The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • AFPD. 2008. African Flowering Plants Database - Base de Donnees des Plantes a Fleurs D'Afrique.
  • Botanical Museum Leaflets 16(5): 100. 1953. (Bot. Mus. Leafl.)
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. (eds.) 1993. Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45: i–xl, 1–1286.
  • Correa A., M.D., C. Galdames & M. Stapf. 2004. Cat. Pl. Vasc. Panamá 1–599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama.
  • D'Arcy, W.G. Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Part 1: The introduction and checklist. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 17: v–xxx, 1–328.
  • Hokche, O., P. E. Berry & O. Huber. (eds.) 2008. Nuevo Cat. Fl. Vasc. Venez. 1–860. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, Caracas.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. (eds.) 2011. Fl. Antioquia: Cat. 2: 9–939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Isotype: Britton, N. L. 1930. Sci. Surv. Porto Rico & Virgin Isl. 6: 561.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez. (eds.) 1999. Cat. Vasc. Pl. Ecuador, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Miss. Bot. Gard. 75: i–viii, 1–1181. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Knapp S., Walley L., Bohs L., Nee M. & Spooner D. (eds) (2015). Solanaceae Source (version 200811, Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Lam. 1794. In: Tabl. Encycl. 2: 16.
  • Lawesson, J. E., H. Adsersen & P. Bentley. 1987. An updated and annotated check list of the vascular plants of the Galapagos Islands. Rep. Bot. Inst. Univ. Aarhus 16: 1–74.
  • Macbride, J. F. 1962. Solanaceae. 13(5B/1): 3–267. In J. F. Macbride (ed.) Fl. Peru. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. Field Museum, Chicago.
  • Molina Rosito, A. 1975. Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 19(1): 1–118.
  • Porter, D. M. 1983. Vascular plants of the Galapagos: Origins and dispersal. 33–54. In M. B. R. I. Bowman & A. E. Leviton Patt. Evol. Galapagos Org. Pacific Division, AAAS, San Francisco.
  • Sc. Surv. Porto Rico & Virgin Islands 6: 561. 1930. (Sc. Surv. Porto Rico & Virgin Islands)
  • Stevens, W. D., C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel. 2001. Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: i–xlii,.
  • Stevens, W.D.; Ulloa Ulloa, Carmen; Pool, Amy; Montiel, Martha / 2001 / Flora de Nicaragua / U.S.A / Missouri Botanical Garden Press / Tomo III.
  • Tableau Encyclopédique et Methodique ... Botanique 2: 16. 1794. (Tabl. Encycl.)
  • Wiggins, I. L. & D. M. Porter. 1971. Fl. Galápagos Isl. 1–998. Stanford University Press, Stanford.


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