Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Solanum jamesii Torr.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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Potosonora and N Chihuahua, and disjunct populations in Querétaro and San Luis Potosí; among boulders on hillsides, sandy alluvial stream bottoms, in gravel along trails or roadways, rich organic soil of alluvial valleys, sandy fallow fields, grasslands, juniper-pinyon scrub deserts, oak thickets, coniferous and deciduous forests; 1370-2870 m.

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Formal Description

Habit

Herbaceous tuber-bearing perennials 0.2-0.5 m tall. Stems 2-5 mm in diameter at base of plant.

Sympodial Structure

Sympodial units typically 3-6-foliate.

Leaves

Pseudostipules to 10 mm long, pinnatifid. Leaves odd-pinnate, 7-15 cm long, 4-9 cm wide, glabrescent and glandular adaxially and abaxially; petioles 1.5-3.5 cm long; lateral leaflet pairs 3-4, the second most distal lateral leaflets larger than the most distal, then the size of the lateral leaflets diminishing gradually towards the base of the leaf; most distal lateral leaflets 3-5 cm long, 0.7-2 cm wide, lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, apex acute, base oblique, sessile, strongly decurrent on the rachis; terminal leaflet 4-6.5 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide, lanceolate, apex acute to acuminate, base attenuate; interjected leaflets absent.

Inflorescences

Inflorescence a dichasially branched, ebracteate, monochasial or dichasial cyme, 2-3 forked, generally in the distal half of the plant, with 4-10 flowers, all flowers perfect, peduncle 1-6 cm long; pedicels 16 -30 mm long, articulate between the proximal ¼ and the distal ¼.

Flowers

Flowers with the calyx up to 6 mm long, lobes oblong, apiculate to caudate, acumens 1-2.5 mm long. Corollas 2.8-3.5 cm in diameter, stellate, without acumens, edges of corolla flat, not folded dorsally, white. Anthers 6 mm long, connate, yellow, apically poricidally dehiscent and often maturing to a short introrse apical slit, filaments 1-4 mm long. Ovary with style 12-14 mm long, exceeding stamens by 5-6 mm, straight, with stigma globose.

Fruits

Fruits 1 cm in diameter, globose, green throughout.

Seeds

Seeds from living specimens green-white throughout, ovoid, ca. 2 mm long, with a thick covering of “hair-like” lateral walls of the testal cells that make the seeds mucilaginous when wet. Removal of these hair-like lateral walls by enzyme digestion reveals a honeycomb pattern at their base.

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Type Information

Isotype for Solanum jamesii var. heterotrichium Bitter
Catalog Number: US 489307
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Collector unknown
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Fort Collins, College Farm., Colorado, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Bitter, F. A. G. 1912. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11: 444.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

Flowering and fruiting June through October.

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Evolution and Systematics

Systematics or Phylogenetics

Phylogeny

Solanum jamesii belongs to the potato clade of Solanum (Bohs, in press). Spooner and Sytsma (1992) placed S. jamesii and all other North and Central American diploids (exclusive of S. bulbocastanum, S. cardiophyllum, and S. verrucosum) in the basal “clade 1” of section Petota based on chloroplast DNA restriction site data. These Mexican diploids were studied by Spooner and Lara-Cabrera with morphological and microsatellite data (Lara-Cabrera and Spooner, in press a) and AFLP data (Lara-Cabrera and Spooner in press b). Spooner et al. (2004) placed S. jamesii and S. pinnatisectum in the Pinnatisecta group. These are the only two species in sect. Petota with pinnatifid pseudostipules, and they are united by AFLP data (Lara Cabrera and Spooner, in press b).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Solanum jamesii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solanum jamesii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Molecular Data

Chloroplast DNA restriction site data available in: Spooner and Sytsma (1992). AFLP, morphological, and microsatellite data listed in: Lara-Cabrera (2001).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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Source: NatureServe

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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References and More Information

Commentary

Solanum jamesii is very similar to S. cardiophyllum, S. ehrenbergii and S. stenophyllidium. It is readily distinguished from them by its pinnatifid pseudostipules, a character shared only by S. pinnatisectum that has 6-8 pairs of lateral leaflets vs. 3-4 pairs for S. jamesii. All other wild potato species from North and Central America have lunate stipules.

The type sheet of S. jamesii bears two flowering specimens, one larger than the other; both comprise the holotype.

Bitter (1913) created Solanum jamesii subsp. septentrionale by combining S. jamesii var. heterotrichium, S. jamesii var. sinclarii, and S. jamesii var. brachistotrichium into a single subspecies. Spooner et al. (2004) considered the first and second of these names to be synonyms of S. jamesii, and the third to be a synonym of S. stenophyllidium. Bitter designated no type for this new name, but cited only the three varietal names. The types of these names, therefore, become syntypes from which a lectotype was chosen.

Records of S. jamesii from natural habitats in Colorado are limited to the extreme southwestern and southeastern parts of the state. Several disjunct populations from northern Colorado in Boulder and Larimer Counties and in Scottsbluff County Nebraska are near cultivated fields and greenhouses. Recent searches at these localities have been unsuccessful (Bamberg et al. 2003). These disjunct northern sites likely represent recent introductions to experimental stations.

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