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DescriptionThis native perennial plant is unbranched and about ¾–1½' tall. The central stem is slightly reddish and has lines of minute white hairs that are difficult to see. The leaves are up to 3" long and 1¼" across. They are oppositely arranged along the central stem, except at the apex of the plant, where they occur in a whorl of 3-7 smaller leaves. They are lanceolate, sessile, and have smooth margins. On each leaf, there may be minute pubescence along the central vein at the base, otherwise the texture tends to be shiny. Two smaller side veins run parallel to the central vein. One or more clusters of 1-8 flowers occur at or near the apex of the plant. The inflorescence is sessile at the topmost whorl of leaves, otherwise the flowers occur on short stalks from the axils of the upper opposite leaves. The violet-blue flowers are about 2" long and 1" across when fully open. The corolla is tubular and vase-shaped, but divides into 5 small triangular lobes that reflex outward. Within the corolla, there is a prominent stigma with a divided white tip, which is surrounded by 5 stamens with white anthers. The outer sides of the corolla contain some patches of greenish violet, while it becomes whitish green near the base on the inside. The blooming period occurs during the fall, and lasts about a month. There is no noticeable floral fragrance. The seed capsules split into 2 sections, releasing numerous small seeds that can be dispersed by wind or water. The root system consists of a long stout taproot with a few lateral roots.