravity [96,97,139]. The small seeds are specialized for dispersal over long distances. They have a very large, fine coma (a tuft of hairs on the seed) that facilitates wind dispersal [92,108,109,139,147].

Seed banking: Seed dormancy of Indianhemp is unclear, though viability of Indianhemp seed declines rapidly in soil [23,113]. Burial studies indicated that the seeds are not long-lived and that the seeds do not persist after 1 year in the soil [12,24]. In Pennsylvania Indianhemp has been found in the aboveground vegetation and not in the seed bank [84]. Conversely, Indianhemp emerged from the seed bank of a Delaware River freshwater tidal wetland [86]. Further research is needed on the seed dormancy of Indianhemp.

Germination: Germination ability of Indianhemp seed depends on burial depth and seed age. A long-term study done by Burnside and others [23] tested the viability of seeds buried at a depth of 8 inches (20 cm). At the 1st study site there was 74% seed germination at year 0, 22% seed germination after burial of 1 year, and 0% in years after that. At the 2nd site germination rates were 74% at year 0, 52% after year 1, 13% in year 2, and 1% in year 4 and 6 [23]. In another laboratory study the greatest germination occurred when seeds were buried at 0.4 inch (1 cm), and germination declined greatly at greater depths [116].

A study by Everetts and Burnside [48] comparing temperature and germination of Indianhemp seed revealed that successful germination occurred between 59 ºF to 95 ºF (15-35 ºC). The highest germination rate occurred at 95 ºF (35 ºC).

Stratification inhibited Indianhemp seed germination in a greenhouse study done by Greene and Curtis [59]. After 3 months of stratification 0% of the seeds germinated, while 10% of unstratified seed germinated.

Seedling establishment/growth: A study by Everetts and Burnside [48] comparing Indianhemp seedling development and temperature found seedling establishment occurred at 59 ºF to 95 ºF (15-35 ºC). Indianhemp could not establish seedlings at or below 50 ºF (10 ºC) or at or above 100 ºF (40 ºC) [48]. Best establishment occurs on moist sites [108].

Asexual regeneration: Apocynum species spread by cloning [70]. Indianhemp reproduces by rhizomes or sprouting from the root crown [15]. Aerial shoots arise from adventitious rhizome buds. Rhizomes spread extensively, forming new plants at "considerable" distances [76,99]. Seedlings are capable of sprouting within 10 to 41 days of emergence [15,119].

  • 3. Anderson, Edgar. 1936. An experimental study of hybridization in the genus Apocynum. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 23(2): 159-168. [60960]
  • 12. Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2001. Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 666 p. [60775]
  • 15. Becker, Roger. 1981. Today's weed: hemp dogbane. Weed Science. 12(4): 15-16. [55122]
  • 23. Burnside, O. C.; Wilson, R. G.; Weisberg, S.; Hubbard, K. G. 1996. Seed longevity of 41 weed species buried 17 years in eastern and western Nebraska. Weed Science. 44: 74-86. [62286]
  • 24. Burnside, Orvin C.; Fenster, Charles R.; Evetts, Larry L.; Mumm, Robert F. 1981. Germination of exhumed weed seed in Nebraska. Weed Science. 29: 577-586. [41078]
  • 48. Everetts, L. L.; Burnside, O. C. 1972. Optimum temperature for germination and seedling development of hemp dogbane. North Central Weed Control Conference. 29: 58. [62292]
  • 55. Gerhards, Roland; Wyse-Pester, Dawn Y.; Mortensen, David; Johnson, Gregg A. 1997. Characterizing spatial stability of weed populations using interpolated maps. Weed Science. 45(1): 108-119. [55114]
  • 59. Greene, H. C.; Curtis, J. T. 1950. Germination studies of Wisconsin prairie plants. The American Midland Naturalist. 43(1): 186-194. [4086]
  • 69. James, L. F.; Keeler, R. F.; Johnson, A. E.; Williams, M. C.; Cronin, E. H.; Olsen, J. D. 1980. Plants poisonous to livestock in the western states. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 415. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration. 90 p. [1243]
  • 70. Johnson, Samuel A.; Bruederle, Leo P.; Tomback, Diana F. 1998. A mating system conundrum: hybridization in Apocynum (Apocynaceae). American Journal of Botany. 85(9): 1316-1323. [55109]
  • 76. Kiltz, B. F. 1930. Perennial weeds which spread vegetatively. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy. 22(3): 216-234. [25191]
  • 84. Laughlin, Daniel C. 2003. Lack of native propagules in a Pennsylvania, USA, limestone prairie seed bank: futile hopes for a role in ecological restoration. Natural Areas Journal. 23(2): 158-164. [44593]
  • 86. Leck, Mary Allessio; Leck, Charles F. 2005. Vascular plants of a Delaware River tidal freshwater wetland and adjacent terrestrial areas: seed bank and vegetation comparisons of reference and constructed marshes and annotated species list. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 132(2): 323-354. [60627]
  • 92. Matlack, Glenn R. 1987. Diaspore size, shape, and fall behavior in wind-dispersed plant species. American Journal of Botany. 74(8): 1150-1160. [28]
  • 96. Merritt, David M.; Wohl, Ellen E. 2006. Plant dispersal along rivers fragmented by dams. River Research and Applications. 22: 1-26. [61821]
  • 97. Moffatt, S. F.; McLachlan, S. M. 2004. Understorey indicators of disturbance for riparian forests along an urban-rural gradient in Manitoba. Ecological Indicators. 4: 1-16. [51154]
  • 99. Mueller, Irene M. 1941. An experimental study of rhizomes of certain prairie plants. Ecological Monographs. 11: 165-188. [25837]
  • 104. Orfanedes, Michael S.; Wax, Loyd M. 1991. Differential response of hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) to clopyralid, Dowco 433, and 2,4-D. Weed Technology. 5(4): 782-788. [61233]
  • 108. Platt, W. J.; Weis, I. M. 1977. Resource partitioning and competition within a guild of fugitive prairie plants. The American Naturalist. 111: 479-513. [62288]
  • 109. Platt, William J. 1975. The colonization and formation of equilibrium plant species associations on badger disturbances in a tall-grass prairie. Ecological Monographs. 45: 285-305. [6903]
  • 113. Ransom, Corey V.; Kells, James J.; Wax, Loyd M.; Orfanedes, Michael S. 1998. Morphological variation among hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) populations. Weed Science. 46(1): 71-75. [55111]
  • 116. Robison, Laren R.; Jeffery, Larry S. 1972. Hemp dogbane growth and control. Weed Science. 20(2): 156-159. [55121]
  • 119. Salzman, Fred; Renner, Karen; Kells, Jim. 1992. Controlling hemp dogbane. IPM Facts: Extension Bulletin E-2247. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University. 2 p. [55123]
  • 122. Schultz, M. E.; Burnside, O. C. 1979. Distribution, competition, and phenology of hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) in Nebraska. Weed Science. 27(5): 565-570. [55118]
  • 147. Webster, Theodore M.; Cardina, John. 1999. Apocynum cannabinum seed germination and vegetative shoot emergence. Weed Science. 47(5): 524-528. [55112]
  • 156. Woodson, R. E., Jr. 1930. Studies in the Apocynaceae. I. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 17: 1-212. [62287]
  • 139. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District. 1998. Appendix table 3 - Literature review of plant species common in the Snake River region, based on several published works listed in the reference section, [Online]. In: Lower Snake River junvenile salmon migration feasibility study: Regeneration potential of vegetation on newly exposed riverside shoreline. Walla Walla, WA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Producer). Available: http://www.nww.usace.army.mil/lsr/REPORTS/VEGETATION/tab3a.htm [2005, March 17]. [52739]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: geophyte, hemicryptophyte

RAUNKIAER [114] LIFE FORM:
Hemicryptophyte
Geophyte
  • 114. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

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Life Form

More info for the term: forb

Forb

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Fire Management Considerations

The current body of research provides no clear direction for using fire as a management tool for Indianhemp populations. The results of studies done to date, 2006, are conflicting. Further research is needed on the fire ecology of Indianhemp.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: rhizome

Seasonal development of Indianhemp begins with emergence in late spring or early summer [69,140]. Established plants initiate growth in the spring from root crown and rhizome buds [116,160]. The lateral cymes continue to add vegetative tissue, prolonging the productive potential of the plant. In this manner Indianhemp may continue bloom and vegetative growth from spring until late in the autumn, giving it a distinct advantage over the much shorter periods of growth of the other Apocynum species [156].

The seasonal nonstructural carbohydrate levels of Indianhemp decline with vegetative growth in the spring, reach seasonal lows during flowering, and then increase until fall dormancy [14].

The following table details the different flowering periods of Indianhemp throughout its distribution.

State/Region/Province Anthesis Period
Arizona May to August [74]
California June to August [101,102]
Illinois May to August [89,98]
Kansas Mid-May to mid-August [11]
Nebraska June to August [131]
Nevada June to August [73]
New Mexico May to September [91]
North Dakota June to July [26]
Ohio June to August [5]
Texas April to July [38,46]
Utah - Uinta Basin June to August [57]
Great Plains May to September [58,135]
Intermountain west May to August [34]
Northern Great Plains June to August, fruiting August to October [83]
Pacific Northwest June to September [64,65]
Nova Scotia July to August [117]
Baja California June to July [154]

Phenological data for Indianhemp growing along a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) waterway at Lincoln, Nebraska is given below [122].

Growth Stage 1977 1978
Emergence April 18 April 29
Bud May 20 June 2
Early flower May 26 June 13
Full bloom June 4 June 21
Pod initiation June 17 not produced
  • 26. Callow, J. Michael; Kantrud, Harold A.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1992. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 24(2): 57-64. [20450]
  • 5. Andreas, Barbara K.; Cooperrider, Tom S. 1979. The Apocynaceae of Ohio. Castanea. 44(4): 238-241. [55119]
  • 11. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 14. Becker, Roger L.; Fawcett, Richard S. 1998. Seasonal carbohydrate fluctuations in hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) crown roots. Weed Science. 46(3): 358-365. [55110]
  • 38. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 46. Dyksterhuis, E. J. 1948. The vegetation of the western Cross Timbers. Ecological Monographs. 18(3): 326-376. [3683]
  • 57. Goodrich, Sherel; Neese, Elizabeth. 1986. Uinta Basin flora. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ashley National Forest; U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Vernal District. 320 p. [23307]
  • 58. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 64. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 65. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1959. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 4: Ericaceae through Campanulaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 510 p. [1170]
  • 69. James, L. F.; Keeler, R. F.; Johnson, A. E.; Williams, M. C.; Cronin, E. H.; Olsen, J. D. 1980. Plants poisonous to livestock in the western states. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 415. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration. 90 p. [1243]
  • 74. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 89. Maier, Chris T. 1976. An annotated list of the vascular plants of Sand Ridge State Forest, Mason County, Illinois. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Sciences. 69(2): 153-175. [37897]
  • 91. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
  • 101. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 102. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924]
  • 116. Robison, Laren R.; Jeffery, Larry S. 1972. Hemp dogbane growth and control. Weed Science. 20(2): 156-159. [55121]
  • 117. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 122. Schultz, M. E.; Burnside, O. C. 1979. Distribution, competition, and phenology of hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) in Nebraska. Weed Science. 27(5): 565-570. [55118]
  • 131. Steiger, T. L. 1930. Structure of prairie vegetation. Ecology. 11(1): 170-217. [3777]
  • 135. Stubbendieck, James; Coffin, Mitchell J.; Landholt, L. M. 2003. Weeds of the Great Plains. 3d ed. Lincoln, NE: Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. 605 p. In cooperation with: University of Nebraska - Lincoln. [50776]
  • 140. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1968. 22 plants poisonous to livestock in the Western states. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 327. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Disease and Parasite Research Division and Crops Research Division. 64 p. [4275]
  • 154. Wiggins, Ira L. 1980. Flora of Baja California. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1025 p. [21993]
  • 156. Woodson, R. E., Jr. 1930. Studies in the Apocynaceae. I. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 17: 1-212. [62287]
  • 160. Young, Loyd; Cranfill, J. C.; Robison, Laren R. 1971. Take the "bite" out of hemp dogbane. Quarterly--Serving Farm, Ranch and Home. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, College of Agriculture. 18(3): 13-15. [61247]
  • 34. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; [and others]. 1984. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 4. Subclass Asteridae, (except Asteraceae). New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 573 p. [718]
  • 73. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]
  • 83. Larson, Gary E. 1993. Aquatic and wetland vascular plants of the Northern Great Plains. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-238. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 681 p. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (Producer). Available: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/plants/vascplnt/vascplnt.htm [2006, February 11]. [22534]
  • 98. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Apocynum cannabinum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

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Management

Management considerations

More info for the terms: rhizome, root crown

Indianhemp is considered a serious weed problem in agricultural fields in the
Midwest and can cause decreases in yield [14,22,76,104,116,147,148,149,150,160].
Infestations tend to occur in agricultural crops where no-tillage systems have
been implemented, which allow for Indianhemp's rhizome and root system to become
well established [56,147,148,149]. Reductions in yield are reportedly due
to allelopathic influences of Indianhemp [122,159]. Indianhemp is also considered
a weed species in nurseries, plantations where Christmas
trees are grown, and in orchards [64,65,80].

Indianhemp increases on grazed pastures in South Dakota [87].

Control:
Many management strategies have been used to try to control Indianhemp,
with different levels of success. Complete control is difficult due to
Indianhemp's persistent and extensive root and rhizome system [104].
Integrated management:
A successful management program to control Indianhemp likely
includes a combination of cultural, mechanical (tillage including the usage of plows, disks, or
cultivators), and chemical methods [119] as well as an appropriate schedule for
implementing these methods. There is widespread agreement that timing of control methods is
critical and can make weed management very difficult [56,104,147,149]. Fall herbicide treatments
have provided better control than spring treatments. The
spring treatments can effectively control Indianhemp, but the timing often occurs
when the most damage can be done to other herbs [14,116,160].
Becker [15] states that herbicide application timing should coincide
with late bud to early flower set, or beyond. Mechanical methods such as mowing,
cultivation, or tilling practices should be implemented at mid- to full-flower,
before root carbohydrate levels begin, to recover to maximize carbohydrate depletion [14].
Physical/mechanical:
Mechanical control has been shown to decrease and increase infestations. Numerous Indianhemp
sprouts occurred on study plots that had the soil scraped off. The scraping and deep plowing
destroyed most of the perennating tissues except for the some deeply buried
rhizomes. The following
year Indianhemp continued to spread and increase in height. A steady decrease was
observed in the following years, until it was absent
or of little importance [75]. Buhler and others [22] state that Indianhemp can be
controlled by tillage systems. Tillage can reduce infestations if done
frequently (every 2 to 3 weeks) enough to deplete underground root reserves [119].
Increases in infestations where tillage practices are used have been attributed
to tillage equipment moving parts of the root systems to new areas and by breaking
dormancy of underground buds, resulting in new shoot growth [122,160].
Chemical control has also had mixed success. The seedlings are
"easily controlled" by most soil-applied herbicides including 2, 4-D and glyphosate.
Once seedlings become established, control becomes much more difficult [15].
A broad range of herbicides was reported to be effective (80% to
≥92%) on Indianhemp seedlings in a greenhouse study in Delaware [142]. Depending on the herbicide,
applications made during the vegetative stage of growth provide a shorter-term
control than applications made during the early reproductive stage. Applying
herbicides during the early
reproductive stage provides the longer-term control but can be harmful to other
herbs [104]. Applications of the "traditionally safe" herbicides sulfometuron
methyl and imazapyr were used on Indianhemp in eastern white pine plantations were unsuccessful [80].
Glenn and Anderson [56] report good Indianhemp control
with herbicide applications of 1 or more of the following: 2, 4-D,
dicamba, nicosulfuron, and triclopyr; however, regrowth from the root crown occurred
occasionally. Herbicide treatments reduce the vigor of Indianhemp plants but
often do not kill them [160].
  • 14. Becker, Roger L.; Fawcett, Richard S. 1998. Seasonal carbohydrate fluctuations in hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) crown roots. Weed Science. 46(3): 358-365. [55110]
  • 15. Becker, Roger. 1981. Today's weed: hemp dogbane. Weed Science. 12(4): 15-16. [55122]
  • 64. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 65. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1959. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 4: Ericaceae through Campanulaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 510 p. [1170]
  • 75. Keever, Catherine. 1979. Mechanisms of plant succession on old fields of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 106(4): 299-308. [41717]
  • 76. Kiltz, B. F. 1930. Perennial weeds which spread vegetatively. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy. 22(3): 216-234. [25191]
  • 104. Orfanedes, Michael S.; Wax, Loyd M. 1991. Differential response of hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) to clopyralid, Dowco 433, and 2,4-D. Weed Technology. 5(4): 782-788. [61233]
  • 116. Robison, Laren R.; Jeffery, Larry S. 1972. Hemp dogbane growth and control. Weed Science. 20(2): 156-159. [55121]
  • 119. Salzman, Fred; Renner, Karen; Kells, Jim. 1992. Controlling hemp dogbane. IPM Facts: Extension Bulletin E-2247. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University. 2 p. [55123]
  • 122. Schultz, M. E.; Burnside, O. C. 1979. Distribution, competition, and phenology of hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) in Nebraska. Weed Science. 27(5): 565-570. [55118]
  • 147. Webster, Theodore M.; Cardina, John. 1999. Apocynum cannabinum seed germination and vegetative shoot emergence. Weed Science. 47(5): 524-528. [55112]
  • 160. Young, Loyd; Cranfill, J. C.; Robison, Laren R. 1971. Take the "bite" out of hemp dogbane. Quarterly--Serving Farm, Ranch and Home. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, College of Agriculture. 18(3): 13-15. [61247]
  • 22. Buhler, Douglas D.; Stoltenberg, David E.; Becker, Rober L.; Gunsolus, Jeffery L. 1994. Perennial weed populations after 14 years of variable tillage and cropping practices. Weed Science. 42(2): 205-209. [61231]
  • 56. Glenn, Scott; Anderson, Neil G. 1993. Hemp dogbane (Spocynum cannabinum) and wild blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis) control in no-tillage corn (Zea mays). Weed Technology. 7(1): 47-51. [61232]
  • 80. Kuhns, Larry J.; Kaps, Mary Ann. 1986. Sulfometuron methyl and imazapyr applied as a directed spray on white pine. Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society. 40: 263-264. [44273]
  • 87. Lewis, James K.; Van Dyne, George M.; Albee, Leslie R.; Whetzal, Frank W. 1956. Intensity of grazing: Its effect on livestock and forage production. Bulletin 459. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 44 p. [11737]
  • 142. Vangessel, Mark J. 1999. Control of perennial weed species as seedlings with soil-applied herbicides. Weed Technology. 13(2): 425-428. [37301]
  • 148. Webster, Theodore M.; Cardina, John; Woods, Samuel J. 2000. Apocynum cannabinum interference in no-till Glycine max. Weed Science. 48(6): 716-719. [61234]
  • 149. Webster, Theodore M.; Cardina, John; Woods, Samuel J. 2000. Spatial and temporal expansion patterns of Apocynum cannabinum patches. Weed Science. 48(6): 728-733. [55117]
  • 150. Webster, Theodore M.; Coble, Harold D. 1997. Changes in the weed species composition of the southern United States: 1974 to 1995. Weed Technology. 11(2): 308-317. [46714]
  • 159. Wyrill, J. B., III; Burnside, O. C. 1976. Allelopathic influence on common milkweed and hemp dogbane on grain sorghum. North Central Weed Control Conference. 33: 27-28. [62291]

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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

APCA is available from native plant nurseries within its range.

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When used for fiber, Indian hemp is collected in the autumn after the leaves have begun to senesce or dry up and the stalks turn a deep reddish brown color. Plants are cut at the base of the stem. Cutting the plants appears to stimulate new growth in the spring; so as many stalks as possible are cut. Plants are then split open and the fibers removed and processed into cordage. After winter, the fibers have disintegrated and the stems are still standing, but full of mush or empty. The fibers can't be removed after one winter.

There are only two known large sites for traditional harvest of Indian hemp for fiber in California; one at Yosemite and one near Santa Rosa. In the Columbia Basin, though Indian hemp might be found in many low-lying areas, certain stands of hemp grew higher and straighter, and the long strands produced were prized for the strength of the twine made from them. So special was this resource area that violent conflict (otherwise uncommon) occurred between Wanapam Sahaptins and Columbia Salish over access to the hemp (Relander 1956)

Vast quantities of fiber plants are required for nets, regalia, and cordage. Blackburn and Anderson (1993) quote Craig Bates of the Yosemite Museum that it takes approximately five stalks of milkweed or Indian hemp to manufacture one foot of cordage. A Sierra Miwok feather skirt or cape contain about 100 feet of cordage made from approximately 500 plant stalks, while a deer net 40 feet in length (Barrett and Gifford 1933:178) contained some 7,000 feet of cordage, which would have required the harvesting of a staggering 35,000 plant stalks. Therefore, propagation and conservation of this species for fiber is very important for production of traditionally manufactured cordage, which is still used today.

Both milkweed and dogbane are burned in the fall to eliminate dead stalks and stimulate new growth. Burning causes new growth to have taller, straighter stems (with longer fibers). It also stimulates flower and seed production.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun and wet to mesic conditions. This weedy plant adapts to mildly acidic to alkaline soil containing loam, clay-loam, or clay-gravel. It readily tolerates flooded conditions during the spring, while tolerating drought later in the year. By late summer, the lower leaves of this plant turn yellow and begin to fall off as its condition steadily deteriorates. In moist open areas, clonal colonies can spread aggressively from underground rhizomes. Range & Habitat
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Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the terms: cover, fresh

Indianhemp is poisonous to all livestock, although domestic sheep are affected more than other animals [15,33,35,69,110,119,123,129,140]. However, actual cases of livestock poisoning from Indianhemp are rare [15,35]. Traces of Indianhemp were found in rumen samples of pronghorn and white-tailed deer in Montana, but no animals were observed eating it [2,32].

Indianhemp is a primary host for 2 species of leaf beetle [40]. It is also a host plant for Chrysochus auratus (a root beetle) in Iowa. Chrysochus auratus mating and ovipositing occur on Indianhemp throughout the summer. Once hatched, the larvae drop to the ground and tunnel to the roots of the host plants, where they feed and overwinter [130].

Butterfly gardeners grow Indianhemp because it is a valuable native nectar plant [68].

Palatability/nutritional value: Indianhemp is unpalatable at all seasons, even to livestock that are virtually starving [46]. Animals usually avoid Indianhemp because of the bitter, sticky, milky-white juice; however, domestic sheep may eat large quantities if other forage is scarce [69,140].

All parts of Indianhemp, fresh or dried, are poisonous because of the toxic glycoside it contains [33,35,69,123,140]. The levels of the glycoside, cymarin, in Indianhemp are disputed. Knight [77] claims the levels of cymarin are low and Majak [90] states that there are high concentrations. Death from Indianhemp poisoning may occur 6 to 12 hours after animals eat the plant. A lethal dose for domestic sheep is about 0.5 to 1 ounce/100 pounds of body weight. A lethal dose for cattle and horses is about 0.5 to 0.75 ounce/100 pounds of body weight [69,140].

Cover value: Cover of Indianhemp for wildlife has been rated as follows [39]:

  UT MT
elk poor ----
mule deer poor ----
white-tailed deer ---- fair
pronghorn poor ----
small mammals fair ----
small nongame birds fair ----
upland game birds poor ----
waterfowl poor ----
  • 33. Crawford, Hewlette S.; Kucera, Clair L.; Ehrenreich, John H. 1969. Ozark range and wildlife plants. Agric. Handb. 356. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 236 p. [18602]
  • 15. Becker, Roger. 1981. Today's weed: hemp dogbane. Weed Science. 12(4): 15-16. [55122]
  • 35. Dalby, Richard. 2004. Dogbane and horsemint: two interesting honey sources. American Bee Journal. 144(1): 46-48. [61227]
  • 46. Dyksterhuis, E. J. 1948. The vegetation of the western Cross Timbers. Ecological Monographs. 18(3): 326-376. [3683]
  • 69. James, L. F.; Keeler, R. F.; Johnson, A. E.; Williams, M. C.; Cronin, E. H.; Olsen, J. D. 1980. Plants poisonous to livestock in the western states. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 415. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration. 90 p. [1243]
  • 77. Knight, A. P. 1988. Oleander poisoning. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian. Princeton Junction, NJ: Veterinary Learning Systems 1979 9999. 10(2): 262-263. [61248]
  • 119. Salzman, Fred; Renner, Karen; Kells, Jim. 1992. Controlling hemp dogbane. IPM Facts: Extension Bulletin E-2247. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University. 2 p. [55123]
  • 140. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1968. 22 plants poisonous to livestock in the Western states. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 327. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Disease and Parasite Research Division and Crops Research Division. 64 p. [4275]
  • 2. Allen, Eugene O. 1968. Range use, foods, condition, and productivity of white-tailed deer in Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 32(1): 130-141. [16331]
  • 32. Cole, G. F. 1956. The pronghorn antelope--its range use and food habits in central Montana with special reference to alfalfa. Technical Bulletin 516. Bozeman, MT: Montana State College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 63 p. [43976]
  • 39. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 40. Dobler, Susanne; Farrell, Brian D. 1999. Host use evolution in Chrysochus milkweed beetles: evidence from behaviour, population genetics, and phylogeny. Molecular Ecology. 8(8): 1297-1307. [61230]
  • 90. Majak, Walter. 2001. Review of toxic glycosides in rangeland and pasture forages. Journal of Ranage Management. 54(4): 494-498. [38722]
  • 110. Poisonous Plants Research Laboratory. 1990. Loosening poisonous plants' deadly grip. Utah Science. 51(4): 186-191. [27132]
  • 123. Schuster, Joseph L.; James, Lynn F. 1988. Some other major poisonous plants of the western United States. In: James, Lynn F.; Ralphs, Michael; Nielsen, Darwin B., eds. The ecology and economic impact of poisonous plants on livestock production. Westview Special Studies in Agriculture Science and Policy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press: 295-307. [41408]
  • 129. Sperry, O. E.; Dollahite, J. W.; Hoffman, G. O.; Camp, B. J. 1964. Texas plants poisonous to livestock. Report B-1028. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas Agricultural Extension Service. 59 p. [23510]
  • 130. St. Pierre, Matthew J.; Hendrix, Stephen D.; Lewis, Cassandra K. 2005. Dispersal ability and host-plant characteristics influence spatial population structure of monophagous beetles. Ecological Entomology. 30(1): 105-115. [61229]
  • 68. Huffman, Margaret. 2003. Suggestions for L.A. butterfly gardeners, [Online]. Los Angeles, CA: North American Butterfly Association, Los Angeles Chapter (Producer). Available: http://www.naba.org/chapters/nabala/Gardens.htm [2003, February 14]. [43456]

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Other uses and values

Indianhemp is known for its importance to early Native Americans. The strong, fibrous root and stem fibers were used to make fish nets, rope, thread, baskets, cloth, and bags [1,4,15,28,35,78,105,121,128,138,156].

Indianhemp is known to have many medicinal purposes. The glycoside, cymarin, was used as a cardiac stimulant, a diuretic, a diaphoretic, a febrifuge, a rheumatism remedy, and a treatment for gall stones [35,69,78,128,140]. The dried milky fluid in the stems can be used as a chewing gum substitute [78].

The fragrant flowers attract honeybees for nectar, making a "superior," almost colorless honey [33].

There may be potential for using Indianhemp as a hydrocarbon-producing crop as an energy alternative [21].

  • 33. Crawford, Hewlette S.; Kucera, Clair L.; Ehrenreich, John H. 1969. Ozark range and wildlife plants. Agric. Handb. 356. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 236 p. [18602]
  • 1. Alldritt-McDowell, Judith; Coupe, Ray. 1998. The ecology of the bunchgrass zone. QP #004216. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests, Research Branch. 5 p. [29235]
  • 15. Becker, Roger. 1981. Today's weed: hemp dogbane. Weed Science. 12(4): 15-16. [55122]
  • 35. Dalby, Richard. 2004. Dogbane and horsemint: two interesting honey sources. American Bee Journal. 144(1): 46-48. [61227]
  • 69. James, L. F.; Keeler, R. F.; Johnson, A. E.; Williams, M. C.; Cronin, E. H.; Olsen, J. D. 1980. Plants poisonous to livestock in the western states. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 415. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration. 90 p. [1243]
  • 140. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1968. 22 plants poisonous to livestock in the Western states. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 327. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Disease and Parasite Research Division and Crops Research Division. 64 p. [4275]
  • 156. Woodson, R. E., Jr. 1930. Studies in the Apocynaceae. I. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 17: 1-212. [62287]
  • 4. Anderson, M. Kat; Moratto, Michael J. 1996. Native American land-use practices and ecological impacts. In: Status of the Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project: Final report to Congress. Volume II: Assessments and scientific basis for management options. Wildland Resources Center Report No. 37. Davis, CA: University of California, Centers for Water and Wildland Resources: 187-206. [28967]
  • 21. Buchanan, R. A.; Cull, I. M.; Otey, F. H.; Russell, C. R. 1978. Hydrocarbon- and rubber-producing crops. Economic Botany. 32: 131-145. [47819]
  • 78. Krochmal, A.; Paur, S.; Duisberg, P. 1954. Useful native plants in the American southwestern deserts. Economic Botany. 8: 3-20. [2766]
  • 105. Palmer, Edward. 1878. Plants used by the Indians of the United States. The American Naturalist. 12(10): 646-655. [60449]
  • 121. Schmidt, Judith G. 1990. Ethnobotany of contemporary Northeastern "Woodland" Indians: its sharing with the public through photography. Advances in Economic Botany. 8: 224-240. [49683]
  • 128. Shufer, Vickie. 1999. Dismal Swamp ethnobotany: traditional plant uses. In: Rose, R. K., ed. The natural history of the Great Dismal Swamp. Madison, WI: Omni Press: 75-84. [42230]
  • 138. Turner, Nancy J.; Ignace, Marianne Boelscher; Ignace, Ronald. 2000. Traditional ecological knowledge and wisdom of aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Ecological Applications. 10(5): 1275-1287. [40982]
  • 28. Chesnut, V. K. 1902. Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Botany. 7(3): 295-408. [54917]

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

There is value in using Indianhemp for the rehabilitation of disturbed sites. It grows very well in disturbed areas. It is, for example, common on American badger-disturbed sites [108,109]. It is also recognized as a worthwhile native landscaping plant because it spreads rapidly by vegetative means and can help suppress weeds [37].
  • 108. Platt, W. J.; Weis, I. M. 1977. Resource partitioning and competition within a guild of fugitive prairie plants. The American Naturalist. 111: 479-513. [62288]
  • 109. Platt, William J. 1975. The colonization and formation of equilibrium plant species associations on badger disturbances in a tall-grass prairie. Ecological Monographs. 45: 285-305. [6903]
  • 37. Diekelmann, John; Howell, Evelyn A.; Harrington, John. 1986. An approach to residential landscaping with prairie. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings of the 9th North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 242-248. [3587]

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Uses

Warning - Indian hemp can be toxic if ingested without proper preparation.

Ethnobotanic: Indian hemp is harvested for fiber. The stems are cut in the fall; they are then split open and the long, silky fibers removed. The fibers are then twisted into string, which provides cordage. String, thread, rope, baskets, snares, netting, and clothing were made from the bast fibers of the Indian hemp plant because they are so silky yet strong. Cordage was then used to make tump straps, belts, netted bags, hairnets, and ceremonial regalia (capes, skirts, and head-dresses).

The fiber was particularly useful in making fishing and carrying nets, for string and for ropes, and to some extent for weaving rough cloth. In California, Indian hemp and milkweed are used somewhat interchangeably for cordage. The Luiseño of southern California for their dance regalia used Indian hemp; the golden eagle or other feathers are tied to netting for the dance skirt for men (Merriam 1955). The wild hemp was also used by the Chemeweve for snares for otter and rabbits (Ibid.)

Dogbane is very important to tribes in the Columbia Plateau in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho for basketry. The Quinalt, Kalispel, Nez Perce, Spokane, Umatilla, Wasco, Wishram, Yakima, and Klikitat used dogbane for cordage and basketry.

Families use the native twine to tie together the frames for their winter lodges. They used it to sew cattails and tules into sturdy mats to cover these frames and to serve as carpeting, furniture, beds, and utensils. Dip nets, set nets, and seines were made of dogbane. The nets were strong enough to hold the giant sturgeon caught in the Columbia River.

Of all the important uses for Indian hemp, the itatamat , or "counting the days" ball, was perhaps the most significant for the people themselves. From the time of her marriage, a woman would record a calendar of her life's events by tying knots on a length of hemp as important events occurred. She marked births, deaths, and other extraordinary days with beads, shells or other talismans. When the ball got too large to handle easily, she started a new ball.

Flat twined bags ("sally bags"), round twined bags and basketry caps were made with dogbane. Soft bags were made using twine from Indian hemp or milkweed decorated with cornhusk imbrication. Basket bottoms and top margins were of woven cedar bark. These soft bags conform to the shape of a load of roots of camas or other plants.

Later explorers reported that the Nez Perce and other tribes stored berries, roots, and nuts in bags about one by two feet, and used larger bags up to three feet long for clothing and other personal effects. Early visitor to the Mid-Columbia also described piles of filled bags in the corners or hung along the wall in native homes. One weaver estimated that it took two to three months to twine a large root-storage bag.

As a medium of trade, barter, or wager, the bags in the early days were considered only the wrapping or container for the dried roots they held. The largest of the bags would hold just under a half-bushel or nearly four dry gallons of camas or bitterroot bulbs. Now, the bags themselves are highly valued as trade items. The flat twined bags have been widely traded to other tribes, such as the Crow and Blackfeet of Montana.

Today, the wapanii sapk'ukt, or "twined handbag," is the most popular form of flat twined bags. It is carried with great pride as part of ceremonial regalia, the twined handbag emphasizing the distinct cultural heritage of the person who carries it. Today, cotton twine usually replaces Indian hemp in basketry; however, very special ceremonial bags are still made with Indian hemp.

The biochemical constituents in Indian hemp are apocynin, apocynamarin, cymarin, and and rosin. Indian hemp could be dried, crushed, and then snuffed for coughs in head colds. The root was made into a tea and was used to help a baby’s cold, earache, headache, nervousness, dizziness, worms and insanity. This tea was also taken for heart palpitations, but care should be observed if using it for cardiac disorders. It acts as a vaso-constrictor, slows and strengthens the heartbeat, and raises blood pressure. The root could also be used as an emetic, diaphoretic, antispasmodic, cathartic, anodyne, hypnotic, laxative, treats vomiting, diarrhea, hydrocephalus, urinary difficulties, dropsy, jaundice, liver problems, and stimulates the digestive system. It has been successfully employed for alcoholism. A wash made of crushed root can be shampooed into the hair to stimulate growth, remove dandruff and head lice. The milky juice can remove warts. A poultice of the leaves reduces tumors, hemorrhoids, and inflammation of the testicles. The poultice placed over the eyelids works on opthalmia and eye diseases. The leaves ground into powder can dress wounds, sores and ulcers.

Erosion Control: The extensive root system on Indian hemp provides good slope and streambank stabilization and erosion control functions. The flowers are attractive to bees, butterflies, and other insects. The plant itself is toxic; so many forms of wildlife do not eat it. Indian hemp is considered a noxious weed because of its invasive nature and its toxicity to domestic livestock.

Invasive Potential: This plant can be invasive in orchards and cultivated areas, so is not a garden plant. The small, inconspicuous flowers and weedy growth form doesn't have horticultural appeal.

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Wikipedia

Apocynum cannabinum

Apocynum cannabinum (Dogbane, Amy Root, Hemp Dogbane, Prairie Dogbane, Indian Hemp, Rheumatism Root, or Wild Cotton)[2] is a perennial herbaceous plant that grows throughout much of North America - in the southern half of Canada and throughout the United States. It is a poisonous plant: Apocynum means "poisonous to dogs". All parts of the plant are poisonous and can cause cardiac arrest if ingested. The cannabinum in the scientific name and the common names Hemp Dogbane and Indian Hemp refer to its similarity to Cannabis as a fiber plant (see Hemp), rather than as a source of a psychoactive drug (see Cannabis (drug))

Although dogbane is poisonous to livestock, it likely got its name from its resemblance to a European species of the same name.[3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Apocynum cannabinum grows in open wooded areas, ditches, and hillsides, and prefers moist places.

Description[edit]

Apocynum cannabinum grows up to 2 meters/6 feet tall. The stems are reddish and contain a milky latex capable of causing skin blisters. The leaves are opposite, simple broad lanceolate, 7–15 cm long and 3–5 cm broad, entire, and smooth on top with white hairs on the underside. The flowers are produced in mid summer, with large sepals, and a five-lobed white corolla.

Invasive species[edit]

In gardens it can be invasive, growing from spreading roots. When growing among corn, Apocynum cannabinum can reduce yields by up to 10% and when growing among soybeans, by up to 40%. It can be controlled through mechanical means, although it is difficult to control with herbicides.

Uses[edit]

In the fall, when toxins drain to the roots, the plant can be harvested for fiber, which can be used to make strong string and cordage for use in bows, fire-bows, nets and tie-downs.

Phytoremediation[edit]

Apocynum cannabinum is a phytoremediation plant, a hyperaccumulator used to sequester lead in its biomass.

Fiber[edit]

Apocynum cannabinum was used as a source of fiber by Native Americans,[4] to make hunting nets, fishing lines, clothing, and twine.[3] It is called qéemu [qǽːmu] in Nez Perce and [taxʷɨ́s] in Sahaptin. The Concow tribe call the plant (Konkow language).[5]

Medicinal[edit]

It is also used in herbal medicine to treat syphilis, rheumatism, intestinal worms, fever, asthma, and dysentery. Although the toxins from the plant can cause nausea and catharsis, it has also been used for slowing the pulse, and it is also a sedative and mild hypnotic.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved June 18, 2014. 
  2. ^ Apocynum cannabinum, ITIS report
  3. ^ a b Heiser, C. B. (2003). Weeds in my Garden: Observations on some Misunderstood Plants. Portland, OR: Timber Press. p. 50. ISBN 0-88192-562-4. 
  4. ^ Coville, F. V. (1897). "Notes On The Plants Used By The Klamath Indians Of Oregon" (pdf). Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium 5 (2): 87–108 (p. 103). 
  5. ^ Chesnut, V. K. (1902). "Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California". Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium 7 (3): 295–408 (p. 407). LCCN 08010527. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Kartesz (1994 and 1999) does not recognize infraspecific taxa within Apocynum cannabinum.

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The scientific name of Indianhemp is Apocynum cannabinum L. (Apocynaceae) [72].
Hybridization is a common occurrence in this genus [3]. Apocynum × floribundum Greene is
a hybrid of spreading dogbane (A. androsaemifolium) and Indianhemp [3,70].
When information specific to Indianhemp is not
available, information on the genus Apocynum is given.
  • 3. Anderson, Edgar. 1936. An experimental study of hybridization in the genus Apocynum. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 23(2): 159-168. [60960]
  • 70. Johnson, Samuel A.; Bruederle, Leo P.; Tomback, Diana F. 1998. A mating system conundrum: hybridization in Apocynum (Apocynaceae). American Journal of Botany. 85(9): 1316-1323. [55109]
  • 72. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]

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Common Names

Indianhemp

common dogbane

dogbane

hemp dogbane

prairie dogbane

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Synonyms

A. hypericifolium Ait.

A. pubescens Mitchell ex R. Br.

A. sibiricum Jacq.

A. suksdorfii Greene [72]
  • 72. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]

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