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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Grasslands and banks of streams
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb
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Distribution

"
Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia; introduced into many countries

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Palakkad, Kottayam, Alappuzha, Kollam, Idukki, Pathanamthitta, Malappuram, Kozhikkode, Wayanad, Kannur, Thrissur

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Maharashtra: Kolhapur
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Impatiens balsamina L.:
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Canada (North America)
China (Asia)
Ecuador (South America)
Guyana (South America)
India (Asia)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)
Nicaragua (Mesoamerica)
Malaysia (Asia)
Colombia (South America)
Venezuela (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: Cultivated as an ornamental in tropical and sub-tropical regions of India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malaya and also in China; introduced in Turkey and S. Europe.
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Widely cultivated, native of S.E. Asia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants annual, 60-100 cm tall. Stem erect, robust, base ca. 8 mm in diam., succulent, simple or branched, glabrous or laxly pubescent when young, with many fibrous roots, lower nodes swollen. Leaves alternate, sometimes lowest ones opposite; petiole 1-3 cm, adaxially shallowly sulcate, both sides with few pairs of stipitate glands; leaf blade lanceolate, narrowly elliptic, or oblanceolate, 4-12 × 1.5-3 cm, with a pair of sessile black glands toward base, both surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent, lateral veins 4-7 pairs, base cuneate, margin deeply serrate, apex acuminate. Inflorescences 1-flowered, or 2 or 3 flowers fascicled in leaf axils, without peduncles. Pedicels 2-2.5 cm, densely pubescent, bracteate at base; bracts linear. Flowers white, pink, or purple, simple or double petalous. Lateral sepals 2, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2-3 mm. Lower sepal deeply navicular, 13-19 × 4-8 mm, pubescent, abruptly narrowed into an incurved spur; spur 1-2.5 cm, slender. Upper petal orbicular, apex retuse, mucronulate, abaxial midvein narrowly carinate; lateral united petals shortly clawed, 2.3-2.5 cm, 2-lobed; basal lobes obovate-oblong, small; distal lobes suborbicular, apically retuse; auricule narrow. Stamens 5; filaments linear; anthers ovoid, apex obtuse. Ovary fusiform, densely pubescent. Capsule broadly fusiform, 1-2 cm, densely tomentose, narrowed at both ends. Seeds many, black-brown, globose, 1.5-3 mm in diam., tuberculate. Fl. Jul-Oct. 2n = 14*.
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Description

Annual, 45-60 cm tall, pubescent. Leaves lanceolate, 30-90 x 10-30 mm, serrate. Flowers white, orange, pink-red or purple, 25-30 mm long, axillary, solitary or 2(-3); pedicel up to 1-5 mm long. Lateral sepals c. 1.5 mm long, ovate, sparsely ciliate; lower sepal conical, spur 10-20 mm long, curved. Capsule broadly elliptic to fusiform, 1.2-1.4 mm long, densely tomentose, pendulous. Seeds sub-globose, minutely tuberculate.
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Elevation Range

1200-1900 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Erect annual herbs up to 60 cm tall; stems simple or branched. Leaves alternate, 2.5-9 x 0.8-2.2 cm, lanceolate-elliptic, base narrowed, margins serrate, apex acute to acuminate; petioles 1-4 cm long, glandular. Flowers solitary or 2-3 in axillary fascicles, rose or white; pedicels to 1.5 cm long. Lateral sepals 2-3 mm long, ovate; lip 1-1.6 cm long, cymbiform, petaloid; spur 1.2-2.2 cm long, incurved. Standard petal c. 1 cm long, ovate; wings c. 2 cm long, obovate, deeply notched; auricles ovate-rounded. Capsules 1-1.5 cm long, ellipsoid, tomentose. Seeds globose, tubercled."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Synonym

Balsamina hortensis Desportes (1816), not A. St.-Hilaire (1808).
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Grasslands
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Habitat & Distribution

A common ornamental plant, widely cultivated in gardens and houses throughout China [native to SE Asia; cultivated worldwide].
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta impatientis causes spots on live leaf of Impatiens balsamina

Foodplant / pathogen
sporangium of Plasmopara obducens infects and damages pale green leaf of Impatiens balsamina

Foodplant / parasite
Podosphaera balsaminae parasitises Impatiens balsamina

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: March-October
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: Late August-September.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Impatiens balsamina

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Impatiens balsamina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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Wikipedia

Impatiens balsamina

Fruits

Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam, garden jewelweed, rose balsam, touch-me-not) is a species of Impatiens native to southern Asia in India and Burma. Other common names include elepe in Hawaiian, mírame lindo in Spanish, bongseonhwa in Korean, and kamantigi in Chamorro.[1]

It is an annual plant growing to 20–75 cm tall, with a thick, but soft stem. The leaves are spirally-arranged, 2.5–9 cm long and 1–2.5 cm broad, with a deeply toothed margin. The flowers are red, pink, purple, or white, and 2.5–5 cm diameter; they are pollinated by bees and other insects, and also by nectar-feeding birds.[2] The ripe seed capsules undergo explosive dehiscence.[1]

Medicinal use[edit]

Different parts of the plant are used as traditional remedies for disease and skin afflctions. Juice from the leaves is used to treat warts and snakebite, and the flower is applied to burns.[3] This species has been used as indigenous traditional medicine in Asia for rheumatism, fractures, and other ailments.[4] In Korean folk medicine this impatiens species is used as a medicine called bong seon wha dae for the treatment of constipation and gastritis.[5] One in vitro study found extracts of this impatiens species, especially of the seed pod, to be active against antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori.[4] It is also an inhibitor of 5α-reductases, enzymes that reduce testosterone levels.[6]

Chemistry[edit]

The naphthoquinones lawsone, or hennotannic acid, and lawsone methyl ether and methylene-3,3'-bilawsone are some of the active compounds in I. balsamina leaves.[7] It also contains kaempferol and several derivatives.[8] Baccharane glycosides have been found in Chinese herbal remedies made from the seeds.[9]

Ecology[edit]

It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant, and has become naturalised and invasive on several Pacific Ocean islands.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Impatiens balsamina. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER).
  2. ^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  3. ^ Plants for a Future: Impatiens balsamina
  4. ^ a b Wang YC, Wu DC, Liao JJ, Wu CH, Li WY, Weng BC (2009). "In vitro activity of Impatiens balsamina L. against multiple antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori". Am. J. Chin. Med. 37 (4): 713–22. doi:10.1142/S0192415X09007181. PMID 19655409. 
  5. ^ Park JH, Kim JM, Do WI (2003). "Pharmacognostical studies on the folk medicine bong seon wha dae". Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy 34 (3): 193–96. 
  6. ^ Ishiguro K, Oku H, Kato T (February 2000). "Testosterone 5α‐reductase inhibitor bisnaphthoquinone derivative from Impatiens balsamina". Phytother Res 14 (1): 54–6. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(200002)14:1<54::AID-PTR540>3.0.CO;2-Q. PMID 10641051. 
  7. ^ Sakunphueak A, Panichayupakaranant P (2010). "Simultaneous determination of three naphthoquinones in the leaves of Impatiens balsamina L. by reversed‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography". Phytochem Anal 21 (5): 444–50. doi:10.1002/pca.1216. PMID 20931623. 
  8. ^ Hua L, Peng Z, Chia LS, Goh NK, Tan SN (February 2001). "Separation of kaempferols in Impatiens balsamina flowers by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection". J Chromatogr A 909 (2): 297–303. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(00)01102-X. PMID 11269529. 
  9. ^ Li HJ, Yu JJ, Li P (March 2011). "Simultaneous qualification and quantification of baccharane glycosides in Impatientis Semen by HPLC–ESI-MSD and HPLC–ELSD". J Pharm Biomed Anal 54 (4): 674–80. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2010.10.014. PMID 21075577. 
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Notes

Comments

The flowers and leaves are often used for coloring fingernails. The stem and seeds are used medicinally for promoting blood circulation and for relieving pain and sore throats.
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Comments

The ‘garden balsam’ or ‘touch-me-not’ is variable in the size of the plant, pubescence and colour of the flower. There are several varieties known, e.g. the red flowered var. coccinea K.&.K. (Impatiens coccinea Wall. Cat. no. 4732).
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