The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 2: 227. 1827. (Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York)
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Gleason, H. A. 1968. The Sympetalous Dicotyledoneae. vol. 3. 596 pp. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York.
  • Isotype: Bitter, F. A. G. 1912. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11: 444.
  • Kearney, T. H. & R. Peebles. 1951. Arizona Fl.
  • Knapp S., Walley L., Bohs L., Nee M. & Spooner D. (eds) (2015). Solanaceae Source (version 200811, Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Lehr, J. H. 1978. Cat. Fl. Arizona
  • Torr. 1828. In: Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 2: 227.


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